Applied and Industrial Microbiology

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Feb 22, 2013 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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Applied and Industrial
Microbiology

Microbiology 2314

Early Methods

Smoking


-

Dries the Food


-

Enhances the Flavor


-

Beef, Ham, Bacon, Fish


-

Adds Formadehyde

Ham's substantial, ham is fat

Ham is firm and sound.

Ham's what God was getting at

When He made pigs so round

-----

Roy Blount Jr.



Early Methods

Drying/Dessication/Dehydration


-

Sun / Wind / Ovens


-

Meat and Fruit

Early Methods


Salting


-

Day
-
Salting and Pickling


-

Rock Salt / Sea Salt / Spiced Salt


-

Cheese / Olives / Hams / Eggs

Old recipe for Salt Curing Ham, this
method can preserve a Ham for years.


For a 20 lb. ham:


o
3 Tablespoons Brown Sugar

o
2 Tablespoons Black Pepper

o
1 Teaspoon Red Pepper

o
2 Cups Salt



Mix the ingredients together and rub onto the skin
-
on ham,
paying special attention to the hock. Then the ham is wrapped
in paper, then wrapped in cloth, then placed in a cloth bag and
hung with the hock down. The ham is hung in a well ventilated,
dark and secure building. The ham "drips" for about two
months and is ready to eat in about 6 to 9 months and is edible
for 3 to 4 years. Hams continued to stay edible right up until
they are completely dried out.




Where Else Has Salting Been
Used?


M
ummification is the preservation of a body,
either animal or human. The Egyptian
mummies were deliberately made by drying
the body. By eliminating moisture, you have
eliminated the source of decay. They dried the
body by using a salt mixture called natron.
Natron is a natural substance that is found in
abundance along the Nile river. Natron is
made up of four salts: sodium carbonate,
sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, and
sodium sulfate. The sodium carbonate works
as a drying agent, drawing the water out of
the body. At the same time the bicarbonate,
when subjected to moisture, increases the pH
that creates a hostile environment for
bacteria. The Egyptian climate lent itself well
to the mummification process, being both very
hot and dry.



Early Methods

Honey


-

Preserving Fruit


-

Healing


-

High Sugar



Content


HISTORY:


Besides being used as food, it was used as
medicine
--

more than half remedies prescribed by
Egyptian doctors contained honey. Ancient
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans spread honey on
wounds to hasten their healing
--

So, did German
Field Medical personnel during World War I.
Even as Late as 1970 in England, a surgeon
announced he was using honey on open wounds
after surgery
--

and had fewer bacterial infections
than similar wounds treated with antibiotics.
Honey proved to be an effective disinfectant; It
hastened healing; and bacteria did not develop
resistance to it, as often happens with antibiotics.

Early Methods


Yogurt and Cheese Making to Preserve
Milk



-

Easier to Transport



-

Lengthen Time Possible to Use




A Legend



L
egend tells that yoghurt was born on the slopes of Mount
Elbrus in the Caucasus range of mountains, between the
Black and Caspian seas. On the hot southern slopes a
pitcher of milk belonging to a Turkish nomad was
contaminated by a mixture of organisms that thrived in the
warm milk (40
-

45c). The result was what the Turks call
"yogurut". The name "yogurut" was supposedly
introduced in the 8th century and was changed in the 11th
century to the current version "Yoghurt". Legend suggests
that Yoghurt can act as a preservative against human
ageing, however no scientific evidence actually supports
this theory. Undoubtedly a regular intake of the organisms
found in yoghurt can have a beneficial affect to the
digestive tract.

Early Methods

Cooling


-

Collection of Snow and Ice


-

Caves / Cellars


-

Water Wells

Today We Use Some of the Same
Methods and Some New Ones

Industrial Food Canning


Commercial Sterilization




1. Steam Under Pressure / Retort



2. Minimum Temperature to




Reduces
Clostridium botulinum



3. 12 D Treatment / Reduces by 12




Logarithmic Cycles



4. 10
12



1


Industrial Food Canning


Commercial Sterilization




1. Endospores of Thermophiles can Survive



2. Storage > 45
º
C / Thermophiles



3. Gas Production / Swelling



4. No Gas / Flat Sour Spoilage



5. Mesophilic Bacteria / Improper Heating



6. Acidic Foods / 100
ºC / Survivors Can’t Stand


the Low pH


Picture of Retort

Used in Commercial Sterilization
and uses Steam Under Pressure

Keeping Cans Sealed Can Help
Keep Foods Safe

Aseptic Packaging

Pre
-
sterilized
materials are
assembled into
packages and
aseptically filled with
heat
-
sterilized liquid
foods.

Radiation and Industrial Food
Preservation

Radiation


Gamma Radiation



1. Used to Sterilize Food



2. Kill Insects & Parasitic Worms



3. Prevent Sprouting of Fruits and




Vegetables


Radiation Treatment of Foods

Wheat Flour

White Potatoes

Pork

Fruit

Vegetables

Spices

Vegetable Seasonings

Poultry

Frozen Meat

Case Study Decatur, Georgia


In June 1988, a capsule of radioactive cesium
-
137
--

a
waste product from nuclear weapons production
--

sprung a
leak at a Radiation Sterilizers plant near Atlanta. Though
the leak was contained to the site, two of the three exposed
workers spread radioactivity to their cars and homes. And
an estimated 70,000 milk cartons, contact lens solution
boxes and other containers were shipped out after they
were splashed with radioactive water. Only about 900 of
the contaminated containers were recalled. The ensuing
taxpayer
-
funded cleanup cost more than $30 million, after
which a government report concluded that "the public
health and safety could have been compromised."


Case Study Dover, NJ


In June 1986, two senior executives of Palo Alto, CA
-
based
International Neutronics were indicted on federal charges of
conspiracy, mail fraud and wire fraud in connection with an October
1982 spill of 600 gallons of water contaminated by radioactive cobalt
-
60. After a pump malfunctioned, workers were instructed to pour the
radioactive water down a shower drain that emptied into the public
sewer system. Workers were also ordered to wear their radiation
-
detection "badges" in such a way to falsify radiation levels. In the
words of a federal prosecutor, company executives "bamboozled"
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) inspectors by delaying an
inspection of the facility, where food, gems, chemicals and medical
supplies were irradiated. A $2 million cleanup included the cost to
dispose of radioactive material at a nuclear waste dump in South
Carolina. Company vice president Eugene O'Sullivan, a former
member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, was convicted of
conspiracy and fraud in October 1986.

Cheese forms
when milk
protein casein
curdles because
of action by
lactic acid
bacteria or the
enzyme rennin

Cheese is the curd
separated from the
liquid portion of milk,
called whey.

Other Dairy Products

1.
Butter

2.
Buttermilk

3.
Sour Cream

4.
Yogurt

Microbial Fermentations

Sugars in bread dough are fermented by yeast to ethanol
and carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide causes the bread
to rise.

Sauerkraut, pickles, olives, and soy sauce are products of
microbial fermentations

Alcoholic Fermentations

Carbohydrates are Fermented by
Yeasts to Produce Ethanol

Industrial Microbiology


Biotechnology



-

The production of commercial




products through the use of living




organisms.

Industrial
Fermentations

Utilize bioreactors
which control
aeration, pH, and
temperature.

Industrial Products


Amino Acids

in Food and Medicine


Enzymes

Used in Foods and Medicines


Vitamins

Used as Food Supplements


Vaccines

/ Antibiotics / Steroids


Ore Recovery

/ Uranium and Copper


Yeasts

/ Wine and Bread


Agricultural Microbes

FOOD



MICROBE(S)

Coffee



A bacteria and a yeast

Cassave (Gari)


A bacteria and a mold

Cassave: (Peujeum)

Several molds

Corn (Kenkey)

A couple of molds, a yeast and some




bacteria

Corn (Ogi)


A couple of bacteria and a





yeast

Soybeans (Miso)

A mold and a yeast

Soy Sauce


Molds, yeast and bacteria mixture
Peanuts (Ontjom)

A mold




Rotted Shark Meat

Buried in Ground Until Ready




(Icelandic treat)

OTHER COMMON
FERMENTED FOODS


Alternative Energy Sources


Biomass



Organic waste that can be converted by



microorganisms into alternative fuels


Bioconversion



The process of converting



microorganisms into alternative fuels




Methane Production

“Bartertown is powered
by an energy source that
is, in its own way, a
compelling argument
against nuclear war: In
chambers beneath
Bartertown, countless
pigs live and eat and
defecate, and from their
waste products, Turner's
soldiers generate
methane gas.”


Ethanol

Quick Facts


The level of interest in using alcohol as a motor fuel has
followed cycles of fuel shortages and/or low feed
-
grain
prices.


Alcohols burn more completely, thus increasing
combustion efficiency.


Advantages of mixing alcohol with gasoline are that
alcohol tends to increase the octane rating and reduce
carbon monoxide emissions.


Alcohols may corrode certain materials used in engines.



Lift Station

The lift stations bring the initial sewage from
Edmond wastewater lines into the plant.


Bar Screen

The bar screens remove large debris such as rags,
sticks, plastics, roots, etc.


Grit Chamber

The function of a grit chamber is to capture
inorganic solids such as dirt and sand that cause
wear to pumps and reduce space in process tanks.


Distribution Chamber

Screw Pump

This return sludge structure provides sludge
pumping,


flow rate control to primary oxidation
ditch process, and mixing point for raw sewage
and return sludge, i.e. Return Activated Sludge.



Oxidation Ditches

Provide mixing, oxygen transfer and retention time for
microorganisms to convert organics to more stable compounds
creating an activated sludge mixed liquor.




Clarifiers

Provide detention time for activated sludge to settle and be drawn
off gradually and returned to be mixed with incoming raw sewage,
known as Return Activated Sludge.


The process also removes
floatable materials by skimming.


The effluent water from the
clarifiers then goes to the sand filters for further treatment.




Sand Filters

These filters further aid in the removal of suspended particles,
floating matter and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand).


BOD is
a measurement of remaining organics that could cause pollution.



Chlorination/De
-
chlorination Basin

The basin provides the point of chlorination, mixing, and contact
time to destroy pathogenic organisms.


The sulfur dioxide
neutralizes the residue chlorine resulting in an environmentally safe
effluent.




Sonic Flow Meter

The meter measures the volume released into the
watershed and is used to generate accurate
numbers that are included in all reports to
regulatory agencies..


Discharge into Coffee Creek


After treatment, the wastewater has fewer
contaminants than the lake water before it is
treated at the water treatment plant. At least 90%
(and up to 98%) of the contaminants are removed
before the treated wastewater is discharged into
the creek. The Edmond Wastewater Treatment
Plant has twice received the Plant of the Year
Award for Large Wastewater Treatment Plants
from the Oklahoma Water and Pollution Control
Association.