History of Biology

messengerrushBiotechnology

Feb 21, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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History of Biology
Prehistory

Around 200,000 BC

Started to accumulate
information about the
behavior of plants and
animals in their
environment while
foraging
.

Developed
cultivation
or crops and
domestication
of wild animals
Beginnings of Ancient Biology
5
th
-4
th
BC
Began with the work
and thought of
Aristotle
. He is the
“Founding Father of
Biology”
Asked the question:
“What is life?”
His student
Theophrastus

attempted to classify and
describe plants.
Biology enters a period of
relative decline

In the profoundly Christian
centuries of the European Middle
Ages the prevailing mood is not
conducive to scientific enquiry.
God knows best, and so He
should - since He created
everything
.

Galen

demonstrated that
living arteries
contained blood
through dissection
of apes and pigs.
A new birth of investigation in
biology

Illustrated books

Anatomical
drawings of
Leonardo Da
Vinci
.

Otto Brunfels
:
Herbarum vivae
eicones
(Living
images of plants)
A new birth of investigation in
biology

In 1540
Vesalius

gives a public
demonstration of
the inaccuracies of
Galen’s anatomical
theories, which are
still the orthodoxy
of the medical
profession.


In 1543 Vesalius
published his
revolutionary book
De
humani corporis fabrica

(
On the Structure of the
Human Body). Seven
volumes in total on the
structure of the human
body.
Andreas Vesalius (Dec. 31, 1514-October 15,
1564)

It was the most accurate
and detailed anatomical text
ever to have been
produced.

By a long series of
dissections (from dogs
and pigs down to slugs
and oysters), and by a
process of logical
argument,
Harvey
is
able to prove that
the
body contains only a
single supply of blood
;
and that the
heart
is a
muscle pumping it
round a circuit.
Harvey and the circulation of the
blood: AD 1628

William Harvey (April 1, 1578 –
June 3, 1657)

Was an English physician who is credited
with being the first in the Western world
to describe correctly and in exact detail
the
systemic circulation
and properties of
blood being pumped around the body by
the heart.
Beginnings of Modern Biology

In the early 17th century, the micro-world
of biology was just beginning to open up.
Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek
(October 24, 1632 – August 30, 1723)

Invented the Microscope

in 1674 he discovered
infusoria (protists in modern
zoological classification)

in 1676 he discovered
bacteria, (e.g. large
Selenomonads from the
human mouth)
Leeuwenhoek’s first
microscope

in 1677 he
discovered
spermatozoa

In 1682 he
discovered the
banded pattern
of muscular
fibers.

Systematizing, naming and
classifying dominated natural
history throughout much of the
17th and 18th centuries.
Carolus Linnaeus
(May 13, 1707 – January 10, 1778)

The Father of Modern
Taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy
;
the system of scientific
classification

Linnaeus's prime contribution to
taxonomy was to establish
conventions for the
naming of
living organisms
that became
universally accepted in the
scientific world--the work of
Linnaeus represents the starting
point of
binomial nomenclature
.
Robert Brown
(December 21, 1773–June 10, 1858)

He recognized and named
the nucleus as a constant
constituent of living cells in
most plants, and

Improved the natural
classification of plants by
establishing and defining
new
families
and
genera
.

He described the
Brownian
Movement
—a natural continuous
motion
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet,
Chevalier de Lamarck
(August 1, 1744 – December 18, 1829)
An early proponent of the
idea that
evolution

occurred and proceeded in
accordance with natural
laws.

Remembered primarily for
a
theory of "inheritance of
acquired characters",

called "soft inheritance" or
Lamarckism.
Charles Darwin
(12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882)

Theory of evolution by
natural selection

The
Origin of Species

His discovery remains the
foundation of biology, as it
provides a unifying logical
explanation for the diversity of life.
Francis Galton
(16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911)

Founded biometrics as
the approach to
genetics

Galton was instrumental
in the formulation of
'eugenics', which seeks to
improve the human stock
and prevent the
degeneration of genetic
potential.
Gregor Johann Mendel
(July 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884)

The
inheritance of
characteristics
is
governed by pairs of
discrete elements
derived from each
parent.

These parental elements pass
into the germ cells of the offspring
without influencing each other;
this is the
law of segregation
.
Louis Pasteur

(December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895)
Founded the science of
microbiology and
immunology
and proved
that most infectious
diseases are caused by
micro-organisms.

He created the first
vaccine
for rabies

He was best known to the general
public for inventing a method to
stop milk and wine from causing
sickness - this process came to
be called
pasteurization
.
Twentieth century biological
sciences

Ecology and environmental science

Classical genetics, the modern synthesis,
and evolutionary theory

Biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular
biology

Biotechnology, genetic engineering, and
genomics

Molecular systematics and genomics
Our own
Biologists
Most of the scientists we know are
Europeans and Americans. I bet a lot of us
have a hard time naming a single Filipino
scientist. Many Filipino scientists have
made major contributions to science and
technology, but most of them do not get the
publicity and credit that they so rightfully
deserve.
Dr. Claire R. Baltazar
1st Filipina Entomologist

1st Filipina entomologist to
publish a book (
Philippine
Insects
) that became the 1st
authoritative text on Philippine
insects



Mother of Philippine
Entomology”
Her numerous publications on
Philippine insects especially
on the Philippine
Hymenoptera are very
significant to science for they
lay the groundwork for future
biological control in the
Philippines.
Dr. Magdalena C. Cantoria
Cantoria focused her
research efforts on the
morphology, physiology and
biochemistry of drug plants
.
She has done basic studies
on the pharmacognosy of
agar, rauwolfia, datura, mint
and Piper species.
Dr. Solita Camara-Besa

1st Filipina to specialize
in
Biological Chemistry

1st Filipina to do a
nationwide serum
cholesterol survey
Her papers gave an idea of the
importance of fats and cholesterol in
the epidemiology of atherosclerosis
among Filipinos.
Dr. Eduardo Quisumbing
Dr. Quisumbing was author of
taxonomic and morphological
papers, many of which deal
with
orchids
, including
‘Medicinal plants in the
Philippines’ (Manila 1951).
Saccolabium quisumbingii

has been named in his
honor. He was recipient
of the Distinguished
Service Star (1954) for
outstanding contribution
to the field of
systematic botany
Dr. Emerita V. De Guzman
An outstanding
contribution of Dr. de
Guzman is her series of
work on the growth and
development in vitro of
the
makapuno coconut
embryo
.
As a result of this effort,
she has revolutionized
the old ratio of the
makapuno-bearing nuts
in the tropics which
produce only 3-5
makapuno nuts in every
receme bearing 14-19
nuts. Dr. de Guzman
produced 100% all
makapuno-bearing in the
receme.
Dr. Pedro B. Escuro

Filipino scientist, Pedro
Escuro
isolated nine rice
varieties
.

Filipino scientist, Doctor
Pedro Escuro is best known
for his isolation of nine "seed
board" rice varieties that
provided for their commercial
release.