Placing Transportation in Urban Metabolism

measlyincompetentUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Placing Transportation in
Urban Metabolism

Stephanie
Pincetl
, PhD

University of California, Davis
-

April 5, 2013

A COLLABORATION AMONG:

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Cities are complex systems of flows directed by human
decisions within institutional contexts such as planning
and administration


Urban metabolism is a way to describe the flows that
sustain cities


Our research updates traditional urban metabolism and
pilots a novel combination of data and methods in Los
Angeles County including:


Economic flows


Ground up data for the first time in a UM analysis


Transportation analysis is a big component of the flows and we
introduce transportation LCA to UM


Embedded energy in urban
fabric indicators

Overview of our research: Establishing the
Urban Metabolism of Los Angeles County. CEC
PIER funded research

Stephanie Pincetl, Ph.D.

Director

California Center for Sustainable Communities

Institute of the Environment & Sustainability

University of California, Los Angeles

Mike McCoy*

Executive Director

Strategic Growth Council

State of California

Paul
Bunje
*

Senior
Director

Prize
Development, Ocean
Health

X Prize Foundation

Giovanni
Circella
, Ph.D
.

Post Doctoral Researcher

Urban Land Use and Transportation Center (ULTRANS)

Institute of Transportation
Studies

University of California, Davis

Patrick Burns

Senior Researcher

Economic Roundtable

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Project Research Partners

Funding by the California Energy Commission’s PIER Program


* denotes former researcher partners

Mikhail Chester, Ph.D.

Director

Assistant Professor

Civil, Environmental, and Sustainability

Engineering

Affiliate Faculty, School of Sustainability

Arizona State University

Dan Flaming

President

Economic Roundtable

Zoe Elizabeth

Program Manager

California Center for Sustainable Communities

Institute of the Environment & Sustainability

University of California, Los Angeles

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An Urban Metabolism approach builds a picture of
the complex urban system and its energy
underpinnings


the inputs that support the
system, and the waste produced.


With this understanding, urban sustainability
policies, programs and practices can emerge.

Urban Metabolism (UM)

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We are capturing embedded energy and emergent
energy use and the creation of new path
dependencies


For example: energy impacts of alternative transportation modes
and land use



We should be in a position to show how
infrastructure design leads to emergent behaviors
across a city, and sets path dependencies.

Urban
Metabolism
for
LA and Beyond

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UM to date has been at a high level, using
aggregated data.


To get to greater sustainability UM needs
disaggregated, granular data about what is going
on in the system: who is using what where, to do
what, and producing what wastes.


It also needs to take into consideration the
embedded energy already there in the urban
fabric.


Equity impacts and public health are results of UM
that need consideration too.

Urban
Metabolism
2.0

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Use of IMPLAN data (PECAS), and Carnegie
-
Mellon
EIO/LCA data adjusted for California



Life Cycle cradle
-
to
-
grave for certain infrastructures
(buildings and transportation)



Some social and environmental health impacts
employment sectors and transportation mode trade
-
offs



Equity impacts will be evaluated


who uses how much
of what where

Data
Sources
I
ncluding Granular Data

8


Theoretical



improve UM as a way to quantify
and understand what is the material basis of urban
systems and their complexity.



Practical



to provide data and analysis to policy
makers, agencies and others to enable them to
target investments in energy/water, efficiency &
conservation; for climate mitigation, adaptation
and resilience. And to ensure equity and health
considerations of different choices are understood.

Our Aims

9


Understand the part that transportation plays in
LA’s urban metabolism beyond VMTs and GHGs.



Chester et al have been applying Life Cycle
Analysis to several of the important transportation
sectors of the city.


Comparing the full Life cycle of bus rapid transit, light rail and
the passenger car with 1 person (SOV).


Also evaluating the embedded energy in the County’s roadways
and
parkades
.

Transportation Analysis in our
Project



Mike Chester, ASU

Los Angeles Metro

Orange & Gold Lines Energy
and Life Cycle Assessment

Encino Station

Canoga Park Station

ORANGE

GOLD

SEDAN

Pasadena

San Fernando Valley

The Transportation “System”


Vehicle


Infrastructure


Energy
Production

Background image source:
American Institute of
Architects, 1997
Environmental Resource
Guides

Extraction of Raw Materials

Manufacturing

Operation / Maintenance

End
-
of
-
life

Raw Fuel Extraction

Transport

Processing / Refining

Distribution

Electricity Generation

Extraction of Raw Materials

Construction

Operation / Maintenance

Decommissioning

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System Boundary

Life Cycle Grouping

Sedan

Orange Line

Gold Line

Vehicle







Manufacturing


Sedan


Transport to Point of Sale

ƒ
Bus


Transport to Point of Sale


Train


Transport to Point of Sale

Operation


Propulsion


Idling


Propulsion


Idling


Propulsion


Idling

Maintenance


Typical Sedan
Maintenance


Tire Replacement


Battery Replacement


Typical Bus Maintenance


Tire Replacement


Battery Replacement


Typical Train Maintenance


Train Cleaning


Flooring Replacement

Insurance


Sedan Liability


Bus Liability


Operator Fringe Benefits


Train Liability


Operator Fringe Benefits

Infrastructure







Construction


Roadway Construction


Roadway Construction


Station Construction


Track Construction


Station Construction

Operation


Roadway Lighting


Herbicide Use


Road and Station Lighting

ƒ
Herbicide Use


Control and
Signaling


Track, Station, and
Parking Lighting


Herbicide Use


Train Control


Miscellaneous
(Escalators, Equipment)

Maintenance

Roadway maintenance is
the result of heavy duty
vehicles and thus not
charged to
the sedan.


Road and Station
Maintenance


Track and Station
Maintenance

Parking


Curbside Parking


Dedicated Parking


Dedicated Parking

Insurance


Road Workers Fringe
Benefits


Non
-
vehicle Workers
Fringe Benefits


Infrastructure Liability


Non
-
vehicle Workers
Fringe Benefits


Infrastructure Liability

Energy Production







Extraction,
Processing, &
Distribution


Gasoline Extraction,
Processing, & Distribution


Natural Gas Extraction,
Processing, Distribution,
& Compression


Raw Fuel Extraction and
Processing, Electricity
Generation, Transmission
& Distribution

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Energy



Air Emissions


SO2

Respiratory irritant, acid deposition


CO

Asphyxiant


NOX

Respiratory irritant, smog


VOC

Photochemical smog, cancerous


PM

Respiratory and cardiovascular damage



Greenhouse Gases


CO2, CH4, N2O


Environmental Indicators

Energy
Inputs

Process

Emission
Outputs

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There is not one optimal solution



BRT and light rail
both produce less
criteria
pollutants and GHGs than SOV when the full life
cycle is taken in to account (even at present
ridership levels), even with the prospect of much
more efficient automobiles due to new CAFE
standards.

Results for
Transportation Modes

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-
100
200
Sedan
Orange…
Gold LRT
Vehicle Operation
Vehicle Manufacturing
Vehicle Maintenance
Vehicle Insurance
Infrastructure Construction
Infrastructure Operation
Infrastructure Maintenance
Infrastructure Parking
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Preliminary
Results Particulate
Matter Inventories

PM Emissions in mg per Passenger Mile Traveled

-
20
40
60
80
Sedan
Orange BRT
Gold LRT
Life cycle
PM
10

emissions are
dominated by:

1) Asphalt aggregate production for
sedan and Orange line
infrastructure.

2) Steel, iron, and aluminum for
vehicle manufacturing.

Life cycle
PM
2.5

emissions are
dominated by:

1) Steel and aluminum production
furnace emissions for vehicle
manufacturing.

2) Supply chain diesel truck use.

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Preliminary Results Ozone Precursor Inventories

Emissions in mg per Passenger Mile
Traveled

-
500
1,000
Sedan
Orange…
Gold LRT
Vehicle Operation
Vehicle Manufacturing
Vehicle Maintenance
Vehicle Insurance
Infrastructure Construction
Infrastructure Operation
Infrastructure Maintenance
Infrastructure Parking
-
200
400
600
Sedan
Orange BRT
Gold LRT
Life cycle
NO
X

emissions are
dominated by:

1) Orange line tailpipe @ 19
grams/VMT


Range: 8.2 to 73 grams/VMT.

2) Supply chain diesel truck use.

Life cycle
VOC

emissions are
dominated by:

1) Vehicle fluids (steering, brake,
transmission, coolants, etc.).

2) Vehicle manufacturing and truck
transport.

3) Volatile organic diluents in asphalt.

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Preliminary
Results SO
2

Inventory

Emissions in mg per Passenger Mile Traveled

-
100
200
300
400
Sedan
Orange…
Gold LRT
Vehicle Operation
Vehicle Manufacturing
Vehicle Maintenance
Vehicle Insurance
Infrastructure Construction
Infrastructure Operation
Infrastructure Maintenance
Infrastructure Parking
Life cycle
SO
2

emissions are
dominated by:


Direct and supply chain
electricity use


Gold line uses LADWP (39%
coal).

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Transportation is a part of the larger urban
metabolism
.


It
requires infrastructure that has not only present
costs, but life cycle costs and it embodies huge
energy and materials investments.


Transportation systems are often creators of path
dependencies and are then created by those same
path dependencies.


True costs are rarely evaluated. UM can start
doing so.

Transportation and UM Implications

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Add embedded energy in all the roadways and
parkcades

of the County
.



Look at land use and transportation alternatives


Future TOD sites


Embedded energy in construction types and alternatives


Gentrification potential in different TOD types and locations

Next Steps For Transportation Analysis

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Mapping Flows


Electricity Water and Gas at customer billing level by customer
class and billing cycle (LADWP)


Solid waste flows for Los Angeles City and County



Analyzing use patterns by:


Sociodemographic

characteristics (census)


County parcel assessor data


Land use type (zoning)


Building shell and age


Climate zones


UCLA Emphasis: Bottom Up Data

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Data from directly from Los Angeles Department
of Water and Power.



Obtained Southern California Edison and the Gas
Company data but only by an NDA with the PUC.

Energy and Water Mapping


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First Interactive LA Electricity Map

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DWP interested in climate impacts on energy use


Potentially in targeting investments in
conservation, efficiency and distributed generation
relative to climate impacts


Interested in rates and income generally and
seasonally given tiered pricing and warm season
pricing


Targeting messages to different ethnic
communities


Understanding energy use by different economic
sectors

Energy Analysis


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Collaboration with Terri Hogue, Colorado School of Mines and
Diane Pataki University of
Utah



How much water is used for outdoor irrigation in the city of
Los Angeles?


DWP interested for rates and for conservation


sociodemographic

profiles and water use.


We will add County Assessor parcel information.



We are using satellite imagery of NDVI coupled with ground
up water use to estimate water use in the different parts of
the city.


Existing outdoor irrigation models are contradictory and
there is no good, as yet, way to estimate. We are
contributing to this attempt.

Water
Analysis

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Residential Water Consumption Patterns


Average

Single
-
Family

Residential

(SFR) per
Census

tract for
2000
-
2010


Average

per
Census

tract=

387
gal/SFR
customer
/
day



Data
provided

by Los
Angeles
Department

of
Water & Power


Terri
Hogue

Colorado
School

of Mines






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Unlike energy, water is distributed by over 100
different entities in the county. LADWP is the
biggest entity, but there are lots of others.


Some success in getting data from the other
MOUs.


Analysis will include how much can be conserved
without harming major vegetation like trees.


Analysis will also address water/energy nexus.


Water Use

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Statewide jurisdictions only report a single value
to the state. LA has a little more data.



“Commercial” includes large multi
-
family
properties in addition to non
-
residential properties,
blurring the category.


Real volumes are unknown from either commercial
or residential sectors.


No way to know, across the landscape, who is
generating what kind or amounts of waste.


Waste has
unquantified

embedded energy and
resources.

Waste Flows

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Waste
Collection
in
Unincorporated
Los
Angeles County

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Waste collection in the City of Los Angeles

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Accretionary



Opportunistic


Political


Obdurate


Interdependent and path dependent


Fossil energy underlies modern urban systems and
must be better accounted for and understood.


Urban Metabolism is a result of complex urban
systems that are:

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Preliminary


Difficult & complex


Different methods and scales


Perhaps too ambitious


Embedded energy


Energy flows


Use of energy


Energy impacts


Transportation is an important component and driver
and of keen interest by the state given GHGs. But we
see it as both an artifact of the system and a driver of
patterns.

Our Research

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Dr. Stephanie
Pincetl
:

spincetl@ioes.ucla.edu


California Center for Sustainable Communities at UCLA

Institute of the Environment and Sustainability

Website:

californiasustainablecommunities.com

Email:
info@californiasustainablecommunities.com

Phone:
(310) 825
-
3778

Contact Us