Technology Supported Writing Interventions

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Technology Supported Writing
Interventions

George R. Peterson
-
Karlan, Ph.D.

Professor of Special Education

Special Education Assistive Technology (SEAT Center)

Illinois State University

The Importance of Writing


Writing well is not just an option for young
people


it is a necessity. Along with reading
comprehension, writing is a predictor of
academic success and a basic requirement for
participation in civic and life and a global
economy…Because the definition of literacy
includes both reading and writing skills, poor
writing proficiency should be recognized as part
of this national literacy crisis.”

(Graham & Perin, 2007)

National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP, 2002), among students


51
-
58% are at a
basic

level of writing


Below the desired
proficient

level


16
-
22% are below the basic level of writing


S
truggling writers

(NAEP, 2002)


L
ow achieving writers

by (Graham and
Perin
,
2007),

Writing Matters



But Achievement Lags

5

Struggling Writers…


Lack a clear understanding of the
purpose


Fail to have a plan for a
composition


Lack strategies or procedures for
generating and organizing ideas


Over rely on narrative or
descriptive text structures


“knowledge telling”

6

Struggling Writers…


Make more mechanical errors, with
spelling errors the most frequent


Make more syntax errors


Show less word & sentence fluency


Correct only mechanical errors, but
do poorly in identifying these errors


Do not have or sustain a plan for
revising


The research
-
based models and methods
for teaching good writing are known


Planning & Organizing


Translating & Transcribing


Editing, Reviewing & Revising


Good writing instruction is not being
used!

The Good News!

And the Bad News!!

1.
Increase time students spend writing, (2)

2.
Improve assessment of writing,

3.
Apply emerging writing technologies

4.
Provide of professional development for
all teachers

Four Challenges to Improved
Writing Instruction

The Role of Technology

Writing has moved from a paper
-
and
-
pen to
a technologically
-
driven activity.
Technologies a are recognized as having
the potential both to support writing and the
teaching of writing and to provide new
venues for writing itself.

(National Commission of Writing, 2003; National
Writing Project, 2006; National Council of Teachers
of English, 2004)

The Role of Technology


Technology Supported Writing


Use of technologies which support all
phases of writing


planning, drafting,
editing & revising


Technology Enabled Writing


Use of technology to obtain information,
share, and collaborate, even remotely


Multimedia Writing


Use of new genres and multimedia forms


Technologies in Education


Information and Communication
Technologies


Digital technology, communication tools and/or
networks used to access, manage, integrate,
evaluate and create information in order to
function in a knowledge society


Technologies in Education


Instructional Technologies


Used to increase student’s performance
through adding skills to the student’s own skill
base


Compensatory Technologies


Provide a means to complete a task such that,
without the technology, a student would not be
able to complete the task
at the expected level
of performance


Increase performance without necessarily
increasing the skill base of the student


Technology to Support Writing


Our purpose


To examine evidence
-
based technologies that have been shown
to support writing


Technologies include both


Information & communication technologies


Compensatory technologies

Prewriting

Planning & Organization

Technology for
Planning &
Organization


Supports the student in


Determining the purpose or goal


Identifying a topic and intended audience


Generating ideas


Organizing ideas


Into text appropriate structures

Evidence supports use of
technology that provides


Reminders of


CONTENT
: What

information or

elements
must be present (e.g., goal, topic, text
elements, ideas, details, etc)


Assistance with


PROCEDURES
: How to

generate, select
and/or organize information or elements

Tool features should include…


Explicit plan components


Content prompts


Procedural prompts


Visual
-
Graphic Mapping

Summary recommendations


Use planning and organization technology as an
adjunct to, or in tandem with, process
-
based
instruction in writing


Match students’ strengths and weaknesses with
tools by their planning and organization features


Use electronic outlining tools and draft templates,
that are genre
-
specific, contain embedded content
prompts and procedure cues.


Directly instruct the student in how to use the tool
and how to apply the tool to their writing tasks.

Text Production

Preparing the Initial “Draft” Composition

The Importance of Writing

Technology for
Text Production

Supports the student in


Legible print production


Transcription speed


Transcription accuracy


Length of the composition


Quality of the composition

Is faster better?


The goal of writing support: Increase the
“productivity” of the writer


Productivity in AT has been defined as

Quantity + Quality

Time

Productivity increases


When in the
same

time or
more

time,


Legibility, spelling accuracy, capitalization,
punctuation increases


The variety of words increases


The number of words or sentences written
increases


The number or quality of ideas, details, text
elements improves

Evidence supports use of
technology that provides


Reduced transcription demand


Assistance with transcription
accuracy


Tool features should include


Keyboard
-
based tools


Desktop or Laptop Computers


Portable keyboarding devices


Word processing software




Tool features should include


Word Prediction


Frequency


Recency


Grammatically
-
based
prediction


Association


Automatic spacing


Automatic capitalization

Summary recommendations

1.
Use word processors to improve transcription accuracy
(legibility) and length, especially with students with high
initial error rates

2.
Provide keyboarding training to produce functional levels
of keyboarding speed and accuracy

3.
Consider the use of word prediction having text
-
to
-
speech
output for those with persistent spelling difficulties.

4.
Provide instruction in the use of word prediction and
expect student success, to improve with continued use.

5.
Expect transcription accuracy and composition length but
not necessarily transcription speed to be better when word
prediction is used

What about speech recognition?


Speech recognition (SR), or voice
recognition, technology involves a speech
-
to
-
text system that


I
nterprets spoken language and directly
produces transcribed text,


Permits the user to edit transcribed text


Control operating system functions


SR systems typically require the user to
initially train the software

What about speech recognition?


SR technology has evolved faster than
applied research on its effectiveness with
struggling writers


The research base is very small with
school
-
aged children so the results are
only
suggestive
, not conclusive

What about speech recognition?

Teaching use of SR


Struggling writers across grade levels can train
the SR systems to an acceptable level of
transcription
accuracy


Standard SR training procedures
will
need to be
modified as will expected training
times


Text
-
to
-
speech output increases training success


Struggling writers across grade levels can attain
competence in use of SR editing and correction
procedures

What about speech recognition?

When struggling writers use SR to transcribe


Transcription accuracy and speed
increases with continued use of SR


Compositional length is longer


Compositional quality is improved


Word fluency


Sentence length




Summary recommendations


Consider the use of speech recognition
with students with the most severe spelling
deficits


Use text
-
to
-
speech output with those
students having persistent reading deficits


Provide sufficient systematic instruction
using strategies adapted to the learner


Expect transcription accuracy to improve
quickly, but not transcription speed

Revising

“Improving the Composition”

Two complementary processes


Editing


Detecting and correcting of errors
in
spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and
grammar


Revising


Improving the organization of ideas, supporting
details, clarity of the composition


Makes the writing more interesting and
understandable to the reader

Technology for
Editing &
Revising

Supports the student in


Detecting & correcting errors


Managing the revision process


Providing prompts about revision goals


Providing procedural supports


Reviewing sentences for meaning


R
eviewing passages and paragraphs


For content elements


For detail, interest, clarity and logic


Making revisions


Evidence supports technology
that provides


Detection and correction of errors of
convention


Spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar


Text
-
to
-
speech text review


Electronic revision guides


With Procedural Prompts

Tool Features should include


For Editing


Word prediction


Capitalization, punctuation supports


Context
-
sensitive grammar supports


Spell check with…


Flexible spelling detection


Homophone detection


Speech Output

Tool features should include


For Revising


Voice output screen review


Revising guides

Summary recommendations


Use spell checkers in conjunction with instruction
in a proofreading strategy.


Teach students to strategically use a spell
checker


Use a spell checker with text
-
to
-
speech output


Select spell checkers that have “flexible spelling”
or phonemic spell check


Summary recommendations


Use a word processor with text
-
to
-
speech output
in conjunction with instruction in revising.


Use electronic revision guides providing
procedural facilitation.


Expect improvements in mechanical accuracy and
composition quality

Final Words…


It has been argued that writing quality is the
overriding outcome of interest (Graham &
Perin
,
2007)


But writing quality may be more appropriately viewed
as the priority
summative outcome


To develop writing quality, struggling writers need to
learn discrete
planning, transcription, editing, and
revising strategies and skills


Teachers will need to monitor progress in
formative
skills


in order to use technology effectively


Amount, speed, accuracy, fluency, complexity, and
organization of writing

Center for Implementing Technology
in Education (CITEd)


Works with state and local education
agencies to develop systems to
integrate instructional technology to
meet the needs of all students


Provides support through innovative
online professional development,
research, technical assistance (TA), and
extensive web
-
based resources, tools



www.cited.org




Distance Technical Assistance at

www.cited.org



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