Mobile and Pervasive Computing

mashpeemoveMobile - Wireless

Nov 24, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

136 views


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications


Short Tutorial and R&D Trends


Objective: Share Experience based on


Industrial involvement and industrial research


university teaching


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Outline


Framework for Discussion


Mobile Applications (M
-
Business, M
-
Business, M
-
Government, M
-
Life, Positional Apps)


Platforms to Support Mobile Applications


Mobile IP


Wireless middleware (WAP, iMode, J2ME, BREW, MMIT)


Wireless Networks


Wireless PANs (Sensor Networks, Bluetooth, UWB)


Wireless LANs (Wi
-
Fi, 802.11a to n)


Wireless Local Loops and Free Space Optics


Cellular networks: from 1 to 5G Networks


Satellite communications and Deep Space Networking


Security, Integration, and Management Issues


University Course Outline



Copyrights: Amjad Umar

The Jargon

M
-
Business, M
-
Government
M
-
Commerce P
-
Commerce V
-
Commerce
M
-
SCMs
M
-
CRMs
SMS MMS M
-
Portal
Symbian
WAP MMIT WML VXML J2ME BREW
Mobile IP MANET OMA ITU ETSI FCC
Zigbee
UWB FSO Bluetooth WLL DECT
HomeRF
Wi
-
Fi
GPRS UMTS 802.11 802.16 802.15 WSN
OFDM FEC TDMA CDMA

State of the art


State of the market


State of the practice


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Framework for Discussion: The Building
Blocks

Mobile Business, Government, and Life
Mobile Computing Applications
Mobile Computing Platforms
(Wireless Middleware, Mobile IP)
Wireless Networks
(Wireless LANs, Cellular Networks,
Satellites, Wireless Local Loops)

Architectures and
Integration

Wireless Security

Management and
Support

Wireless Business,
Regulations, and
Standards
Drivers
Enablers
Research and development

in every building block


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Mobile Computing Applications


Enable the business initiatives by supporting mobility of


Customers


Suppliers and Businesses


Employees


Mobile

computing

applications



Wireless

messaging

(e
.
g
.
,

SMS)


Mobile

ecommerce

(M
-
Commerce)

and

its

variants


Positional

commerce

(p
-
commerce)

.



Voice

commerce

(v
-
commerce)
.



Television

commerce

(T
-
Commerce)


Mobile

ebusiness

applications

(MEBAs),

e
.
g
.
,

M
-
CRM,

M
-
portal,

N
-
SCM


Specialized

applications



Many

areas

of

research




Location

sensitive

apps

(E
911
)


Wireless

sensor

network

apps


Mobile

agent

apps



Two

views
:



Mobile

applications

are

fundamentally

new

applications
.


Mobility

is

another

dimension

of

the

existing

applications


Research

in

every

aspect



Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Supporting M
-
Apps: Mobile Computing
Platforms

Mobile Device
(Cell Phone, PDA, Pocket PC)
Server
(Web Server,
eMail
server,
Mainframe)
Application
Physical Wireless Network
(Antennas, Transceivers, Base Stations,
Cellular Networks, 802.11 LANs,
Satellites)
Middleware
Services
Network
Transport
Services
Local
Platform
Services
Application
Mobile
Computing
Platform
Network
Transport
Services
Local
Platform
Services
Middleware
Services

Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Mobile Computing Platforms


Mobile operating systems

-

Palm OS

-
Windows CE

-

Symbian OS


Mobile database managers


Mobile transaction managers


Utilities for mobile devices


Wireless Middleware (information hiding versus

Information providing)


Wireless Gateways: Collection of Middleware services


Mobile Application Servers



Research and development in every aspect


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Web


WAP

Gateway

Web

Server



Servelet



Content

(XML/HTML)

eCommerce

Module

HTML/XML

WML

VoiceXML

Gateway

VoiceXML

Many players


-

WAP

-
iMode

-
J2ME

-

BREW

-
MMIT

Industry activity

-

Open Mobility Alliance


Copyrights: Amjad Umar


Mobile IP


The Roaming in Wireless Internet World

IP

Network



ISP Servers


NSP POP

Home Network

for A


NSP POP

Foreign

Network

for A

Mobile Node A

Foreign

Agent

Home

Agent

1

2

3

4

5

Research issues:



Can Mobile IP replace roaming



Security issues


Performance issues




Flash OFDM

Uses Mobile IP

For cellular networks


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

WIRELESS NETWORKS

Different type of wireless networks support mobile computing
applications and platforms


Wireless Personal Area Networks (Bluetooth, Sensors, UWB, Zigbees)


Wireless LANs (802.11 family)


Fixed Wireless Local loops


Cellular networks


1G to 5G


Satellite systems


Many Research Issues: short list


Lower level issues (e.g., signaling, error correction, smart antennas)


Mobile Adhoc Networks


Voice over 802.11


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Networks
Satellite
Systems
Cellular
Networks
Wireless LANs
Example1:
GSM, 9.6 Kbps,
wide coverage
Example2:
3G, 2 Mbps,
wide coverage
Example1:
802.11b
11 Mbps,
100 Meters
Other
examples:
802.11g,
HiperLAN2
Wireless
WANs
Personal
Area
Networks
Business
LANs
Example1:
Bluetooth
1 Mbps,
10 Meters
Other examples:
wireless sensor
networks, UWB
Example1:
Motorola
Iridium
up to 64 Mbps
globally
Example 2:
Deep space
communication
Wireless
Local Loops
(Fixed Wireless)
Wireless
MANs
Example1:
LMDS
37 Mbps,
2
-
4 Km
Example2:
FSO
1.25
Gbps
1
-
2 KM
Paging
Networks
Example1:
FLEX,
1.2 Kbps
Example2:
ReFLEX
,
6.4Kbps

Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Research and Development issues unique to wireless


Frequency allocation (efficient frequency utilization)


Multiple Access (CDMA vs TDMA)


Location services (Data rate versus speed of mobile devices)


Error correction (e.g., Turbo codes)


Signalling and encoding (PCM versus Delta code modulation)


Antenna design (smart antennas)

Local Area Networks (LANs)
Metropolitan Area Networks
(MANs)
Wide Area Networks (WANs)
Wired
Wired LANs
Ethernet (10-100 Mbps, 150 to
500 meters)
Token Ring (4 -16 Mbps, 200 to
500 meters)
Wired MANs
FDDI (100 Mbps, 50 Kilometers)
Wired WANs
ATM (44 Mbps to 140 Mbps)
Frame Relay (44 Mbps)
Wireless
Wireless LANs
Bluetooth (1 Mbps, 10 meters)
IEEE 802.11 LANs (2-11 Mbps,
100 meters)
Wireless MANs
wireless local loops (10 Mbps,
100 Kilometers)
Wireless WANs
Current GSM systems at
9.6Kbps, future 3G systems at 2
Mbps

Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless PANs: Home Networking

Wireless LAN2
(Master/slave)
First Floor
=
Wireless Adapter
Wireless connection
Wireless connection
Second Floor
Printer
Baby
Monitor
TV
Phone
Laptop
Laptop
xDSL
, cable,
ISDN, or other
Main PC
Internet
Gateway
Players:


Bluetooth


Sensor networks


UWB


802.11


Zigbees


HomeR/F (dead)


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Bluetooth

Cellular

Network

PSTN

Access

Point

Wired

LAN

Bluetooth Piconet

(1 Mbps, 10 meters, mobile adhoc network)


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Sensor Networks

Many R&D

efforts

Sensor = mote


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

802.11 Family LANs



Wireless LAN
Cell


Wireless LAN
Cell


Wireless LAN
Cell


Centrex

Router

Link to

Public Ethernet


T1

or

DSL

X

Y

Z

LAN Server

Wired Ethernet LAN


X, Y, Z are

access points


for the wireless


Ethernet LANs

A

B

C

D


A, B, C, D are

student laptops

11a, 11b, 11g

11n

11i


security

11e


QoS



Copyrights: Amjad Umar


Inter
-

Exchange

Switch


Telephone

LAN

PBX, TV

Wireless

Local Loop

Offerings

(MMDS, LMDS)

Toll

Connecting

Trunks


Inter
-

Exchange

Switch


Local

Control

Office

Telephone

Wired

Local

Loop

Toll

Connecting

Trunks

Intertoll

Trunks

Wireless Local Loops

Narrowband

telephony services

Broadband

high
-
speed data service

Interesting

applications


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Cellular Networks

Public

Switched

Telephone

Network

(PSTN)

Mobile

Telephone

Switching

Center

(MTSC)

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Mobile User

Cell 1

Cell 2

Cordless connection

Wired connection

HLR

VLR

HLR = Home Location Register


VLR = Visitor Location Register


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Evolution: 1G to 5G

1G

(<1Kbps)

1 Kbps

10 Kbps

100 Kbps

2 Mbps

1 Mbps

Data Rates

1980

1990

2000

2010

2G

(9.6Kbps)


2.5G

(10
-
150Kbps)


3G

(144Kbps to 2Mbps)

Years


4
-
5G

(10 Mbps+)

Research Issues



Mobility vs data rate



error correction



Intelligent Antennas



Intelligent radio


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Satellite Communications

GEO= 35,000 km, 250 ms delay

LEO = 4,000 km, 20 ms delay

MEO = 10,000 km, 50 ms delay


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Research Issue:Deep Space Networking


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Other issues


Integration



Security



Management and support



Regulations and standards



Wireless Business and
Industry


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Integration


Vision

Content

Provider

Web

Content

Enterpris
e

Databases

Office

LAN

(802.11)

Home

LAN

(802.11)

Home

LAN

(Bluetooth)

Cellular

Cell

(GSM, GPRS)

Hotspot

LAN

(802.11)

Content

Provider

Web

Content

Enterpris
e

Databases

Content

Provider

Cellular

Cell

(3G)

Wireless

and Wired

WAN


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Integration Framework

M
-
Business and
Mobile Applications (SMS, MMS,
Voice, M
-
commerce)
M
-
Business and
Mobile Applications (SMS, MMS,
Voice, M
-
commerce)
Wireless Communication Networks
(
WLANs
, Cellular,
WLLs
, Satellites)
Wireless Communication Networks
(
WLANs
, Cellular,
WLLs
, Satellites)
Mobile Computing Platforms
-
Wireless Middleware (WAP, I
-
Mode, J2ME)
-
Mobile Platform Services (Mobile OS, Utilities)
Wireless Internet
and Mobile IP

Network
interfaces

Handoffs

Multirate
cards

Roaming
Support through
Mobile IP

Shield the app.
developers from
the network
heterogeneities

Provide consistent
user interfaces for
seamless operations.

Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Vertical Versus Horizontal Integrations

App1


Platform1


Network1

Integrated Physical Network

App1


Platform1


a). Total Vertical Integration

b). Horizontal Integration

at Network Level

App 2


Platform2


Network2

App2


Platform2


App1





Network1

c). Horizontal Integration

at Platform Level

App 2





Network2

Integrated Platform + IP




Platform1


Network1




Platform2


Network2

Integrated Applications

d). Horizontal Integration

at Application Level


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Security


The Big Picture


Security

Solutions




External Factors



Intruder/attacker/assault Threats


Privacy and confidentialty laws


Consumer/customer attitudes

Organizational Requirements


Survivability and Tolerance


Requirements


QoS Requiremensts


Budgettary and policy restrictions


IT Assets


Applications and automated services


Databases, files


Computing platforms


Middleware (e.g., web servers)


Networks (hardware, routing software)

Latest Security Technologies


Cryptographic techniques


Managing digital certificates and PKI


Secure payment systems


Significant research developments

Physical Assets


Humans


Buildings


Other corporate assets

(e.g., planes, trains, and

automobiles)

Unique issues:


-

medium


-

mobility


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

User View

(PIA4)

Privacy



assure

privacy

of

information

(i
.
e
.
,

no

one

other

than

the

authorized

people

can

see

the

information)

in

storage

or

transmission


Integrity



the

integrity

of

information

(i
.
e
.
,

no

unauthorized

modification)


Authentication
:



identify

for

certain

who

is

communicating

with

you


Authorization

(Access

control)
:



determine

what

access

rights

that

person

has)
.


Accountability

(Auditing)
:

.



assure

that

you

can

tell

who

did

what

when

and

convince

yourself

that

the

system

keeps

its

security

promises
.



Includes

non
-
repudiation

(NR)

--

the

ability

to

provide

proof

of

the

origin

or

delivery

of

data
.



NR

protects

the

sender

against

a

false

denial

by

the

recipient

that

the

data

has

been

received
.

Also

protects

the

recipient

against

false

denial

by

the

sender

that

the

data

has

been

sent
..



a

receiver

cannot

say

that

he/she

never

received

the

data

or

the

sender

cannot

say

that

he/she

never

sent

any

data


Availability
:

access

to

system

when

a

user

needs

it




Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Sample Wireless Security Technologies





Applications

Middleware

Wireless

Link


802.11 security (WEP)


Cellular network security


Satellite link security


WLL and cordless link security


SSL and TLS


WAP security (WTLS)


Web security (HTTPS, PICS, HTTP Headers)


Proxy server security


SET for transaction security


S/MIME and PGP for secure email


Java security (sandboxes)


Database security

TCP/IP


IPSEC and wirless VPN


Mobile IP


Can use

higher level

services to

compensate

for lower layers


Tradeoffs in

performance
and security



Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Security Example


Wireless LAN
Cell


Wireless LAN
Cell


Wireless LAN
Cell


Centrex

Router


and

Firewall

Link to

Public Internet


T1

or

DSL

X

Y

Z

LAN Server

Fast Ethernet

LAN(Backbone)

1. No physical net security

(server ID/PW)

2. No physical net security

(server ID/PW + encryption)

3. Physical net security at APs

(optional

server ID/PW + encryption)


A

B

C

D

Wired Ethernet
LAN


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Management and Business

STRATEGIC PLANNING

Business Strategy Analysis

Analyzing Business Processes and Business Workflows

Mobile Application Identification and Selection
.
CAPABILITY EVALUATION

Wireless Infrastructure Planning

Capacity Planning & Traffic Engineering

Resource and Cost Estimation
DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT

Mobile application development

Wireless infrastructure development

Outsourcing the Wireless Infrastructure
MONITORING AND CONTROL

Wireless fault and
performance management

Wireless Security and
configuration management
ORGANIZING/STAFFING
. Mobile Virtual Teams
. Mobile Real
-
time Enterprises

Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Wireless Value Chain

Wireless

Network

Operators

Wireless

Network

Element

Providers

Middleware/

Gateway

Providers

Content

Providers/

Aggregators

Mobile

Application

Providers

Mobile

Device

Builders

Enterprise

Wireless

Users


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Reference


Model



1. Physical

2. Data Layer

3. Network

4. Transport

5. Session

6. Presentation

7. Application

Call

Switching

(Cellular networks,

Wireless LANs,
Satellites,

Wireless Local Loops)


PSTN

Routing

Wireless

Telephone

Business

IP Data

Network

Routing



Wireless

Management
Business

Wireless

Consulting

Business

Wireless

Telephony

Applications

and

Services

Physical Network Elements


Wireless

Network

Management

Wireless

Application

and

Platform

Management

Wireless

Network

Consulting

and

Engineering

Services

Systems

Consulting

Applications

(e.g., SMS,
email,

Wireless Web,

Mobile EC/EB)



Wireless Data

Network

Business


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Course Outline: Mobile Computing and Wireless
Communications

Legend:

U: Umar, A., "Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications”



Sessions

Session 1: Introduction and Mobile Applications U
-
Ch.1
-
Ch.2

Session 2: Wireless Web and Wireless Platforms
-

(U
-
Ch.3)

Session 3: WAP, VoiceXML
-

(U
-
Ch.4)

Session 4: Wireless Communication Principles (Antennas, Signals)
-

(U
-
Ch.5), (S


Ch. 5
-
6)

Session 5: Wireless Communication Technology (spread spectrum, coding and error control )
-

(U
-
Appendix B)

Session 6: Wireless LANs and IEEE 802.11 (U
-
Ch. 6)

Session 7: Mobile Adhoc Networks and WPANs (U
-
Ch. 6, Ch. 7)

Session 8:, Bluetooth, UWB, Wireless Sensor Networks (U
-
Ch. 7
-
Ch. 10)

Session 9: Cellular Networks
-

2G, 2.5G, 3G (U
-
Ch. 8)

Session 10: Fixed wireless networks and wireless local loops (U
-
Ch. 9)

Session 11: Satellite Communications, FSO, Flash OFDM
-

(U
-
Ch. 9, Ch. 10)

Session 12: Wireless Architectures and Traffic Engineering (U
-
Ch. 11)

Session 13: Special topics
-

wireless security, wireless network management (U
-
Ch. 12, 13)

Session 14
-
15: Student led discussion on various research and development topics (Project 3)


Note
: For variants of this course and additional details/instructional materials, contact me.


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Textbook:



Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications”,

A. Umar, NGE Solutions, 2004.

Available through Amazon.com


Part I: Mobile Computing Applications and Platforms

Chapter 1: Overview and the Big Picture

Chapter 2: Mobile Computing Applications: Supporting M
-
Business and M
-
Government

Chapter 3: Wireless Internet, Mobile IP, and Wireless Web

Chapter 4: Mobile Computing Platforms, Middleware, and Servers


Part II: Wireless Networks

Chapter 5: Wireless Network Principles

Chapter 6: Wireless LANs
--

802.11 and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Chapter 7: Wireless Personal Area Networks: Bluetooth, UWB, and Sensor Networks

Chapter 8: Cellular Networks
--

From 1G to 5G

Chapter 9: Wireless Local Loops and Satellite Communications

Chapter 10: Emerging Wireless Networks: UWB, FSO, MANET, and Flash OFDM


Part III: Architectures, Security and Management

Chapter 11: Integrated Architectures for Wireless

Chapter 12: Wireless Security

Chapter 13: Management and Support Issues



Part IV: Appendices

Appendix A: Tutorial on Network Basics

Appendix B: Closer Look at Physical Wireless Communications


Ebook version for instructor evaluation and instructor materials are available (contact me)


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Concluding Comments


The following framework (see figure on next
page) provides a good framework for R&D trends
in mobile computing and wireless
communications


Additional details


Email: umar@amjadumar.com


Website: www.amjadumar.com


Copyrights: Amjad Umar

Framework for Discussion: The Building Blocks of

Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications

Mobile Business, Government, and Life
Mobile Computing Applications
Mobile Computing Platforms
(Wireless Middleware, Mobile IP)
Wireless Networks
(Wireless LANs, Cellular Networks,
Satellites, Wireless Local Loops)

Architectures and
Integration

Wireless Security

Management and
Support

Wireless Business,
Regulations, and
Standards
Drivers
Enablers
Research and development

in every building block