Wireless Electricity Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil

mattednearAI and Robotics

Dec 1, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics



Wireless Electricity Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil



Abstract:

Suddenly you come to see that one fine day the employees of

power supply department are busy in mou
nting towers in your

locality and are removing the wires that supply your

household power. Asking them, they answered instead of

wires entering your house,we will mount an wireless device

that wil acquire power from base station and will help for

efficiect

functioning of household appliances.Its sound

unbelievable to you !!! Isnt it? But it is possible. Latest

science and technological developments are turning this dream

into reality. And Tesla Coil is the name behind it. The paper

considers the capability
of Tesla Coil of generating wireless

electricity and the views, ideas, and experiments conducted by

Nikolo Tesla of transmitting huge amount of power wirelessly

which can established the truth. Here we are trying to

channelize our thoughts to physical real

life effects. It will be

like heaven for those people to whom god has gifted noting

but only the power to think.

Keywords:

Tesla Coil , Wireless energy transfer , Tesla Coil

Controller,Power Consumption , Wardenclyfee Tower.

Introduction:

The idea of wire
less generation and transmission of power is

on the table of experiment form long while ago. We need to

develop devices that generate voltages / currents wirelessly

and transmit them in the RF range or household requirement

stage. Ongoing engineering re
volutions in field of

transmission and distribution help the dream to come in

reality. The person who showed the way of dreaming wireless

power is NIKOLO TESLA.


ABOUT NIKOLO TESLA:






Nikolo Tesla, born on July 9th and July 10th, 1856 in the

village
of Smiljan near Gospic, in the Lika region of the

Military Frontier (Krajina) of the Habsburg Monarchy, now in

Croatia), was a physicist, inventor, and, electrical engineer of

unusual intellectual brilliance and practical achievement. He

was of Serb descen
t and worked mostly in the United States.


Copyright © 2007

Paper Identification Number: SS
-
1.4

This peer
-
reviewed paper has been published by the Pentagram

Research Centre (P) Limited. Responsibility of contents of this paper

rests upon the authors and no
t upon Pentagram Research Centre (P)

Limited. Copies can be obtained from the company for a cost




























































19


Tesla is most famous for conceiving the rotating magnetic

field principle (1882) and then usin
g it to invent the induction

motor together with the accompanying alternating current

long
-
distance electrical transmission system (1888). In 1884,

leaving the warfare of his birthplace behind, Tesla moved to

the United States of America to accept a job wi
th the Edison

Company in New York City. In 1886, Tesla formed his own

company, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. In 1887, he

constructed the initial brushless alternate
-
current induction

motor, which he demonstrated to the American Institute of

Electri
cal Engineers (now IEEE) in 1888. In the same year, he

developed the principles of his Tesla coil and began working

with George Westinghouse at Westinghouse's Pittsburgh labs.

Westinghouse listened to his ideas for polyphase systems

which would allow trans
mission of AC electricity over large

distances.


X
-
rays and friendships
-

In April 1887, Tesla began

investigating what would later be called X
-
rays using his own

single node vacua tubes . On July 30, 1891, he became a

naturalized citizen of the US and es
tablished his Houston

Street laboratory in New York. He lit vacuum tubes wirelessly

in it, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power

transmission. When he was 36 years old, the first patents

concerning the polyphase power system were granted.


Wireless and the AIEE

-

Tesla served as the Vice
-
President

of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now part of

the IEEE) from 1892 to 1894. From 1893 to 1895, he

investigated high frequency alternating currents. He generated

AC of one million v
olts using a conical Tesla coil and

investigated the skin effect in conductors, designed tuned

circuits, invented a machine for inducing sleep, cordless gas

discharge lamps, and transmitted electromagnetic energy

without wires, effectively building the fir
st radio transmitter.


War of currents

-

In the "War of Currents" era in the late

1880s, Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison became adversaries

due to Edison's promotion of direct current (DC) for electric

power distribution over the more efficient alternating
current

(AC) advocated by Tesla.


Colorado Springs
-

In 1899, Tesla decided to go for his high
-

voltage high
-
frequency experiments. He chose this location

primarily because of the frequent thunderstorms, the high

altitude (where the air, being at a lower p
ressure, had a lower

dielectric breakdown strength, making it easier to ionize), and

the dryness of the air (minimizing leakage of electric charge

through insulators). Tesla reached Colorado Springs on May

17, 1899. Upon his arrival he told reporters that
he was

conducting experiments transmitting signals from Pikes Peak

to Paris.Tesla spent nearly nine months from June 1, 1899 and
5.

City.

stars.




Wireless Electricity Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil



January 7, 1900, in the Colorado Springs lab. He

was

developing a system for wireless telegraphy, telephony and the

transmission of power, experimented with high
-
voltage

electricity and the possibility of wireless transmitting and

distributing large amounts of electrical energy over long

distances. Tesl
a left Colorado Springs on January 7, 1900.

The Colorado experiments prepared Tesla for his next project,

the the stablishment of a wireless power transmission facility

that would be known as Wardenclyffe. n March 21, 1900,

Tesla was granted US685012 paten
t for the means for

increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations.


Magnifying transmitter
-

The

lab possessed the largest Tesla

Coil ever built, fifty
-
two feet (16 m) in diameter, known as the

Magnifying Transmitter (further MT). It was a three
-
coil

magnifying system requiring different forms of analysis. Tesla

used it to transmit tens of thousands of watts of power

wirelessly; it could generate millions of volts of electricity and

produce lightning bolts more than one
-
hundred feet (30 m)

long. Tesla

became the first man to create electrical effects on

the scale of lightning. On July 3, 1899, Tesla discovered

terrestrial stationary waves within the earth. He demonstrated

that the Earth behaves as a smooth polished conductor and

possesses electrical vi
brations. Tesla conducted experiments

contributing to the understanding of electromagnetic

propagation and the Earth's resonance. It is well documented

(from various photos from the time) that he lit hundreds of

lamps wirelessly at a distance of up to twen
ty
-
five miles (40

km). He transmitted signals several kilometres and lit neon

tubes conducting through the ground. He transmitted signals

several kilometres and lit neon tubes conducting through the

ground. He researched ways to transmit energy wirelessly
over

long distances.He discovered that the resonant frequency of

the Earth was approximately 8 Hz (Hertz). In the 1950s,

researchers confirmed resonant frequency.


Cosmic waves

-

Tesla in the Colorado Springs lab recorded



Death and afterwards

-

Tesla di
ed alone in the hotel New

Yorker of heart failure, some time between the evening of

January 5 and the morning of January 8, 1943. At the time of

his death, Tesla had been working on some form of teleforce

weapon, or Death Ray, the secrets of which he had o
ffered to

the United States War Department on the morning of January

Tesla's funeral took place on January 12, 1943 at the

Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in Manhattan, New York



Education

-

Fluent in seven languages (English, Serbian,

Croatian, Hungar
ian, French, German, Italian), Elementary

school: Gospic (Croatia), Secondary school: Karlovac

(Croatia),

*Undergraduate ** Baccalaureate of Physics:

Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz) ** Baccalaureate of

Mathematics: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Gra
z) **

Baccalaureate of Mechanical Engineering: Austrian

Polytechnic Institute (Graz) ** Baccalaureate of Electrical

Engineering: Austrian Polytechnic Institute (Graz) *Graduate

studies ** PhD in Physics:

University of Prague

(Prague).


Further Achievem
ents

-

Turbines and pumps ( 1906 ) ,

Tower of Dreams , Robots and Telautomatics ( 1897 )


Recognition and honors

-

The tesla (symbol T) is the SI

derived unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction).

It is a unit to define the intensity (density)
of a magnetic field.

This SI unit is named after Nikola tesla, IEEE Nikola Tesla

Award, biggest airport in Serbia (Belgrade) was renamed

Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, selected as a fellow of the

IEEE and was awarded the Edison Medal, was also made a

fello
w of the American Association for the Advancement of

Science, was also made fellow of the American Electro
-

Therapeutic Association.


What is a Tesla Coil?

cosmic waves emitting from interstellar clouds and red giant

A Tesla coil is a category of disrupti
ve discharge

transformer coils, named after the inventor, NIKOLO TESLA.

Radar
-

Nikola Tesla, in August 1917, first established

principals regarding frequency and power level for the first

primitive RADAR units in 1934. In the 1917

The Electrical

Experime
nter,

Tesla stated the principals of modern military

radar in detail.. . Tesla stated,

"For

instance, by their [standing

electromagnetic waves] use we may produce at will, from a

sending station, an electrical effect in any particular region of

the globe;
[with which] we may determine the relative position

or course of a moving object, such as a vessel at sea, the

distance traversed by the same, or its speed."

.

Tesla’s

proposal was first successfully implemented to find find

aircraft (after their later pro
liferation) and surface ships during

World War II. Emil Girardeau, working with the first French

radar systems, stated he was building radar systems

"conceived according to the principles stated by Tesla"


.Dynamic

theory of gravity
-

When he was eighty
-
on
e, Tesla

challenged Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, announcing

he was working on a dynamic theory of gravity and argued

that a field of force was a better concept and did away with the

curvature of space.


























20

Tesla coils a
re composed of coupled resonant electric circuits.

It is a special transformer that can take the 110v electricity

from our or destroy the coil wire, supports, nearby objects, or

anything else in the way house and capable of converting it

rapidly to a great

deal of high
-
voltage high

fequency,low

amperage power.The high frequency output of even a small

Tesla coil can light up fluorescent tubes held several feet away

without any wire connections. A large number of spent or

discarded fluorescent tubes ( their
burned out cathodes are

irrelevant )will light up if hung near a long wire running from

a Tesla coil while using less than 100 watts drawn by the coil

itself when plugged into an electrical outlet. The high

frequency high
-
voltage energy produced possesses
qualities

unlike conventional electricity. It defies most insulation

material , transmits energy without wires , produces heat ,

light , and noise yet harmlessly passes through human tissue

with virtually no feeling or shocking effects.











International

Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics



Construction:


A

Tesla coil

is a category of disruptive discharge transformer

coils, named after their inventor, Nikola Tesla. Tesla coils are

composed of coupled resonant electric circuits. Nikola T
esla

actually experimented with a large variety of coils and

configurations.











Early coils


The American Electrician gives a description of an early tesla

coil wherein a glass battery jar, six inches by eight inches, is

wound with 60 to 80 turns of

American wire gauge No. 18 B

& S magnet wire. Into this is slipped a primary consisting of

eight to ten turns of AWG No. 6 B & S wire, and the whole

combination immersed in a vessel containing linseed or

mineral oil.


Disruptive "Tesla" coils


In the spri
ng of 1891, Tesla gave demonstrations with various

machines before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers

at Columbia College. Tesla developed a series of coils that

produced high
-
voltage, high
-
frequency currents. The setup can

be duplicated by a R
uhmkorff coil, two condensers (now

called capacitors), and a second, specially constructed,



constructed disruptive coil. The primaries each have twenty

turns of No. 16 B & S rubber covered wire and are wound

separately on rubber tubes not less than a 1/
8th inch thick. The

secondary has 300 turns of No. 30 B & S silk
-
covered magnet

wire, wound on rubber tube or rod, and the ends encased in

glass or rubber tubes. The primaries must be large enough to

be loose when the secondary coil is placed between the c
oils.

The primaries must cover around two inches of the secondary.

A hard rubber division must be placed between these primary

coils. The ends of the primaries not connected with the

capacitors are lead to a spark gap.


Another early Tesla coil was protect
ed in 1897 known as

"Electrical Transformer". This transformer developed (or

converted) currents of high potential and was comprised of a

primary and secondary coil. This Tesla coil had the secondary

being inside of, and surrounded by, the convolutions of
the

primary coil. This Tesla coil comprised of a primary and

secondary wound in the form of a flat spiral. One coil, the

secondary in step up transformation, of the device consisted of

a longer fine
-
wire. The apparatus was also connected to the

Earth when
the coil was in use.


Utilization and Production:


Transmission
-

A large Tesla coil of more modern design can

operate at very high peak power levels, up to many megawatts

(a million watts; hundreds of thousands of horsepower). It

should therefore be adjus
ted and operated carefully, not only

for efficiency and economy, but also for safety. If, due to

improper tuning, the maximum voltage point occurs below the

terminal, along the secondary coil, a discharge (spark), or

possibly a ball of plasma, may break ou
t and damage,


Later coils:

disruptive coil.

Tesla, in System

of Transmission of Electrical Energy

and

Apparatus

for Transmission of Electrical Energy,

described

new and useful combinations employed in transformer coils.

The transmitting coil or conductor

arranged and excited to

cause currents or oscillation to propagate through conduction

through the natural medium from one point to another remote

point therefrom and a receiver coil or conductor of the

The Ruhmkorff coil, being fed from a main source, is

wired to

capacitors on both ends in series. A spark gap is placed in

parallel to the Ruhmkorff coil before the capacitors. The

discharge tips were usually metal balls under one inch in

diameter, though Tesla used various forms of dischargers. The

capacito
rs were of a special design, small with high insulation.

These capacitors consisted of plates in oil that were movable.

The smaller the plates, the more frequent the discharge of this

early coil apparatus. The plates also help nullify the high self

inducta
nce of the secondary coil by adding capacity to it. Mica

plates were placed in the spark gap to establish an air current

jet to go up through the gap. This helped to extinguish the arc,

making the discharge more abrupt. An air blast was also used

for this
objective.


The capacitors are connected to a double primary (each coil in

series with a capacitor). These are part of the second specially





















21

transmitted signals. The production of currents of very high

potential could be attained in

these coils.














Some of Tesla's later coils were considerably larger and

operated at much higher power levels. Tesla coils achieve







Wireless Electricity Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil



great gain in voltage by loosely

coupling two resonant LC

circuits together, using an air
-
core (ironless) transformer.

Unlike a conventional transformer, whose gain is limited to

the ratio of the numbers of turns in the windings, Tesla coils'

voltage gain is proportional to the square ro
ot of the ratio of

secondary and primary inductances. Later coil types are an air
-

core, dual
-
tuned resonant transformer that generates very high

voltages at radio frequencies (RF). The coil achieves a great

gain in voltage by transferring energy from one
resonant

circuit (the primary) to the other (the secondary) over a

number of cycles. Tesla Coil operation is significantly

different from a conventional transformer whose gain is

limited to the ratio of the numbers of turns in the windings.


Modern Tesla C
oils are designed to generate long sparks,

Tesla's original system were designed for wireless

communication. so he used large radii of curvature to prevent

corona and streamer losses. Tesla coils' outer conducting

surfaces, which are charged to a high pote
ntial, have large

radii of curvature to minimise leakage of the oscillating

charges through corona discharges or sparks. The intensity of

the voltage gain of the circuit with a free, or elevated, toroid is

proportional to the quantity of charge displaced,
which is

determined by the product of the capacitance of the circuit, the

voltage (which Tesla called "pressure"), and the frequency of

the currents employed.


Operational Principle:


Later coils consist of a primary tank circuit, which is a series

LC circ
uit composed of a high voltage capacitor, spark gap,

and primary coil; and the secondary LC circuit, a series

resonant circuit consisting of the secondary coil and the toroid.

Most modern coils use only a single secondary coil. The toroid

actually forms on
e terminal of a capacitor, the other terminal

being the Earth (or "ground"). The primary LC circuit is

"tuned" so that it will resonate at the same frequency as the

secondary LC circuit. The primary and secondary coils are

magnetically coupled, creating a
dual
-
tuned resonant air
-
core

transformer. unlike a conventional transformer, which may

couple 97%+ of the magnetic fields between windings, a Tesla

Coil's windings are "loosely" coupled, with the primary and

secondary typically sharing only 10
-
20% of their

respective

magnetic fields.

Tesla Coils

spread their electric field over a

large distance to prevent high electrical stresses in the first

place, thereby allowing operation in free air.


Most Modern Tesla coils use simple toroids, typically

fabricated fro
m spun metal or flexible aluminum ducting, to

control the high electrical field near the top of the secondary

and to direct spark outward,and away, from the primary and

secondary windings.


The circuit consists of a secondary coil that is inductively

coupl
ed to the primary, one end of which is connected to a

good earth ground, while its other end is usually connected to

a smoothly shaped discharge terminal (often called a topload).

The important requirement is that the primary and secondary

sides must be tu
ned to the same resonant frequency to allow

efficient transfer of energy between the primary and secondary






































































22



LC circuits. Modern Tesla Coils use vacuum tube or power

transistor oscil
lators to excite the primary and generate high

frequency current.









Typical Tesla Coil Schematic Alternate Tesla Coil

Configuration


The Tesla Coil primary winding, spark gap, and tank capacitor

are all connected in series. Once the gap fires, the el
ectrical

behavior of either circuit is identical. In the typical circuit

(above), the spark gap's short circuiting action prevents high

frequency oscillations from "backing up" into the supply

transformere. Regardless of which configuration is used, the

HV

transformer must be of a type that self
-
limits its secondary

current by means of internal leakage inductance. A normal

(low leakage inductance) high voltage transformer must use an

external limiter (sometimes called a ballast) to limit current.

NST's are
designed to have high leakage inductance to limit

their short circuit current to a safe level.


Safety and precautions

-

It is advisable to begin the

tuning, in which the primary coil's resonant frequency is set to

the same value of the secondary coil's, u
sing low
-
power

oscillations, then increasing the power until the apparatus has

been brought under control .

Air discharges

-

While generating discharges, electrical

energy from the secondary and toroid is transferred to the

surrounding air as electrical c
harge, heat, light, and sound. The

electric currents that flow through these discharges are

actually due to the rapid shifting of quantities of charge from

one place to other places (nearby regions of air). The process

is similar to charging or discharging

a capacitor. The current

that arises from shifting charges within a capacitor is called a

displacement current. Tesla Coil discharges are formed as a

result of displacement currents as pulses of electrical charge

are rapidly transferred between the high v
oltage toroid and

nearby regions within the air (called space charge regions).

When the spark gap fires, the charged capacitor discharges

into the primary winding, causing the primary circuit to

oscillate. The oscillating primary current creates a magnetic

field that couples to the secondary winding, transferring

energy into the secondary side of the transformer and causing

it to oscillate with the toroid capacitance. The energy transfer

occurs over a number of cycles, and most of the energy that

was origin
ally in the primary side is transferred into the

secondary side. The greater the magnetic coupling between

windings, the shorter the time required to complete the energy

transfer. As energy builds within the oscillating secondary

circuit, the amplitude of
the toroid's RF voltage rapidly

increases, and the air surrounding toroid begins to undergo

dielectric breakdown, forming a corona discharge .









International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics



sculpture. It currently resides in a pr
ivate sculpture park at

Kakanui Point near Auckland, in New Zealand.rivate

Sculpture Park at akanui Point near Auckland, in New

Zealand.

Popularity

-

Tesla coils are very popular devices among

certain electrical engineers and electronics enthusiasts.






A small later
-
type "Tesla

coil"

in operation. The output is

giving 17
-
inch sparks. The diameter of the secondary is 3

inches. The power source is a 10000 V 60 Hz current limited

supply.


In a spark gap Tesla Coil the primary
-
to
-
secondary energy

transfer p
rocess happens repetitively at typical pulsing rates of

50

500 times/second, and previously formed leader channels

don't get a chance to fully cool down between pulses. So, on

successive pulses, newer discharges can build upon the hot

pathways left by thei
r predecessors. This causes incremental

growth of the leader from one pulse to the next, lengthening

the entire discharge on each successive pulse.


Reception

-

The secondary coil and its capacitor can be used

in receive mode. The parameters of a Tesla Coi
l transmitter

are identically applicable to it being a receiver, due to

reciprocity. Impedance, is not applied in an obvious way; for

electrical impedance, the impedance at the load (eg., where the

power is consumed) is most critical and, for a Tesla Coil

receiver, this is at the point of utilization (such as at an

induction motor) rather than at the receiving node.


The skin effect myth:

The dangers of high frequency electrical current are

sometimes perceived as being less than at lower frequencies.

Large
Tesla Coils and Magnifiers can deliver dangerous levels

of high frequency current, and they can also develop

significantly higher voltages voltages (often 250,000

500,000

volts, or more).










Because of the higher voltages, large systems can deliver

higher energy, potentially lethal, repetitive high voltage

capacitor discharges from their top terminals. Doubling the

output voltage quadruples the electrostatic energy stored in a

given top terminal capacitance.


Instances and devices

-

One

of the large
st Tesla coils

ever built, known as the "Magnifying Transmitter". The

world's largest currently existing 2
-
coil Tesla coil was made

by Greg Leyh. It is a 130,000 watt unit, part of a 38 foot tall


















































23

Vry bi
g tesla coil is shown every year at the Coachella music

and arts festival, in Coachella, Indio, California, USA.


i)Tesla coils are featured in the

Command & Conquer

series of

strategy computer games by Westwood Studios as a powerful

defensive weapon on th
e Soviet side.


ii)In the

Destroy All Humans!

Video game, it is utilized as an

anti
-
air emplacement.


iii)Tesla coils, as well as an operational Tesla Death Ray make

an appearance in Tomb Raider: Legend.


iv)In the game Arcanum: Of Steamworks and Magick Ob
scura

by Troika Games, weapons such as the Tesla Gun, Tesla

Pistol, or the Tesla Rod can be created by combining certain

weapons with a Tesla coil.


v) In the game Tremulous, Tesla generators can be utilized by

the human team as base defenses which zap ene
mies who

come near.


vi) In a game Return to Castle Wolfenstein, Authors used

Tesla Gun, which fired electrical discharge "rail", or in

alternate firing mode, gun would fire electricall ball into

target.


vii) Tesla Coils are featured part of the Thaddius
encounter in

World of Warcraft's Naxxaramas dungeon.


viii) The Electroshock cannon in the PC game Evil Genius is a

Tesla Coil, in the game it is depicted to spin after each

discharge, possibly to generate Static electricity


Wireless energy transfer

is th
e transfer of electromagnetic

energy for power to do work via conduction, induction, or

transmission without a physical connection.Wireless energy

transfer, by definition, does not require a physical medium

through which to flow.



Wireless Electricity

Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil



A fluorescent with no wires attached to it, held near the

antenna, will glow when thetransmitter is activated relaying

the abbreviation "SOS" by Morse code will cause the light to

correspondingly blink

"SOS" as electromagnetic induction by

the transmitted signal causes the gas inside the lamp (acting as

a natural receiver) to glow, not unlike the causal mechanism in

the aurora borealis.


With the basic principle thus established, the challenge then is

t
o channel the energy of transmission to ensure efficient

reception, whereupon it can be converted into useful power, a

flashlight beam focused narrowly (by a lens) onto a solar cell

will mimimize the amount of energy which does not fall on

the receiver and

is ambiently lost .


The advent of technology for much higher transmission

frequencies, like those used by microwave transmitters,

created the possibility of relaying electromagnetic energy

through the application of directional antennas, such as the

one
invented by Hidetsugu Yagi. Lasers, which create a

coherent and tightly confined beam of light energy, are even

more appropriate.


In most cases, such solutions are not economical as compared

to the simpler standard of power transmission by copper wire.

Wi
reless energy transfer is therefore most applicable to

situations where the energy receiver cannot be copper
-
tethered

to the energy source


such as sending energy to an airplane

or spacecraft, or transmitted between planetary bodies, or from

orbital solar

power satellites to a rectenna on Earth.



connection, each being called a “terminal.”. It is clearly

specified by Tesla that the earth as being one of the

conducting media involved in ground and air system

technology. The other specified medium is the a
tmosphere

above 5 miles elevation. While not an ohmic conductor, in this

region of the troposphere and upwards, the density or pressure

is sufficiently reduced to so that, according to Tesla’s theory,

the atmosphere’s insulating properties can be easily im
paired,

allowing an electric current to flow. Tesla’s theory further

states that the conducting region is developed through the

process of atmospheric ionization, in which the effected

portions thereof are changed to plasma. The presence of the

magnetic fi
elds developed by each plant’s helical resonator

suggests that an embedded magnetic field and flux linkage is

also involved. Flux linkage with Earth’s natural magnetic field

is also a possibility, especially in the case of an earth

resonance transmission s
ystem. The atmosphere below 5 miles

is also viewed as a propagating medium for a portion of the

aboveground circuit, and, being an insulating medium,

electrostatic induction would be involved rather than true

electrical conduction.


In 1935 Tesla spoke abo
ut the transmission of propulsive

power to ships at sea "through the stratosphere" using this

technique .

"The principles of this high tension power,

generated by shore plants and transmitted through the upper

reaches of the air, illuminating the sky, turn
ing night into day

and at the same time supplying power, have occupied Dr.

Tesla's attention on and off now for the past thirty
-
five years. .

. . ” #### "There is a method of conveying great power to

ships at sea which would be able to propel them across

oceans

at high speed. . . .” ####

"The principle is this. A ray of

Tesla:

The development of wireless energy transfer began in earnest

with the lectures and patents of the electrical engineer Nikola

Tesla (and is described in his 1916 deposition on th
e history of

wireless and radio technology). In experiments around 1899,

Tesla was able to light lamps filled with gas (similar to neon)

from over 25 miles away without using wires. Tesla used a

high frequency current. During his experiments in Colorado,

h
e lit ordinary incandescent lamps at full candle
-
power by

currents induced in a local loop consisting of a single wire

forming a square of fifty feet each side, which includes the

lamps, and which was at a distance of one
-
hundred feet from

the primary circ
uit energized by the oscillator (Century

Magazine, June 1900). The construction of a global system for

wireless telegraphy, telephony, and transmission of power

centered on his Wardenclyffe Tower, started over a century

ago by Tesla.


In practice, the tran
smitter electrically influences both the

earth and the space above it. Tesla believed that energy cold

be efficiently transmitted from the facility by true electrical

conduction through the earth, and either displacement

currents, i.e., electrostatic induc
tion or, with a high
-
power

system, true electrical conduction through plasma. Tesla called

his wireless technique the "disturbed charge of ground and air

method." The ground
-
air system depends upon passage of

electrical current through both the earth and t
he atmosphere.

To accommodate this, the Wardenclyffe
-
type World System

transmitter/receiver facility includes both an air and a ground


































24

great ionizing power is used to give to the atmosphere great

powers of conduction.
A high tension current of 10,000,000 to

12,000,000 volts is then passed along the ray to the upper

strata of the air, which strata can be broken down very readily

and will conduct electricity very well. ”"A ship would have to

have equipment for producing a

similar ionizing ray. The

current which has passed through the stratosphere will strike

this ray, travel down it and pass into the engines which propel

the ship."


Earth itself would behave as a resonant LC circuit that could

be electrically excited at pr
edescribed frequencies. However,

Earth resonance would be of a very low frequency (about 7

Hz) which would, perhaps, utilize Schumann resonance.

Alternatively, a surface or ground wave, similar to the

Zenneck wave could have been utilized.According to Tesl
a,

the planet's large cross
-
sectional area provides a low resistance

path for the flow of earth currents. The greatest losses are apt

to occur at the points where the transmitting and receiving

stations are connected with the ground. This is why Tesla

stat
ed,"You

see the underground work is one of the most

expensive parts of the tower. In this system that I have

invented it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the

earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth. It has to have a

grip on the earth so tha
t the whole of this globe can quiver,

and to do that it is necessary to carry out a very expensive

construction."










iii)

C
oil




























International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics



To close the circuit, in theory, a second path would be

established b
etween the plants' elevated high
-
voltage terminals

through rarefied upper
-
level atmospheric strata. The

connection would be made by electrostatic induction or

conduction through plasma. Tesla firmly believed that

Wardenclyffe would permit wireless tra
nsmission and

reception across large distances with negligible losses.


Types of Tesla Coil:


i) High Power Vacuum Tube Tesla Coil
-

These

spectacular display devices produce arcs and sparks quite

unlike the damped spark gap driven Tesla coils. Operati
on

does not require a noisy spark gap that produces copious

amounts of RFI radio frequency interference but operates

efficiently at the quarter wave frequency of the secondary coil

. The circuit of the vacuum tube device is nothing more than a



i) High P
ower Vaccum

Medium Power Tesla

Tube tesla Coil




High Power Tesla Coil

-



ii) Table Top Tesla Coil

high powered Hartley radio frequency oscillator tuned to the

resonant frequency of the secondary coil. The circuit uses a

medium powered 833A triode tran
smitting tube that inherently

has a high grid to plate capacitance and is readily available.

The plate section of the coil is wound with 1/4 inch copper

tubing. The grid feed back coil is wound with #16 litz wire.

The secondary is wound with #24 litz wire
on a properly

prepped plastic form . The output of the oscillator is relatively

closely coupled to the secondary coil designed for high Q

performance and self resonant to the 1/4 wave of the oscillator

frequency. Input power to the coil is raw unrectified
AC at

3000 volts rms with a current of .5 amps. Peak voltage is over

4000 volts and is supplied by a conventional plate transformer

being fed by a voltage adjustable variac for power output

control. A pulse signal controls the grid of the tube allowing a

w
ide range of spark texture variation by changing the duty

cycle and frequency.


ii) Easy to Build Table Top Tesla Coil
-

Produces 8
-
12"

Visible Lightning
-
Like Discharges. Fully adjustable.

Transmit wireless energy , Materials glow, disintegrate, burn ,

I
ON motors, induction fields , ION motors, induction fields ,

Amazing and spectacular special effects


iii) Medium Power Tesla Coil

-

18 TO 30"

DISCHARGES!! 500,000 Volts!!Intended for


Display Experiments, Produces Intense Discharges! Uses

Dangerou
s HIGH

VOLTAGESPower enough for most R&D experiments. Air

Cooled Tungsten Spark Gap.

Size
-

30" H x 16” sq , Weight
-

35 lbs. Table top , Choice of

115/220 Operation , Parts Individually Available This Tesla

coil is built using transparent polycarbonate ma
terials. This is

truly a spectacular looking device


4 To 6' DISCHARGES!! 1,500,000 Volt Floor

ModelIdeal for special effects, advertising, attention

getting, advanced laboratory studies, and the

hobbiest familiar with the use of high voltage. Uses

Danger
ous HIGH VOLTAGES!!

Advanced Project for High Voltage Research

Spectacular Display of Natures Fireworks

Materials Testing

Rotary Spark Gap

Size
-

6' Height x 24" Square base


Worlds Smallest Tesla Coil
-

Generate

Bolts of Lightning,

Crashing Against the In
ner Walls of a 5" Lamp!










Generate Up To 75 KV Discharges

Experiment With HV Effects

Plasma In A Jar, St Elmo's Fire, Corona Etc.

Output Discharge Control

Small Size 3 in.x 2 in. x 1.5 in.

115V Line Direct Operation


Micro Mini Mite Tesla Coil
-


Li
ghts Up A 4 Ft Florescent Tube Without Contact!!! Yet

Only 3" Tall!











25


* Super Magic Trick

Pyrotechnics


* Generate Plasma























Wireless Electricity Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil



* Build a Small Jacobs

Ladder

Operation



* 12 VDC/115 VAC



The wireless transfer of energy is used in various devices,

such as electric toothbrushes (to recharge their batteries), the

transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems in artificial

hearts like AbioCor and most n
otably in mobile phones.

A fully developed World System would, conceivably, allow

for the removal of many existing high
-
tension power

transmission lines, and facilitate the interconnection of

electrical generation plants on a global scale.

Mini Tesla Light
ning Machine

-

With Adjustable "On and

Off" Time Settings

2 to 3" Spark Discharge

12 VDC/115 VAC/battery . Safe at High Frequencies ,

Adjustable Output








Solid State Tesla Coil and Jacobs Ladder
-

Turns

A

Normal Light Bulb Into A Spectacular Plasma
Display!!

Build a Plasma Tornado Amazing and bizarre effects!







Transmits Wireless Energy


Noiseless Operation

Pyrotechnic Effect

12 VDC/5 Amps or Battery

115 VAC Optional Converter

Adjustable Frequency


Uses of Tesla Coil


Tesla also used various vers
ions of his coil in experiments

with fluorescence, x
-
rays, wireless power for electric power

transmission, electrotherapy, and telluric currents in

conjunction with atmospheric electricity.


The Tesla coil is an early predecessor (along with the

induc
tion coil) of a more modern device called a flyback

transformer, which provides the voltage needed to power the

cathode ray tube used in some televisions and computer

monitors.


The disruptive discharge coil remains in common use as the

"ignition

coil"

or
"spark

coil"

in the ignition system of an

internal combustion engine. A modern low power variant of

the Tesla coil is also used to power plasma globe sculptures

and similar devices.


Low power Tesla Coils are also sometimes used as a high

voltage source fo
r Kirlian photography.


























































26

Some notes on Power Consumption of Tesla Coil

:

1) Power Supply
-

Initially, a circuit without a step
-
up

transformer is used. Then up to

±170

V to the inverter is to be

ap
plied. But the voltage was not high enough to make

significant sparks. Then a step
-
up transformer is to be used

ahead of the inverter.It appeared that a factor of ten (10(±170)

=

±1700

V) would give me enough range. So a 240/2400

transformer is bought. Thi
s is an oil filled transformer,

sometimes called a pole pig. one was rated at 5 kVA, so the

rated input current is 5000/240 = 20.8 A. This is a very

conservative rating, for continuous operation in a 40oC

ambient. It was expected it to run four hours at 30

A without a

problem, and 10.

The power circuit is shown below

:







# I had 2400 VAC rather than 230 VAC, which made my

LI

= (2400/230)(15) = 156.5 mH
-
A. The rated current for my

transformer is 2.8 A at 2400 V, so

L

= 156.5 / 2.8 = 56 mH ;

The capacitor

bank was formed of 16 electrolytic capacitors

rated at 1400

μF

and 450 V. Four were placed in series to get a

string rated at 350

μF

and 1800 V. Two strings were then

paralleled to get a rated capacitor

C3

of 700

μF

and 1800 V.

Two more strings were added to get another capacitor

C3

for

the negative supply. The fig
ure shows the measured value of

the capacitors, 740

μF

rather than 700

μF.

Finally, resistors

R1

were added to discharge the capacitor bank. These are 35 kΩ,

100

W resistors, two in series on each side of the supply. At full

voltage of

±1700

V, the power d
issipation on each side is

P

=

V

^2/

R

= (1700)^2 / 70000 = 41 W (1) or about 20 W per

resistor. The resistors are mounted at an angle in free air, so

air can flow by convection through the interior of the resistors.

The nominal rated voltage difference be
tween

V


and

V

+ is

2400√2 = 3394 V, or about

±1700

V.Power was run into and

out of the capacitor bank with wire made by the

Alpha Wire.


2. Gate Driver and Inverter:

















International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics



The last gene
ration is shown in Fig. 2 are four Harris

HGTG18N120BND IGBTs in series in each leg..

#

Calculations:

During inverter operation, each resistor carries

1/4 of the total supply voltage while its IGBT is off, and 0

while its IGBT is on. The power dissipation
for a total voltage

of 3400 V is

P

=

V^2

/

R

=(3400

/

8)^2 / 430000

= 0.42 W during the off period, and double this amount, or

0.84 W during inverter operation.


3. Current Sense Resistors:

In the metal case containing the

inverter, there are several other

components besides those

shown in Fig. 2. These include the current sense resistors, a



P

= (70) ^2 (0.02) = 98 W which is a little over four times the

steady state rating. For the intermittent operation used here,

R1

should last indefinitely, at least
until the IGBTs blow.


4. IGBT Over current Protection:






5. Tesla Coil Controller:

filter for the current waveform to the scope, a small current

transformer for supplying current information to the

controller, and some high frequency capacitors for vo
ltage and

current support. These are shown in Fig. 3. The switches

SW1
-
SW8 represent the 8 IGBTs in the inverter.




6. Waveform Plots:

n the following figures, A1 and A2 refer to the two analog

channels of the HP 54645D oscilloscope. A1 is the voltage

wav
eform applied to the Tesla coil, measured at the output of

the inverter. A2 is the current, as represented by the voltage

# Need for Switching
-

The switcher provides a square wave

voltage to the Tesla coil input. A square wave can always be

composed into

a fundamental and a series of odd harmonics of

sine waves. The magnifier is not resonant at exactly three (or

five, or seven) times the fundamental frequency, so the

harmonics always face a very high surge impedance. The

current will build up at the reson
ant frequency but not at the

harmonics. This means that a square wave of applied voltage

will produce only a sine wave of current. This sine wave will

be in phase with the voltage at resonance, will lag above

resonance, and lead below resonance. The differ
ence between

hard and soft switching is shown in Fig. 4. Two plots of an

(approximately) square wave of voltage applied to a Tesla

coil, with the resulting(approximately) sinusoidal current are

given here. In the 1’st plot the voltage takes about 300 ns to

make the transition. There is little ripple and the current

waveform is reasonably smooth. In the 2’nd plot, the voltage

transition lasts only about 100 ns.










A spark that occurs 1.9 ms into the pulse train with

±900

V

applied might occur 1.2 ms af
ter start with

±1200

V applied. A

current of about 30 A (rms) just before spark was observed

frequently. The power dissipated in

R1

with this current in it is

P

=

I^2 R

= (30)2(0.02) = 18 W which is within the range of a

22 W resistor. The most critical li
mit in the circuit is that of

the IGBTs, which is 100 A peak in short bursts. If the peak

current is 100 A in a sinusoidal waveform, then the rms

current limit is 70 A. At 70 A, the power dissipation in

R1

is










































27

a
cross a 0.02 Ω resistor. A scale of 100 mV/div would be 5

A/div.







Fig. 8 shows the same waveforms after 1 ms of operation

(except for Channel 4, which is no longer of interest to us).





Fig. 9 shows the voltage applied to the Tesla coil and the

resu
lting current for about 4.5 ms. The voltage is A1 at the top

of the figure and the current is A2 at the bottom. Operation is

well below breakout.








Fig. 10 shows a closeup of the waveforms when ENABLE

goes low. Both outputs of the 34066 go low, so Cha
nnel 0

goes high and stays there.


cycle.




Wireless Electricity Generation and Transmission: A Focus on Tesla Coil



In Fig. 10. It turns out that the current never misses a beat. The

voltage has a cycle that is half the norma
l length, such that at

the end of the short cycle, voltage is out of phase with current.

Fig. 11 shows the voltage and current waveforms later in the








TESLA COILS SAFETY:

1.0) Electrical Hazards, Fuses and Safety Switches

-

Tesla

coils use high volta
ges, and the risk of death or injury is

significant. The following general guidelines are suggested:

Never adjust tesla coils when the power is turned on.

High voltage capacitors may hold a charge long after power is

turned off. Always discharge capacitors

before adjusting a

primary circuit.

Make sure the metal cases of transformers, motors, control

panels and other items associated with tesla coils are properly

grounded.

The low voltage primary circuit is extremely dangerous!

These voltages are especially
lethal to humans. Make sure

these circuits are well insulated so users cannot come in

contact with the A.C. line voltage.

A safety key should be used in the low voltage circuit to

prevent unauthorized use.

Use adequate fusing of the primary power and/or ci
rcuit

breakers to limit the maximum current to your control panel.

Do NOT count on your home circuit panel to provide adequate

protection! Never operate a tesla coil in an area where there is

standing water, or where a significant shock hazard exists.

2.0)

Burns

-

Tesla coils can cause burns, especially due to RF

discharges from the secondary. Stay out of the immediate

vicinity of a tesla coil.

3.0) Induction Field Effects
-

Tesla coils operate in a pulsed

mode, and strong electric and magnetic fields are l
ocally

produced. In addition, significant amounts of RF may be

produced if the grounding is poor, or before spark breakout.

This can result in induced currents in other conductors, like

test equipment, nearby computers and electronics, and metal

structures

in the facility. Turn off computers and sensitive test

equipment, and move it away from the vicinity of your coils. .

Construct a dedicated RF ground, and make sure it is properly

connected before firing any coil of substantial size.

#

Fire from other ind
uced currents

-

Tesla coils are good at

inducing currents. Beware of metal things that are connected

to the same ground as a tesla coil.

# Hazards to electronics

-

A tesla coil must be connected to a ground that is separate

from the house ground or water p
ipes. Connecting anyone coil

to either of these grounds is a recipe for disaster.

4.0) .0) Ozone, NOx, and Vapors

-

A sparking tesla coil

produces ozone, nitrogen
-
oxygen compounds, and probably a

host of other potentially toxic substances. Do not operate a

large coil in an enclosed area for long periods of time. Make

sure ventilation is adequate at all times. When constructing

secondaries, adequate ventilation must be used, when coating

coils with varnish, etc.

5.0) Ultraviolet Light and X
-
ray Production

-

The light

produced in a spark contain substantial amounts of hard

ultraviolet light and produce a large amount of visible light.






































































28



"Don't Look At The Arc!" . T he visible light is ex
tremely

bright, and the ultraviolet light will damage your eyes, and can

cause skin cancer. To study spark gap, use welder's glasses.

6.0) Radio Frequency Interference
-

Tesla coils are

generally inefficient as antennas go, but can still produce a fair

amo
unt of RF, especially if operated with a large top

capacitance, before spark breakout. Significant quantities of

RF can also be produced if the RF grounding is inadequate.

This can cause interference with TV's, radios, and other

electronics.Try to improve
ground first . In addition, every

tesla coil should be wired with a power line conditioner in

series with the primary circuit. These are relatively

inexpensive and are very effective in keeping RF out of the

house wiring.

7.0) Fire Hazards

-

Fires can be c
aused by an overheated

spark gap, equipment failure (e.g., shorted transformer),

corona discharge, induced currents, to name a few causes.

When coil is running it is to be sured that there are no

flammable substances around. For example, gas cans (e.g., fo
r

a lawnmower), ammunition, sawdust, fireworks, etc. Walls

and ceilings can also be ignited, so fire extinguisher handy

should be kept handy.

8.0) Chemical Hazards

-

Old capacitors and transformers

often used PCB oils for insulation. This oil is a known

ca
rcinogen. Similarly, the materials used to coat coils (e.g.,

varnish) may contain hazardous chemicals. Consult a Material

Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be consulted for any

materials used.

9.0) Explosion Hazards

-

Explosions can and do occur with

tesla c
oils! The rotary gap and capacitors are the most frequent

culprits, but nearby flammables are also at risk.

# Rotary gaps

-

During

operation, rotary gaps spin at high speeds. The

spinning rotor or disk is subjected to tremendous force. At a

modest 3600 RPM
, the periphery of a 10" disk is subjected to

a force of 1835 G's. The peripheral speed of the 10" disk is

107 MPH. At 10000 RPM, the edge of the disk is running at

about 300 MPH! The best way to guard against this danger is

to shield the rotor and build t
he entire system carefully and

take pains to balance it.

# Capacitors
-

Capacitors are great at

releasing energy very quickly. The explosion danger in a

capacitor occurs when it shorts out and suddenly produces a

large volume of hot vaporized gas. Since ca
pacitors are

usually in an air tight container, the volume of gas will cause

the container to explode, sending pieces of solid cap guts and

oil all over. One recommended method of shielding

capacitors is in an HDPE (High Density PolyEthylene) pipe .

10.0
) Noise Hazards

-

Tesla coils produce a lot of noise, and

large coils can damage one's hearing. Ear protection should be

bought from nearby gun shop if large coils are operated.large

coils.


Scope for further modifications:

1) Transmission of power through

satellite:

Transmiiting power from earth to satellite and then from

satellite to earth through orbital satellite.

2) Optica Fibre Trans mission :

The generated energy in the RF range is transformed into opti

cal domain by optical transducers or by the hel
p of LEDs or

LASERS.Then this energy is transmitted via optical fibre to

the different sub stations or base stations. This stations again

transform the optical energy into required electrical energy



International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics a
nd Informatics



and transmits it through the directive antennas termed as

towers.


Conclusion:

The wireless power generation and distribution

concept has opened up a new dimension is the field of science

and technology.

It is making humans believe in th
e

unbelievable. With this technology teaming up with Tesla

Coil, antenna, transformer, and wireless propagation can bring

out a revolution, and where the winner will be mankind. Its

now a matter of time to see that all the streets, highways are

now free o
f wires running from one end to other and the

houses,offices , institutions bears the wireless devices to

receive energies transmitted wirelessly from base stations


Reference:

Tesla, Nikola,

My Inventions, Electrical Experimenter

magazine, Feb, June, and
Oct, 1919. ISBN 0910077002

Tesla, Nikola, "The True Wireless". Electrical Experimenter

May 1919. Tesla, Nikola, "The True Wireless". Electrical

Experimenter May 1919. (Public_Broadcasting_Service)

Pratt, H., "Nikola Tesla 1856
-
1943", Proceedings of the IR
E,

Vol. 44, September, 1956. Page, R.M., "The Early History of

Radar", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May,

1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue). Tesla, Nikola, "The

Problem of Increasing Human Energy", The Century

Illustrated Magazine. W.C.

Wysock, J.F. Corum, J.M.

Hardesty and K.L. Corum, "Who Was the Real Dr. Nikola

Tesla? (A Look at His Professional Credentials)".






































29