Download - Bellsouthpwp.net

messengerrushBiotechnology

Feb 22, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

226 views

The Science of Biology

1
-
1 What is Science






The goal of science is:


To investigate and understand nature


To explain events in nature


Use explanations to make predictions


Science

is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.

Features of Science



Deals only with natural world.



Scientists collect and organize
information in a careful and orderly
way.



Scientists propose explanations that can
be tested by examining evidence.

Desirable Qualities of a Scientist



Curiosity


Honesty


Open mindedness


Skepticism


Recognize science has limits

1
-
2 How Scientists Work?

Have you ever notice what

happens to food that is left in an

open trash can for a few days in

summer
?


Spontaneous Generation


The idea that organisms originate directly from nonliving
matter



“Life from nonlife"




The Scientist below ran experiments to prove or disprove the theory of spontaneous
generation.


Francesco Redi

-

An Italian doctor who proved maggots came from flies. (Italian 1668)


Lazzaro Spallanzani

-

An Italian scientist who proved microorganisms could be killed by
boiling. (Italian 1767)


Louis Pasteur

-

A French scientist who proved that microorganisms were carried by dust not
air. (French

1864)

Redi’s Experiment

OBSERVATIONS:

Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.

PROCEDURE:

Controlled Variables:

jars, type of meat,

location, temperature,

time

Manipulated Variables:

gauze covering that

keeps flies away from

meat

Responding Variable:

whether maggots

appear

Uncovered jars

Covered jars

Several

days pass

No maggots appear

CONCLUSION:

Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of
maggots did not occur.

Maggots appear

Redi’s Experiment on
Spontaneous Generation

Conclusion:

Maggots form only when flies come in contact with
meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.

Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment



His experiment showed that
microorganisms will not grow in
boiled and sealed gravy but will
grow in boiled gravy that is left
open to the air.

Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment


Gravy is boiled

Flask is open

Gravy is teeming

with microorganisms
.

Gravy is boiled
.

Flask is

sealed.

Gravy is free of

microorganisms.

Louis Pasteur’s Experiment


In 1862, French chemist Louis
Pasteur performed an
experiment that helped to
support the theory of
biogenesis and finally disprove
the idea of spontaneous
generation. It showed that
bacteria that grew in beef
broth were carried by dust
particles that fell into the broth
and that the bacteria did not
arise spontaneously from
broth.

Broth is boiled.

Broth is free of

microorganisms

for a year.

Curved neck

is removed.

Broth is

teeming with
microorganisms.

Louis Pasteur’s Experiment

1
-
3 Studying Life

Biology: the study of life.


Bios

means life


Logy

means the study of


Biology is the science that seeks to understand the living world.

It’s Alive!, Part 1

It’s Alive!, Part 2

Characteristic

Examples

Living things are made up of units called
cells.

Living things reproduce.

Living things are based on a universal
genetic code.

Living things grow and develop.

Living things obtain and use materials and
energy.

Living things respond to their environment.

Living things maintain a stable internal
environment.

Taken as a group, living things change
over time.

Many microorganisms consist of only a single cell.
Animals and trees are multicellular.

Maple trees reproduce sexually. A hydra can
reproduce asexually by budding.

Flies produce flies. Dogs produce dogs. Seeds from
maple trees produce maple trees.

Flies begin life as eggs, then become maggots, and
then become adult flies.

Plants obtain their energy from sunlight. Animals
obtain their energy from the food they eat.

Leaves and stems of plants grow toward light.

Despite changes in the temperature of the
environment, a robin maintains a constant body
temperature.

Plants that live in the desert survive because they have
become adapted to the conditions of the desert.

Characteristics of Living Things

Biosphere

Ecosystem

Community

Population

The part of Earth

that contains all

ecosystems

Community and

its nonliving

surroundings

Populations that

live together in a

defined area

Group of

organisms of one

type that live in

the same area

Biosphere

Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air

Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass

Bison herd


Levels of Organization

Organism

Groups of

Cells

Cells

Molecules

Individual living

thing

Tissues, organs,

and organ systems

Smallest functional

unit of life

Groups of atoms;

smallest unit of

most chemical

compounds

Bison

Nervous tissue

Nervous system

Brain

Nerve cell

Water

DNA

Levels of Organization

Branches of Biology


BOTANY The branch of biology which deals with the study of plants.

ZOOLOGY The branch of biology which deals with the study of animals.

MORPHOLOGY It deals with the study of external structures of animals
and plants.


HISTOLOGY It deals with the study of tissues of plants and animals under
microscope.


CYTOLOGY It is the study of the cell and its organ.


PHYSIOLOGY It is the study of working of various systems of living
organisms.


ECOLOGY It is the study of relationship of living organisms with their
environment.


TAXONOMY The branch which deals with classification and naming of
living organisms.


GENETICS It deals with the study of inheritance of character from one
generation to another.


MICROBIOLOGY It deals with the study of microscopic organisms such as
virus, bacteria and protozoans.


BIOTECHNOLOGY It deals with the application of biological processes for
the benefit of mankind.

History of the Microscope




Types of Microscopes

Compound Microscope









Eyepiece



Objectives



Fine Adjustment Knob



Power Switch



Stage



Diaphragm



Base



Body Tube



Nosepiece



Stage Clips



Stage Stop



Coarse Adjustment Knob



Aperture



Arm



Light Source

Laboratory Techniques


Cell Cultures



transfer bacteria to a solid
that contains nutrients, which will enable
the bacteria to reproduce.




Cell Fractionation



separate different cell
parts using a blender and a centrifuge
.