Cyberpunk is a science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life".[1][2] The name is a blend of cybernetics and punk and was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk", published in 1983.[3][4] It features advanced science, such as information technology and cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.[5] Cyberpunk works are well situated within postmodern literature.[6] Cyberpunk plots often center on a conflict among hackers, artificial intelligences, and megacorporations, and tend to be set in a near-future Earth, rather than the far-future settings or galactic vistas found in

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Cyberpunk is a science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life".[1][2] The name is a
blend of cybernetics and punk and was originally coined by Bruce Bethke

as the title of his short story
"Cyberpunk", published in 1983.[3][4] It features advanced science, such as information technology and
cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.[5] Cyberpunk
works are well situa
ted within postmodern literature.[6]


Cyberpunk plots often center on a conflict among hackers, artificial intelligences, and megacorporations,
and tend to be set in a near
-
future Earth, rather than the far
-
future settings or galactic vistas found in
novels such as Isaac Asimov's Foundation or Frank Herbert's Dune.[7] The settings are usually post
-
industrial dystopias but tend to be marked by extraordinary cultural ferment and the use of technology
in ways never anticipated by its creators ("the street

finds its own uses for things").[8] Much of the
genre's atmosphere echoes film noir, and written works in the genre often use techniques from
detective fiction.[9]


"Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of

society in
generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous
datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of the human body."


Lawrence
Person[10]


Primary exponents of the cyberpun
k field include William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Bruce Sterling, Pat
Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, and John Shirley.[11]


Many influential films, such as Blade Runner and the Matrix trilogy can be seen as prominent examples
of the cyberpunk style and theme.[7] Com
puter games, board games, and role
-
playing games, such as
Cyberpunk 2020 and Shadowrun, often feature storylines that are heavily influenced by cyberpunk
writing and movies. Beginning in the early 1990s, some trends in fashion and music were also labeled a
s
cyberpunk. Cyberpunk is also featured prominently in anime,[12] Akira and Ghost in the Shell being
among the most notable.[12]


Cyberpunk writers tend to use elements from the hard
-
boiled detective novel, film noir, and
postmodernist prose to describe th
e often nihilistic underground side of an electronic society. The
genre's vision of a troubled future is often called the antithesis of the generally utopian visions of the
future popular in the 1940s and 1950s. Gibson defined cyberpunk's antipathy towards

utopian SF in his
1981 short story "The Gernsback Continuum", which pokes fun at and, to a certain extent, condemns
utopian science fiction.[16][17][18]


In some cyberpunk writing, much of the action takes place online, in cyberspace, blurring the border
between actual and virtual reality. A typical trope in such work is a direct connection between the
human brain and computer systems. Cyberpunk depicts the world as a dark, sinister place with
networked computers dominating every aspect of life. Giant, mul
tinational corporations have for the
most part replaced governments as centers of political, economic, and even military power.

Protagonists in cyberpunk writing usually include computer hackers, who are often patterned on the
idea of the lone hero fightin
g injustice, such as Robin Hood.[19] One of the cyberpunk genre's prototype
characters is Case, from Gibson's Neuromancer.[20] Case is a "console cowboy", a brilliant hacker who
had betrayed his organized criminal partners. Robbed of his talent through a c
rippling injury inflicted by
the vengeful partners, Case unexpectedly receives a once
-
in
-
a
-
lifetime opportunity to be healed by
expert medical care but only if he participates in another criminal enterprise with a new crew.


Like Case, many cyberpunk prota
gonists are manipulated, placed in situations where they have little or
no choice, and although they might see things through, they do not necessarily come out any further
ahead than they previously were. These anti
-
heroes

"criminals, outcasts, visionaries
, dissenters and
misfits"[21] call to mind the private eye of detective novels. This emphasis on the misfits and the
malcontents is the "punk" component of cyberpunk.


Cyberpunk can be intended to disquiet readers and call them to action. It often expresse
s a sense of
rebellion, suggesting that one could describe it as a type of culture revolution in science fiction. In the
words of author and critic David Brin:

...a closer look [at cyberpunk authors] reveals that they nearly always portray future societies

in which
governments have become wimpy and pathetic ...Popular science fiction tales by Gibson, Williams,
Cadigan and others do depict Orwellian accumulations of power in the next century, but nearly always
clutched in the secretive hands of a wealthy or
corporate elite.[
22]


Cyberpunk stories have also been seen as fictional forecasts of the evolution of the Internet. The earliest
descriptions of a global communications network came long before the World Wide Web entered
popular awareness, though not befo
re traditional science
-
fiction writers such as Arthur C. Clarke and
some social commentators such as James Burke began predicting that such networks would eventually
form.[23]


1.Anonymous. (2009). What is cyberpunk? Cyberpunked: Journal of Science, Techno
logy, & Society.
Retrieved from http://www.cyberpunked.org/cyberpunk/

2. Ketterer, David (1992). Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy. Indiana University Press. p. 141. ISBN
0253331226.

3.The Etymology of "Cyberpunk"

4.Bruce Bethke at The Cyberpunk Projec
t

5. Hassler, Donald M. (2008). New Boundaries in Political Science Fiction. University of South Carolina
Press. pp. 75

76. ISBN 1570037361.

6. McHale, Brian (1991). "POSTcyberMODERNpunkISM." in Larry McCaffery, ed., Storming the Reality
Studio: A Caseboo
k of Cyberpunk and Postmodern Science Fiction. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press,
pp. 308

323

7. a b Graham, Stephen (2004). The Cybercities Reader. Routledge. p. 389. ISBN 0415279569.

8. Gibson, William from Burning Chrome published in 1981

9. Gillis, Stacy (2005). The Matrix Trilogy:Cyberpunk Reloaded. Wallflower Press. p. 75. ISBN
1904764320.

10.a b Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto


Person, Lawrence first published in Nova Express
issue 16, 1998, later posted to Slashdot

11. "The Cy
berpunk Movement


Cyberpunk authors". Hatii.arts.gla.ac.uk.
http://www.hatii.arts.gla.ac.uk/MultimediaStudentProjects/00
-
01/0003637k/project/html/litaut.htm.
Retrieved 2009
-
03
-
20.

12. a b Chaudhuri, Shohini (2005). Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the
Middle East, East Asia and
South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 104. ISBN 074861799X.

13.Hidden Tokyo

14. a b How did Japan become the favored default setting for so many cyberpunk writers?

15. Gibson, William (August 1984). Neuromancer. Ace Books.
p. 69. ISBN 0
-
441
-
56956
-
0.

16. James, Edward; Mendlesohn, Farah (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge
University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0521016576.

17.Campbell, Neil (2000). The Cultures of the New American West. Routledge. p. 159. I
SBN 1579582885.

18.Seed, David (2005). A Companion to Science Fiction. Blackwell Publishing. p. 220. ISBN 1405112182.

19.Seal, Graham (1996). The Outlaw Legend: A Cultural Tradition in Britain, America and Australia.
Cambridge University Press. p. 195. I
SBN 0521557402.

20.Taylor, Todd W. (1998). Literacy Theory in the Age of the Internet. Columbia University Press. p. 34.
ISBN 0231113315.
http://books.google.com/?id=Pt_CAYf8UgAC&pg=PA34&dq=cyberpunk+case+Neuromancer+prototype.

21.FAQ file (from the alt.
cyberpunk Usenet group)

22. Brin, David The Transparent Society, Basic Books, 1998 Book link

23.Clarke, Arthur C. "The Last Question", Science Fiction Quarterly, 1956

Retrieved November 1, 2010 from
ht
tp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberpunk