Prototyping - Class of 1

marlinlineInternet and Web Development

Oct 31, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)




Describe in detail Prototyping why is an iterative process?


What is an application server, explain in detail purpose how it fits in a distributed


Describe in detail middleware and its role in Enterprise Application Integration, als
provide an example.


How has Java contributed to the development of Internet
based systems, provide


Identify in detail the tasks that the IT and business project managers are responsible
for. Provide examples.



Prototyping involves the c
reation of a model based structure which is a replica of the
actual implementation of the product design .Generally Prototyping is used in Projects which
involves complex design structures .For e.g if we consider the model view of a bridge ,a

prototype or a replica for it needs to be brought up in order to get a broader
view of the design implementation .With the prototype in place ,we need to have similar
measures or metrics of design for all the various structural attributes of the bridge,b
e it the
tension on the trusses or the load at either ends of the beam.All these parametric calculations
and design implementations are done on a prototype first and then with the approval of the
various stakeholders in the project,the design gets approved
. Generally, a series of iterative
prototypes need to be designed, build and tested as the final design is brought up and is
prepared for production phase. With certain exceptions to the rule,multiple iterations of
prototypes are used to get a refined desi
gn implementation. Often the first iteration ,also
called “Alpha” do not perform as anticipated and there is a possibility of failure or issues.
Subsequent prototyping iterations namely,Beta, Gamma, need to be done to resolve issues
and bring the perfor
mance close to the final production design.


An application server is a server program in a system in an n
tier network

provides the business logic for an application program. The application server can be viewed
as a part of a

tier application frame
work, mainly consisting of a graphical user interface
server (at the end user side), an application (business logic) server, and a back

and transaction

server. In a distributed system architecture ,the application server
involves in taking req
uest from a user as tokens during user authentication and security,
processing and rendering of HTML files and processing and compilation of JSP files with the
help of servlet/JSP engine, serving the entire response generated back to the browser.


A middlew
are is an application that forms an interface between an application and
system software. Enterprise Application Integration is a framework that provides an
integration of a collection of technologies and services, which are part of the middleware

to enable integration of systems and applications across the whole enterprise
framework. For example for a big concern like say IBM, the various EAI applications could be
Human resource Management

applications(for managing the various records of employe
es in
an organization and HR policies), Supply Chain Management (for managing the inventory and
transportation of goods),

Customer relationship management

applications (for managing the
current and potential customers from a business perspective),

applications (for finding similar patterns from existing records of data from
operations), and various other applications whi
ch cannot communicate with each another in
order to share business data or rules. The lack of communication between these vital
applications leads to inefficiencies ,thereby resulting in identical data being stored at more
than one location, or straightfo
rward processes could not be automated. Enterprise
application integration (EAI) is the process involves the linking such applications within a
single Umbrella activity in order to simplify and automate business processes to the
maximum possible extent, wh
ile at the same time avoiding having to make vast changes to
the existing applications or structural data.


Java has contributed immensely in the development of internet based systems. Most
rich Internet applications are built on Java methodologies like Jav
aFx and GWT. These

applications are web based applications which provide a framework similar to a desktop
applications using various standard web browser based plug
in or virtual machines. Together
with powerful and effective scripting languages like JavaS
cript and Ajax, web applications can
be enhanced to a great extent both in terms of efficiency and outlook. The JavaScript
compilers along with the various desktop
like widgets tools provides a pseudo application
framework for web based applications, there
by decreasing the dependency on web browser
based plug


Following are the responsibilities of IT Project Managers

Develop & monitor project plan

Ensure that appropriate quality work is being carried out

Make plans for corrective actions

Coordinate act
ivities of integrated planning

Participate in requirements analysis and design of the project

Identify project scope, objectives and constraints, and to obtain sign

Inform and advise the Sponsor, Steering Committee, Business Process owners,
Business Key users , Functional team, Technical team Partner leader and Partner
team about the progress and potential problems

Ensure that the commitments as defined in the contract are met

Ensure that the project follows the ITPM methodology

Conduct the
regular project management meetings

Ensure the overall communications plan for the project is in place and followed

Following are the responsibilities of the Business Project Managers

Periodically review project progress

Make business part time resources

available as per project requirement

Support zero customization initiative

Participate in process re engineering activity

Work to mitigate identified risks with cycle leader

Support project activities and guide the cycle team

Take lead to resolve busines
s issues across functional areas

Verify new processes and provide sign off

Explain new processes to Steering committee and highlight critical changes and
change management plans

Participate, review, and approval of change requests that impact functional

Participate in developing transition plan

It Project Manager are responsible for the technical architecture of the Application inclusion
Database, servers, network requirements while the business project Manager are responsible
for ensuring the funct
ional design feasibility and implementation of the project.