Design & Manufacturing

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Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
1

Environmentally Conscious
Design & Manufacturing

Class

5: Manufacturing

Prof. S. M. Pandit

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
2

Manufacturing

Agenda



What is a Manufacturing Enterprise?


Systems View
-

Manufacturing


Manufacturing Processes


Modeling

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
3

Manufacturing Enterprise

Manufacturing Enterprise

Product Design

Marketing

Finance

Manufacturing

Technology

Management

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
4

Manufacturing Enterprise

-

Product Design

Product Design

Traditional


Functional Requirements


Cost, Time & Material constraints


Design tools for CAE


(Integrated CAD
-

CAM +..

Research Areas


Computer Aided Design Tools


Environmentally
-
Friendly Product



Design and Packaging


Human Machine Interface


Rapid Prototyping

Stereolithography:


http://www.nitc.qub.ac.uk/divs/pddc.htm

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
5

Manufacturing Enterprise

-

Product Design

CAD


Drafting function


Divide into elements


Optimize storage and processing


Finite element / Finite difference analysis


2D .. 2.5D .. 3D


Solid Stress / Thermal / Fluid Flow


Material Properties
--


Isotropic






Anisotropic



Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
6

Manufacturing Enterprise

-

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Traditional


Machining


Single and multi
-
point cutting


Joining, Forming, Casting ..


Metrology

Non
-
Traditional


Laser Cutting


Abrasive jet machining


Electrochemical machining


Explosive deformation and joining


Hydroforming

http://www.servicemetal.com

Laser Cutting

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
7

Manufacturing Enterprise

-

Manufacturing

CAM

-

Data transfer (integrated CAD
-

CAM)

-

Machine tool controller (language)

-

Program entry / debugging / dry run

-

Tool wear / breakage

-

Dimensional accuracy


-

Temperature effects


-

Elastic deformation


Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
8

Manufacturing Enterprise

-

Manufacturing

http://www.ab.com/cnc

CNC
information
flow

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
9

Systems View

Finite
-
Element Analysis



Computational Fluid Dynamics



Kinematic / Dynamic Analysis



Design Visualization and Animation

Drafting

CAM

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
10

Manufacturing Processes


Solidification


Forming Processes


Particulate Processing


Material Removal


Joining

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
11

Manufacturing Processes

Solidification Processes


Melting


Furnace

(Metals: 800 C to 3000 C)




-

Alloying




-

Phase stability




-

Inclusions and impurities





(chemical metallurgy)




-

Stirring and agitation




-

Buoyancy and surface tension





driven flow




-

Bubbles in the melt



{Chemical and Physical Metallurgy}

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
12

Manufacturing Processes

-

Solidification

1

Sand Casting


Sprue

Riser

Sand Core

Parting Line

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
13

Manufacturing Processes

-

Solidification 2

Solidification


Time
-

temperature
-

composition


Quenching (conduction heat transfer)




-

Simple analysis: Lumped parameter





transient temperature profiles


‘T’ is a function of time,


,

the initial temperature, T
0
, and the
ambient

temperature
, T


. ‘
h’, A
s
, r, V, and

C
p

are the convective heat
transfer coefficient, Surface area, density, Volume, and specific heat
capacity, respectively.

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
14

Manufacturing Processes

-

Forming


Molding


Injection


Blow

Extrusion

Rolling

Forging



Polymer processing


Cost advantages


Rheological properties and
temperature dependent
properties


Temperature & pressure



Influence on grain structure


Diffusion processes


Directional properties

Reference: Physical Metallurgy by Dieter

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
15

Manufacturing Processes

-

Powder Metallurgy

Powder

production

Blending

Compaction

Sintering

Creating a “die compaction tool”


1) Develop a user
-
friendly software


simulation model

2) Develop the required material models


and incorporate them into the
software,

3) Determine the material properties


necessary to verify and implement the
model,

4) Verify model output through


experimental techniques, and

5) Demonstrate the applicability of the


process model.

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
16

Machining
-

1

Metal removal

Turning, Milling, Drilling:


Primary Inputs:

Electrical Energy




Cutting fluid


Primary Outputs:

Finished products




Spent cutting fluid


Others: Lubricants, oils, machined chips, tool debris, heat

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
17

Machining
-

2

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
18

Machining
-

3

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
19

Machining
-

4

Radial drilling

machine

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
20

Machining
-

5

Metal removal

Electro discharge / Electro
-
chemical /


Primary Inputs:

Electrical Energy




Cutting fluid / Electrolytes


Primary Outputs:

Finished products




Spent cutting fluid / Electrolyte


Others: Lubricants, oils, work
-
piece debris, tool debris, heat,


Metal vapor, Metallic compounds, ...

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
21

Machining
-

6

Electro
-
chemical

machining of
blades

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
22

Machining
-

7

Abrasive jet
machining
-

schematic

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
23

Machining
-

8

Metal removal
-

no ‘tooling’

Electron beam, Laser, Abrasive jet, Water jet


Primary Inputs:

Electrical Energy




Fluids & abrasives


Primary Outputs:

Finished products




Spent fluid & abrasives


Others: Heat, Metal vapor, Metallic compounds, ...

Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing (ME592)

Date: March 15, 2000 Slide:
24

Machining
-

9

http://www.llnl.gov/IPandC/op96/09/9c
-
com.html

Electron
-

beam machining:



Intense energy densities


Non
-

contact


Clean