Introduction

messengerrushBiotechnology

Feb 22, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Introduction to Microbiology


Historical perspectives


discovery of microbes (technology)



“germ theory of disease”


A young science! But applied microbiology


is almost as old as agriculture



bread



beer, wine



yogurt, cheese

An elegant experiment


Disproved
spontaneous
generation


Settled an argument
that was hundreds of
years old!


1861
-

not that long
ago!

“Golden Age of Microbiology” (19
th

century)


Understanding the unique characteristics of


microbes



prokaryotes and eukaryotes



unusual metabolic properties


How to study them


Koch’s postulates



Their role in infectious disease
-

and in the


environment

Late 19
th

century


Pure culture techniques


discovery of causative agents of disease


Control of infection with aseptic technique


Staining techniques


Discovery of viruses


Beginning to understand the immune system

Early 20
th

century


Antimicrobials


Genetic exchange between bacteria


(transformation)


Identification of DNA as heritable material


Vaccines (it began with smallpox)


how do they work?


how to design safe, effective vaccines


Microbiology and public health


Disease prevention


sanitation



water supply



pest/vector control



hospital environments (nosocomial)


epidemiology



how diseases spread



how to control disease

Late 20
th

century


Biotechnology


restriction endonucleases

recombinant


DNA technology


genetic engineering


genomics


Viroids, prions


Eradication of smallpox; polio?


Applications of microbiology


Production of food (as well as spoilage!)


Bioremediation


Physiological processes


Biotechnology



Emerging diseases

What do we learn from them?

Infectious diseases may be transmitted from


one animal species to another


Migration patterns may affect spread of disease


Technologies may provide some risk for disease


toxic shock syndrome


“mad cow disease”

Infectious disease


emerging diseases



resurgent diseases



chronic disease



autoimmune disease?



What is the
microbiome

and what does this

have to do with health and disease?

Microbes and the environment


Unique metabolic processes


Carbon, nitrogen, sulfur cycle through the


ecosystem (so what?)


All living things need them


Microbes (especially bacteria) are required for


cycling to occur

Microbes (especially bacteria) as model


organisms


Easy to grow (well, some of them are)


Don’t take up much room


“Easy” to manipulate


Many processes can be extrapolated to


larger organisms

Classification of microbes

How do you study such small things?

Scope of the course


What are microbes?


How do we distinguish one from another?


Where in the environment are they found?


How do they grow there?


Oxygen requirements


Metabolism


How do we measure/detect growth?


How do they cause disease?


What is pathogenicity?


How do we resist disease?



Scope of the course, continued


How do we control microbial growth?


To prevent disease


To cure disease


In the environment


What is epidemiology?


We can’t survive without microbes! Why?