Introduction to Microbiology - Mrs. Danielle Smith's Science Website!

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Feb 22, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Introduction

to
Microbiology part 2

Microbiology


Study of microscopic (living ) things



For example:




viruses, bacteria, algae, protists,

fungi

History of Microbiology


1590


First compound light microscope



Zacharias Janssen

History

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek





1676

first observation of bacteria




“animalcules”



Leeuwenhoek


Learned to grind lenses to see
smaller and smaller organisms


First to describe bacteria in 1683


Identified yeast cells sperm and
egg

History


1796


First vaccine (smallpox)



Edward Jenner

Jenner


In 1796, he carried out his now famous
experiment on eight
-
year
-
old James Phipps.
Jenner inserted pus taken from a cowpox
pustule and inserted it into an incision on the
boy's arm.




He was testing his theory, drawn from the
folklore of the countryside, that milkmaids who
suffered the mild disease of cowpox never
contracted smallpox, one of the greatest killers
of the period, particularly among children.

Jenner


He was told his ideas were too dangerous.


He didn’t care and even did the test on his
11 month old child.


He eventually won out. Small pox has
been virtually eradicated worldwide.


History


1857


Germ Theory of Disease




Louis Pasteur













http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNByRghR6sw


Pasteur's main contributions to microbiology and
medicine were;


instituting changes in hospital/medical
practices to minimize the spread of disease by
microbes or germs,


discovering that weak forms of disease could
be used as an immunization against stronger
forms and that rabies was transmitted by
viruses too small to be seen under the
microscopes of the time,


introducing the medical world to the concept
of viruses.


History


1867 Antiseptic Surgery




Joseph Lister


In 1861 he observed that 45

50% of
amputation patients died from sepsis.


In 1865 he learned of
Louis Pasteur
's
theory that microorganisms cause
infection.


Using phenol as an antiseptic, he reduced
mortality in his ward to 15% within four
years. He is regarded as the founder of
antiseptic medicine.


History


1884 Koch’s Postulates of



Disease Transmission




Robert Koch


Koch's Postulates


Four criteria that were established by Robert Koch to identify the
causative agent of a particular disease, these include:



the microorganism or other pathogen must be
present in all cases
of the disease





the pathogen can be isolated from the diseased host and
grown in
pure culture





the pathogen from the pure culture must
cause the disease when
inoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal





the pathogen must be
reisolated

from the new host and
shown to
be the same

as the originally inoculated pathogen


History


1885
-

Vaccine against





Rabies




Louis Pasteur


Rabies enters the body through the bite of an infected
animal or through infected saliva entering an existing wound.


Pasteur:


Concluded that the disease stays in the CNS of the body


Took fluid from the spinal column of an infected animal


Injected it into a healthy animal; animal got rabies


Produced an attenuated form of the virus and injected into animal.
Animal was immune.


On July 6 1885, Pasteur tested his pioneering rabies vaccine
on man for the first time. He saved the life of a young man
called Joseph Meister who had been bitten by a rabid dog.
Pasteur was urged to treat him with his new method. The
treatment lasted 10 days and at the end he recovered and
remained healthy. Since then thousands have been saved
by this treatment.

History


1929 Discovery of Penicillin






(first antibiotic)





Alexander Fleming


In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming
made a chance discovery from an already
discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold
that had contaminated the experiment turned
out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin.
However, though Fleming was credited with
the discovery, it was over a decade before
someone else turned penicillin into the miracle
drug for the 20th century.


http://videos.howstuffworks.com/science
-
channel/29783
-
100
-
greatest
-
discoveries
-
penicillin
-
video.htm


History


1938


First Electron
Microscope



The electron microscope is capable of
magnifying biological specimens up
to one million times. These computer
enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2.
herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are
magnified, respectively, 150,000,
150,000 and 90,000 times.


History

1953 Structure of DNA Revealed






Watson & Crick

History

1954 Polio Vaccine




Jonas Salk


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
H6NkM61HlB8


Recent History


Genetic engineering


Cloning


Human Genome Project


Biotechnology


Who knows what is next?



Sizes of Microbes


Virus
-

10
→1000 nanometers *


Bacteria
-

0.1 → 5 micrometers **


(Human eye ) can see .1 mm (1 x 10
-
3

m)


* One billionth or 1 x 10
-
9

m

** One millionth or 1 x 10
-
6

m

Bacteria


Tools of Microbiology


Compound light Microscope


-

live specimens

-

1,000 mag. or less


Electron Microscope


-

non
-
living specimens


-

> 1,000 X mag.


Incubator


keep microbes warm for
growth



Techniques of
Microbiology


Staining


to better see structures


Microbial Culture
-

growing the wee


beasties


Container for microbe culture


-

usually Petri dish


Culture media


-

Food for the microbes


-

E.g. Agar


(from red algae)

-

Others such as nutrient broths




Pure Culture Techniques


1.
Inoculation

2.
Isolation

3.
Identification