WIRELESS WORKING GROUP: USE CASE COMPENDIUM

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Draft
Report

on Interoperable

Wireless Networking Communications

WIRELESS WORKING
GROUP: USE CASE
COMPENDIUM


DRAFT
INFORMATIONAL REPORT

CCSDS 880.0
-
M
-
0.0
00


D
RAFT GREEN BOOK

January 2009

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

AUTHORITY








Issue:

Green Book, Issue 1




Date:

January 2009



Locatio
n:

Not Applicable






(WHEN THIS RECOMMENDED PRACTICE IS FINALIZED, IT WILL CONTAIN THE

F
OLLOWING STATEMENT OF AUTHORITY
)

This document has been approved for publication by the Management Council of the
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCS
DS) and represents the consensus
technical agreement of the participating CCSDS Member Agencies. The procedure for review
and authorization of CCSDS documents is detailed in the
Procedures Manual for the
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
.



Th
is document is published and maintained by:


CCSDS Secretariat

Space Communications and Navigation Office, 7L70

Space Operations Mission Directorate

Washington, DC 20546, USA


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

FOREWORD


This document is a CCSDS Informational Report, which contains
agency
Use Case material

to
support the CCSDS wireless network communications Best Practices for intra
-
spacecraft and
proximity networks.


Through the process of normal evolution, it is expected that expansion, deletion, or modification
to this Report may occur.
This Report is therefore subject to CCSDS document management and
change control procedures, which are defined in reference [
17
]. Current versions of CCSDS
documents are maintained at the CCSDS Web site:


http://www.cc
sds.org/


Questions relating to the contents or status of this report should be addressed to the CCSDS
Secretariat at the address on page i.

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

At time of publication, the active Member and Observer Agencies of the CCSDS were:


Member Agencies




Agenzia Spazi
ale Italiana (ASI)/Italy.



British National Space Centre (BNSC)/United Kingdom.



Canadian Space Agency (CSA)/Canada.



Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES)/France.



Deutsches Zentrum für Luft
-

und Raumfahrt e.V.
(DLR)/Germany.



European Space Agency (ESA)/
Europe.



Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos)/Russian Federation.



Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)/Brazil.



Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)/Japan.



National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/USA.


Observer Agencies




Austrian Sp
ace Agency (ASA)/Austria.



Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BFSPO)/Belgium.



Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash)/Russian Federation.



Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA)/Brazil.



Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST)/China.



Comm
onwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)/Australia.



Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI)/Denmark.



European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
(EUMETSAT)/Europe.



European Telecommunications Satellite Org
anization (EUTELSAT)/Europe.



Hellenic National Space Committee (HNSC)/Greece.



Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)/India.



Institute of Space Research (IKI)/Russian Federation.



KFKI Research Institute for Particle & Nuclear Physics (KFKI)/Hungary.



Kore
a Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)/Korea.



MIKOMTEK: CSIR (CSIR)/Republic of South Africa.



Ministry of Communications (MOC)/Israel.



National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT)/Japan.



National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administrati
on (NOAA)/USA.



National Space Organization (NSPO)/Taipei.



Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)/Pakistan.



Swedish Space Corporation (SSC)/Sweden.



United States Geological Survey (USGS)/USA.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

PREFACE

This document is a draft CCSDS
technic
al information reference pertaining to wireless networking
technologies
. Its draft status indicates that the CCSDS believes the document to be technically
mature and has released it for formal review by appropriate technical organizations. As such, its
t
echnical contents are not stable, and several iterations of it may occur in response to comments
received during the review process.

Implementers are cautioned
not

to fabricate any final equipment in accordance with this
document’s technical content.


NOTE
:

Inclusion of any specific wireless technology does not constitute any endorsement,
expressed or implied, by the authors of this Green Book or the agencies that supported the
composition of this Green Book.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

DOCUMENT CONTROL


Document

Title

Date

Status/R
emarks

CCSDS 880.0
-
M
-
0.000

Spacecraft and Surface
Wireless
Reference

Scenarios

Jan
-
200
9

Pre
-
approval draft


















DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

CONTENTS

Section

Page

1

WIRELESS NETWORK COM
MUNICATIONS: USE CAS
ES

..............................

1
-
9


1.1

ASSET MANAGEMENT

................................
................................
......................

1
-
9

1.1.1

GROUND
-
TO
-
LRU

................................
................................
....................

1
-
9

1.1.2

VEHICAL SUPPLY TRANS
FERS

................................
..........................

1
-
10

1.1.3

INTRA
-
HABITAT EQUIPMENT/LR
U

................................
...................

1
-
11

1.1.4

INTRA
-
HAB
ITAT EQUIPMENT/INVEN
TORY AUDITS

....................

1
-
11

1.1.5

INTRA
-
HABITAT CONSUMABLES

................................
.....................

1
-
12

1.1.6

INTRA
-
HABITAT MEDICAL SUPP
LIES

................................
..............

1
-
12

1.1.7

HABITAT PROXIMITY AS
SET LOCALIZATION

...............................

1
-
12

1.1.8

PART IDENTIFICATION

................................
................................
........

1
-
13

1.
1.9

SCIENCE SAMPLE INVEN
TORY MANAGEMENT

...........................

1
-
14

1.1.10

SCIENCE SAMPLE POSIT
ION DETERMINATION

............................

1
-
15

1.1.11

SCIENCE SAMPLE TRACK
ING VIA
UWB RFID

...............................

1
-
16

1.1.12

LUNAR ROAD SIGN

................................
................................
..............

1
-
17

1.1.13

LANDING AID

................................
................................
.........................

1
-
18

1.1.14

SMART CONTAINERS

................................
................................
...........

1
-
18

1.1.15

RFID ENHANCED TORQUE

SPANNER

................................
..............

1
-
18

1.1.16

RFID ENHANCED BOLT I
DENTIFICATION

................................
.......

1
-
19

1.1.17

TECHNICAL CHECKS

................................
................................
...........

1
-
20

1.1.18

RFID ENHANCED CONNEC
TORS

................................
.......................

1
-
20

1.1.19

BAT
TERY MANAGEMENT

................................
................................
..

1
-
20

1.1.20

DEEP FREEZER SAMPLES

................................
................................
...

1
-
21

1.1.21

RFID ENHANCED PIPEFI
TTING

................................
..........................

1
-
21

1.1.22

SENSOR TAGS ASSISTED

TESTING

................................
...................

1
-
21


1.2

INTRA
-
VEHICLE WIRELESS APP
LICATIONS

................................
..............

1
-
22


1.2.1

CONTRO
L OF ROBOTIC AGENTS
AROUND THE ISS

.....................

1
-
22

1.2.2

SPACECRAFT HEALTH SE
NSORS

................................
......................

1
-
23

1.2.3

WIRELESS SUN SENSORS

................................
................................
....

1
-
24

1.2.4

ROTARY MECHANISMS AN
D FOLDABLE STRUCTURE
S

.............

1
-
25

1.2.5

SEPARATION OF MODULE
S

................................
................................

1
-
26

1.2.6

ACCESS POINT ON LAUN
CHERS

................................
.......................

1
-
27

1.2.7

NETWORK OF SENSORS O
N LAUNCHER

................................
.........

1
-
28

1.2.8

SPACECRAFT BUS

................................
................................
.................

1
-
29

1.2.9

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMEN
TATION WITHIN HEAT S
HIELDS

..........

1
-
30

1.2.10

PLANETARY SURFACE EX
PLORATION

................................
...........

1
-
31

1.2.10.1

M
ETEOROLOGICAL AND GE
OLOGICAL PACKAGES

........................

1
-
32

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.10.2

S
EISMOLOGY PACKAGE

................................
...............................

1
-
33

1.2.11

ELECTRICAL GROUND S
UPPORT EQUIPMENT (EG
SE)
SIMPLIFICATION

................................
................................
.........................

1
-
34

1.2.12

CONTAMINATION
-
FREE MISSIONS AIT PR
OCEDURES

................

1
-
35

1.2.13

CREW DOSIMETRY AND B
IO
LOGICAL MONITORING

..................

1
-
36

1.2.14

GENERAL INTRA
-
HABITAT COMMUNICATIO
NS

..........................

1
-
36

1.2.15

INTRA
-
SPACECRAFT WIRELESS
SENSOR NETWORKS

................

1
-
37

1.2.15.1

P
OTENTIAL BENEFIT FRO
M LOW POWER
WSN

.............................

1
-
38

1.2.15.2

D
ESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

FOR A LOW
-
POWER
WSN

...................

1
-
38

CREWED SPACECRAFT AN
D HABITATS

................................
.....................

1
-
41

1.2.15.3

L
UNAR
H
ABITAT AND
O
UTPOST

................................
..................

1
-
41


1.3

PLANE
TARY SURFACE COMMUNI
CATIONS

................................
..............

1
-
42

1.3.1

SURFACE VOICE COMMUN
ICATIONS

................................
..............

1
-
45


1.4

IEEE STANDARDS IN SU
PPORT OF LUNAR EXPLO
RATION ACT
IVITIES
1
-
47


1.5

ASSEMBLY, INTEGRATIO
N AND TEST (AIT) ACT
IVITIES

.......................

1
-
48



DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

Figure

Figure 1
-
1:

RFID Ground
-
to
-
LRU concept.

................................
................................
............

1
-
9

Figure 1
-
2: RFID vehicle supply transfers concept.

................................
.............................

1
-
10

Figure 1
-
3: Cargo Transfers Bags (CTBs)
onboard the ISS.

................................
...............

1
-
11

Figure 1
-
4: Habitat proximity asset localization concept.

................................
....................

1
-
12

Figure 1
-
5: Cable runs interior to the Shuttl
e.

................................
................................
......

1
-
13

Figure 1
-
6: Science sample inventory management concept.

................................
...............

1
-
14

Figure 1
-
7: Science sample position determination concept.

................................
...............

1
-
15

Figure 1
-
8: Science sample tracking via UWB concept.

................................
.......................

1
-
16

Figure 1
-
9: RFID lunar road sign concept.
................................
................................
............

1
-
17

Figure 1
-
10: RFID landing aid concept.

................................
................................
................

1
-
18

Figure 1
-
11: RFID torque spanner.

................................
................................
........................

1
-
19

Fig
ure 1
-
12: RFID bolt identification.

................................
................................
...................

1
-
19

Figure 1
-
13: RFID enhanced connectors.

................................
................................
..............

1
-
20

Figure 1
-
14: MELFI cooling system onboard t
he ISS.

................................
.........................

1
-
21

Figure 1
-
15: Control of robotic agents.

................................
................................
..................

1
-
22

Figure 1
-
16: Spacecraft health assessment.

................................
................................
...........

1
-
23

Figure 1
-
17: Wireless sun sensors.

................................
................................
.........................

1
-
24

Figure 1
-
18: Wireless mechanical components.

................................
................................
....

1
-
25

Figure 1
-
19: Inter
-
vehicle wireless communications.

................................
...........................

1
-
26

Figure 1
-
20: Wireless access for launcher payloads.

................................
............................

1
-
27

Figure 1
-
2
1: Launcher and harness mass reduction.

................................
...........................

1
-
28

Figure 1
-
22: Harness complexity, volume and mass reduction.

................................
..........

1
-
29

Figure 1
-
23: Scien
ce instrumentation mass reduction.

................................
.........................

1
-
30

Figure 1
-
24: Planetary surface exploration.

................................
................................
..........

1
-
31

Figure 1
-
25: Planetary surface meteorol
ogical data.

................................
............................

1
-
32

Figure 1
-
26: Planetary surface seismology data.

................................
................................
...

1
-
33

Figure 1
-
27: Planetary surface seismology data.

................................
................................
...

1
-
34

Figure 1
-
28: Contamination free AIT procedures.

................................
...............................

1
-
35

Figure 1
-
29: Crewmember physiological monitoring.

................................
..........................

1
-
36

Figure 1
-
30: Different sensor and actuator types in a spacecraft
................................
........

1
-
37

Figure 1
-
31: Spacecraft model showing different activities

................................
.................

1
-
38

Figure 1
-
32: Low power sensor network topologies

................................
.............................

1
-
39

Figure 1
-
33: Shackleton Crater Rim Outpost

................................
................................
.......

1
-
41

Figure 1
-
34: A Lunar Communications Tower, LCT, functioning as a WMAN

...............

1
-
43

Figure 1
-
35: Surface voice communications and data flows.

................................
...............

1
-
45


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1

W
IRELESS NETWORK COMM
UNICATIONS:

USE CASES

Identified wireless communications use cases for CCSDS agency members are summarized,
typically one per page, in the following sections.

1.1

ASSET MANAGEMENT

1.1.1

GROUND
-
TO
-
LRU


Figure
1
-
1
:
RFID Ground
-
to
-
LRU concept
.

Obje
ctive
: Accurate and automated tracking of parts and LRUs (Logical Replacement Units).


Description
: RFID technology facilitates part tracking and inventory management. Use of RFID
in commercial and DoD sectors continues to increase for supply logistics. NA
SA bond rooms
could replace existing paper tags with RFID tags. Tags are typically verified during or after tag
attachment. Standards
-
based interrogators and tags permits read of vendor tag information so that
part heritage is not lost. Advanced concepts,
such as part environmental exposure history (e.g.,
shock or thermal extremes) are also possible.


Special considerations
: Should be coordinated with Logistics and Maintenance and
Interoperability SIGs. Reference proposed amendment {(Jimmy Miller, MSFC) to
Constellation
Operations Concept (CxP70007)} : “All flight hardware (at the LRU level) employs a common
scheme of identification marking (such as RFID) to assure accuracy and standardization of
identifying as built and as flown configuration.”


Items tagge
d

Material

Components


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DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.2

VEHICAL SUPPLY TRANS
FERS



Figure
1
-
2
:
RFID vehicle supply transfers concept
.


Objective
: Accurate verification of

supply transfers from any supply element to any vehicle.


Description
: Ingress and egress of supplies are tracked into and out of any vehicle. RFID
Interrogation is portal
-
based, and auxiliary portal sensors determine direction of tag. Items are
transferr
ed in various forms {e.g., equipment, spares, LRUs, Cargo or Crew Transfer Bags
(CTB), etc.} Early application opportunity exists for supply of the CEV Orion (see CEV stowage
concept in Appendix D


NASA only). ROI for RFID
-
based inventory management on CE
V is
questionable since the vehicle will not be re
-
supplied. However, RFID application in tracking
supplies to and from the vehicle is considered of significant benefit. Interrogated items will
present a variety of material parameters to the interrogator.
Cost for high performance tag
antennas, to assure near 100% read rates, if required, is likely to be offset by labor savings from
reduced ground support and crew time.


Vehicle transfers include
: Ground
-
CEV; CEV
-
ISS; CEV
-
Lander; Lander
-
LSAM; Lander
-
Habitat
; Lander
-
Rover.



Items tagged

Material

Crew Transfer Bag, CTB

Non
-
conductive

Equipment

Conductive

Clothing

Conductive

Food

Conductive, non
-
conductive, liquid

Range:

15 ft

Reader type:

Portal

RFID Technologies:

Class 1 UHF or SAW
-
based UHF or 2.4 GH
z

Readability:

~ 100%


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.3

INTRA
-
HABITAT EQUIPMENT/LR
U


Objective
: Localize equipment and LRUs


Portals or zone interrogators track equipment ingress/egress from habitat sections and rooms.


Scanned zone interrogator can provide real time tracking within co
verage area.


1.1.4

INTRA
-
HABITAT EQUIPMENT/
INVENTORY AUDITS



Figure
1
-
3
:
Cargo Transfers Bags (CTBs) onboard the ISS
.



Objective
: Inventory management and localization


Description
: Provide audit capability of supplies, consumables, and equipment. Presents a
n
opportunity for significant decrease in crew labor. This capability needs to be in place at the
outset.


RFID technology can currently facilitate manual audits with portable reader (e.g., PDA
-
based).

Initial ground
-
based assessment of crew
-
assisted, SAW
-
based RFID for item
-
level interrogation
indicated 30
-
40 seconds per CTB, compared to over 10 minutes per CTB using an optical
barcode scanner when reading all items in the bag.


Technology issues exist for full automation. Reliable item
-
level interrogation

is industry
-
wide
issue. Tag antennas can be obscured by other tag antennas, conductive or lossy items, and
conductive storage containers. Combinations of existing technology, including “smart
containers”
which
can be employed to enable fully automated inv
entory audits.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.5

INTRA
-
HABITAT
CONSUMABLES


Objective
: Augmentation for inventory management and situational awareness.



Packaging on consumables contains RFID tag



Refuse container interrogators read package tag and update item inventory and kills tag



RFID database application provides warning if product expires before item appears in trash



Range < 1 ft.



1.1.6

INTRA
-
HABITAT
MEDICAL SUPPLIES


Objective
: Inventory management, localization, and situational awareness



Inventory management for medical instru
ments, supplies, and pharmaceuticals.



Provide expiration warnings, particularly for pharmaceuticals.



Provide verification or warning relating to missed administration, or dosage, of medications.



Range < 1 ft.


1.1.7

HABITAT PROXIMITY AS
SET LOCALIZATION


F
igure
1
-
4
:
Habitat proximity asset localization concept
.


Objective
: Inventory management, localization, and situational awareness



Provides rapid localization of external assets, equipment, and tools between habitats, tool crib,


SMUs, rovers,
bone y
ard
, etc.



Larger ranges, up to and possibly exceeding 200 ft.



Reader type: portal, vehicle mounted, scanned, and/or fixed beam



Gatekeeper: zone or portal interrogator monitors
bone yard

• Spent elements serve as repository for parts

• Gatekeeper is p
owered by, and possibly located on or near, spent lander


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.8

PART IDENTIFICATION


Figure
1
-
5
:
Cable runs interior to the Shuttle
.


Objective
: immediate recognition of multitude of parts and association to database.


Description
: tags on element parts (e.g.,

wires) provide immediate identification and association
with database description, connectivity, calibration information, known location, part history,
wire time domain signatures, etc. This tag would typically be accessed by a portable, handheld
interrog
ator.





Range

Near
-
field, < 1ft

Reader type

Portable (handheld)

Readability:

100%



DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.9

SCIENCE SAMPLE INVEN
TORY MANAGEMENT



Figure
1
-
6
:
Science sample inventory management concept
.


Objective
: Track heritage (parent specimens)




IM of lunar geologic

samples in specimen bags



Special: Requires on
-
site tagging (pre
-
printed tags or portable printer)





Range

2


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DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.10

SCIENCE SAMPLE
POSITION DETERMINATI
ON



Figure
1
-
7
:

Science sample position determination concept
.



Objective
: Provide absolute location of samples within 1 m



Dependent upon other means to accurately survey boundary tag positions.



Special: Requires interrogator (at sample site) + local survey of 3 tag
s for

triangulation.



Survey tags require extended range RFID.





Range

150 ft

Reader type

TBD

Readability:

100%


Tag 1

Tag 2

Tag 3

Site

Interrogator

Rock sample

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.11

SCIENCE SAMPLE TRACK
ING VIA UWB RFID



Figure
1
-
8
:
Science sample tracking via UWB concept
.


Objective
: Pro
vide absolute location of samples within 1 m



Demonstrated accuracy +/
-

10 cm.



Special: Requires interrogator (at sample site) with 4 antennas + local survey of 4 interrogator


antennas for triangulation.





Range

400 ft

Reader type

Custom COTS

R
eadability:

100%




Rx 1

Processing
Hub

Reference
Tag

Asset Tag
# 1

Asset Tag
#2

Rx 2

Rx 3

Rx 4

y

x

Cross
-
over
Ethernet
Cable

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.12

LUNAR ROAD SIGN



Figure
1
-
9
:
RFID lunar road sign concept
.


Objective
: Provide rover with road sign ID and range



R
ange >> than permitted by human vision



Rover is equipped with RFID interrogator and an
tenna of moderate to high

directivity; e.g., 22


dBi.



Enhanced passive RFID tags are positioned as road signs upon initial excursions.



Low TRL: Has not been fully tested.






Estimated Link Parameters



Frequency: 2.4 GHz



Sign dimensions: 59 cm x 59 cm (23 in)



Gain (interrogator): 22 dBi



Transmit power: 100 mW



IF BW: 500 Hz



Range: 518 m (1700 ft)



Estimated SNR: 15 dB

10


RFID

Road

S
ign

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.13

LANDING AID


Figure
1
-
10
:
RFID landing aid concept
.


Objective
: Provide

cooperative radar for Lander with RFID



Lander is equipped with RFID interrogator and antenna of low directivity; e.g., 8 dBi.



Enhanced passive RFID tags are positioned as panels at the Landing site.



Interrogator beam
-
steering is not required.



Requ
ires extended range RFID tags.



Low TRL: Has not been tested.


1.1.14

SMART CONTAINERS

Description:
Smart containers
locally store data about the contents
. This is a use
-
case that can reveal
very useful, but is dependent on the amount of data that can be stored
.


1.1.15

RFID ENHANCED TORQUE

SPANNER

Description:
A bolt contains the recorded data (e.g. angle, date, torque) of a screwed joint. With an
electronic torque wrench equipped with an RFID reader, the wrench could discover the required
settings and could adjust it
self automatically.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS



Figure
1
-
11
:
RFID torque spanner
.



1.1.16

RFID ENHANCED BOLT I
DENTIFICATION

Description:
D
uring fastening of a bolt, an ultrasonic wave technology is used to measure its
elongation. To be achievable, the bolt must be identifiable and the

calibration data must be
acquirable. Current procedures use barcode for bolt identification and a database for the related data.
RFID would permit to locally store the ID and the required calibration data directly on the bolt.



Figure
1
-
12
:
RFID bolt id
entification
.



DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.17

TECHNICAL CHECKS

Description:
Using RFID tags fixed on checkpoints can enhance the accomplishment of technical
checks. The check is automatically logged, identification of checkpoints is eased and additional data
can be supplied to the pers
onnel. RFID
-
tags with analogue or digital inputs can supply further
information e.g. on pressure, crack propagation and more.


1.1.18

RFID ENHANCED CONNEC
TORS

Description:
RFID is used to insure that a connector is connected to the correct slot. The connector
has

an RFID tag, the technician queries the tag with a pen
-
like, millimetre range reader and the
configuration gets verified.


Figure
1
-
13
:
RFID enhanced connectors
.


1.1.19

BATTERY MANAGEMENT

Description:
Storing life data on batteries can simplify and ease batter
y management. The usage of
partly loaded or over aged batteries for experiments and tools can be avoided e.g. on a space station.





DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.1.20

DEEP FREEZER SAMPLES

Description:
RFID could be used to manage the samples stored in the deep freezer device on the
ISS.
Barcodes are inappropriate due to the frosting and readability problems.


Figure
1
-
14
:
MELFI cooling system onboard the ISS
.


1.1.21

RFID ENHANCED PIPEFI
TTING

Description:
Pipetting is a common task related to biological experiments. RFID can be used to
avoid er
rors.


1.1.22

SENSOR TAGS ASSISTED

TESTING

Description:
This application uses the RFID technology to transmit analogue signals like
temperatures or acceleration data from a tested structure to a base station. The advantage is that the
sensor does not have a batte
ry and its data is retrieved on demand.




DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2

INTRA
-
VEHICLE WIRELESS APP
LICATIONS

These use
-
cases do not specify a specific technology or frequency and therefore do not cover
issues like electromagnetic compatibility.


1.2.1

CONTROL OF ROBOTIC A
GENTS AROUND THE IS
S



Figure
1
-
15
:
Control of robotic agents
.


Objective
:

Give robotic agents the appropriate freedom to move around the ISS while being
controlled and transfer data wirelessly.

Description
:

Robots like ESA’s Eurobot are designed to execute tasks outside th
e international
space station. They are self
-
powered, mobile entities required to transmit Real
-
time video data
while being controlled by astronauts within the station

or ground personnel. In the special case of
the Eurobot, it
shall not have any umbilical

cable connections to the Home
-
Base.

Wireless data
connection is therefore necessary and the chosen technology must offer enough flexible to insure
the communication while the robotic agent moves around the ISS. The complex architecture of
the ISS requires

that several wireless access points are used in a complementary scheme to offer
a global coverage around its structure.





Range
:

20m

Data rate:

High

Availability
:

High

Criticality:

Medium


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.2

SPACECRAFT HEALTH SE
NSORS


Figure
1
-
16
:
Spacecraft he
alth assessment
.

Objective
:
There are several objectives when using wireless sensors within spacecraft:



Reduce number of sensors by exploiting redundancy advantage of wireless networks



Reduce the time required for assembling, integrating and testing severa
l hundreds of
sensors by removing their harness (considering self
-
powered sensors)



Increase the flexibility regarding late
-
changes in requirements

Description
:

During the past years, wireless sensor networking has made tremendous progresses in regard to
r
obustness, power consumption and flexibility which led the ESA and other agencies to study the
possibility of using the technology within spacecraft. The general results are a significant
reduction of AIT efforts and time and a new redundancy scheme for no

gain in mass. Generally
speaking, the implied low data rate allows great receiver sensitivity and therefore a low
transmitted power. The NASA has already flown wireless sensors onboard the wings of the space
shuttle (Invocon).

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.3

WIRELESS SUN SENSORS



Figu
re
1
-
17
:
Wireless sun sensors
.


Objective:

F
ree self
-
powered sun sensors from
complex and unnecessary
harness

Description
:
Sun sensors obtain enough energy from the sun to be self
-
powered. The only
remaining cabling is the data link. Integrating a wireless

interface to a self powered sun sensor
increases the system flexibility and decreases the design and integration effort. Autonomous
wireless sun sensors have been flown in the past with great success (e.g. Delft University of
Technology). The use of such
a sensor requires the spacecraft to have a wireless interface to
communicate with it in a star
-
like topology.




Range
:

2m

Data rate:

Low

Availability
:

High

Criticality:

High


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.4

ROTARY MECHANISMS AN
D FOLDABLE STRUCTURE
S



Figure
1
-
18
:
Wireless me
chanical components
.


Objective
:
To reduce the complexity of rotating and foldable mechanisms and to offer infinite
rotation capability.

Description
:
Any transmission between two parts in movement will generate problems with
wires. This problem increases w
hen the number of cycles is high or when the rotating angle is
large, which force the designers to have a margin factor as high as 1.5 to 3. Wireless links will
have no wear out, infinite rotation capability, no life time qualification tests and lower cost
s.
Another example of application would be the energy storage in kinetic momentum.




Range
:

20cm

Data rate:

Low to high

Availability
:

High

Criticality:

High

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.5

SEPARATION OF MODULE
S



Figure
1
-
19
:
Inter
-
vehicle wireless communications
.


Objective
:

Create a data connection link between modules that separate (e.g. rover and lander)

Description
:
There are several sub
-
types of this use
-
case, one of them being the interconnection
between a lander and its hosted rover. In the specific case of ESA’s ExoMa
rs, the rover has
power and data lines connected to the lander, this being the only way for the rover to use the
solar panels of the transfer vehicle during the space travel phase. At separation, the wires are cut
through a thermal process which induces ve
ry high disturbances (e.g. changes in impedance) in
the communication bus, therefore requiring the use of higher margins and special dispositions.

The connection of the two data handling systems through a wireless link would simplify the
separation proces
s and its related risks on the communication bus, while still allowing the health
monitoring of the rover during the space traveling phase.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.6

ACCESS POINT ON LAUN
CHERS



Figure
1
-
20
:
Wireless access for launcher payloads
.

Objective
:
P
rovide an untethered

data link between the launcher payload (satellite) and the
launcher data handling system and
provide a monitoring facility to the satellites during the launch
(thermal, mechanical, vibration...).

Description
: A

wireless access point on a launcher offers t
he satellite the possibility to transmit
internal monitoring data to the ground without the physical wired bound to the launcher. The
launcher shares its data handling system through this interface and simplifies the integration of
the payload within the f
airing while reducing the risks of failure at separation. This scenario
requires that the satellite has a wireless interface to its data handling system as well as a
compatible communication protocol that can forward the satellite health data to the ground

station.




Range
:

2m

Data rate:

Medium

Availability
:

Medium

Criticality:

Low

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.7

NETWORK OF SENSORS O
N LAUNCHER


Figure
1
-
21
:
Launcher and harness mass reduction
.


Objective
:
H
arness and launcher mass reduction.

Description
:

There are several doze
ns of sensors onboard launchers that are wired to the
launcher data handling bus. For some types of sensor networks used by launchers, the reliability
is not stringent (10
-
4
) but the availability is very important for the telemetry system. Launchers
are be
tween 30 and 60 meters tall which results in long data cables. In the current wired
architecture, precautions in the form of bonding and shielding have to be taken in order t
o

protect
the relatively small electrical signals against
EMI
.
The extra harness w
eight on upper stages
caused by
the shielding itself reduces
the

deliverable
payload capacity.

The short mission time of
launcher makes the wireless alternative advantageous in regard to the low
-
capacity, low
-
weight
batteries that can be used to power the
wireless interfaces and sensors.




Range
:

3m

Data rate:

Medium

Availability
:

High

Criticality:

Low

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.8

SPACECRAFT BUS



Figure
1
-
22
:
Harness complexity, volume and mass reduction
.

Objective
:
Reduce

the harness complexity, volume and mass.

Descript
ion
:
Data harnessing substitution with wireless technologies is an alternative to the
currently wired spacecraft buses like Mil1553 and CAN. The foreseen advantages are reduced
AIT time, a reduction in wiring volume, mass and complexity. Even thought radio

frequencies
could be suitable, optical technologies are preferred for such a type of applications due to the
absence of electromagnetic compatibility issues.

With the support of the European Space Agency, INTA (Spanish National Institute of Aerospace
Tec
hnology) has successfully flown in 2007 a wireless optical communication system between
payloads onboard a Foton capsule. The same team has also scheduled the flight of a CAN bus
over optical link. They have also built a Mil
-
1553 bus over optical links.




Range
:

3m

Data rate:

Medium to High

Availability
:

High

Criticality:

High

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.9

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMEN
TATION WITHIN HEAT S
HIELDS


Figure
1
-
23
:
Science instrumentation mass reduction
.

Objective
:
Reduce the mass of the heat shield’s science instrumentation

harness, the related AIT
time and the risks of the shield separation process.

Description
:

The heat shields of atmospheric reentry vehicles has been carefully studied and
modeled for several decades and permit efficient energy dissipation during the break
ing phase in
the atmosphere. Contrary to the general perception, there is little empirical environmental data of
the heat shield locality for the descent phase. Models have been developed and validated during
controlled tests on Earth, but the difficulties

implied by the separation of the heat shield from the
main vehicle and its corresponding safety issues have limited the deployment of sufficient
instrumentation within the shield itself. Typical instrumentation being mainly made of cables
connected to the
rmocouples, thermistors, pressure sensors and to the vehicle’s power source,
these direct connections to the main vehicle induce a supplementary risk of separation failure,
leading to the reluctance of integrating such instruments. This lack of sufficient
and accurate
empirical data pushes the spacecraft designers to increase the margins of safety, consequently
increasing the heat shield mass.

While wireless communication already solves the intrinsic
problem of direct cable connection between the shields an
d the vehicle and its related safety
issues, it is
believed

that wireless sensor nodes replacing the many instrumentation cables may
have a considerable mass advantage over a cabled solution
.



Range
:

2m

Data rate:

Low

Availability
:

Medium

Criticality
:

Low

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.10

PLANETARY SURFACE EX
PLORATION

Planetary surface exploration is a key goal for several Agencies and offers a great deal of science
return. For a short or medium range (hundreds to thousands of meters), self
-
powered wireless
payloads are considered

as an extension of the master spacecraft (e.g. lander), therefore justifying
their pertinence in the intra
-
spacecraft class of wireless use
-
cases. Most of the following use
-
cases are based on a lander
-
payload scheme, where the payload is made of one or se
veral science
instruments connected to the lander/rover through a wireless network of sensors.




Figure
1
-
24
:
Planetary surface exploration.

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.10.1

Meteorological and geological packages



Figure
1
-
25
:
Planetary surface meteorological data.


Objective
:
From d
eployed sensors, acquire meteorological data in the locality of a lander or
other surface base

Description:
During the descent, probes could be released and create a mesh network to relay the
data to the lander/rover. Meteorological and geological units wo
uld transmit, on a periodical
basis, parameters like atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed, humidity, light intensity
and soils constituents.




Range
:

~500m between nodes

Data rate:

Low

Availability
:

Low

Criticality:

Low

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.10.2

Seismology package


Source: Systems Engineering & Assessment Ltd



Figure
1
-
26
:
Planetary surface seismology data.

Objective
:
From deployed sensors, acquire seismological data in the locality of a lander or other
surface base

Description:
Study of the seismological beha
vior of planetary bodies might generate very
valuable science data and an understanding of the current activity of its core. The total coverage
required may be as little as 5km, but the two most critical parameters are the accurate timing and
the known pos
ition of the nodes.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.11

ELECTRICAL GROUND SU
PPORT EQUIPMENT (EGS
E) SIMPLIFICATION





Figure
1
-
27
:
Planetary surface seismology data.


Objective:
There are several objectives:



Replace expensive special test harnesses with standardized wireless interfaces



R
educe the necessary EGSE modifications due to changes in spacecraft
connections



Simplification and improvement the spacecraft access during thermal vacuum.


Description:

The ESA and other agencies have shown great interest in new possibilities to
simplif
y the EGSE within clean chambers. Such a solution is foreseen to reduce the complexity
of the equipments, to reduce the mass and volume of the onboard connectors (converted into a
wireless node) and to simplify the test procedures which will then allow sav
ing time and costs.

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.12

CONTAMINATION
-
FREE MISSIONS AIT PR
OCEDURES




Figure
1
-
28
:
Contamination free AIT procedures.


Objective:
Reduce the risks of contamination of samples and by samples

Description:
T………….


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.13

CREW DOSIMETRY AND B
IOLOGICAL MONITORING




Figure
1
-
29
:
Crewmember physiological monitoring.


Objective:
R

Description:

T


1.2.14

GENERAL INTRA
-
HABITAT COMMUNICATIO
NS


Objective:
Provide a standard wireless data connection between computers

Description:
T


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.15

INTRA
-
SPACECRAFT WIRELESS
SENSOR NETWORKS


The

ESA wireless technology dossier and the CCSDS wireless ‘bird of feather’ identified low
power proximity wireless sensor networks as an application area to promote prior to any
command and control wireless applications.

European
space
prime industries

c
ons
ider

as well
low power wireless sensor networks as an area where the potential mass and power gain, as well
as the resulting flexibility in the conception, assembly and testing of the spacecraft are of
potential high interest.


T
he field of applications

of

such low power sensor networks is multiple:



The satellite monitoring in flight during all the life
time:

housekeeping, engineering
monitoring,
temperature, pressure, radiation

data…



The satellite monitoring during launch : shocks, sine & random vibration

data



The Assembly, Integration and Test (AIT) phase with the satellite monitoring during the

thermal and vibration system tests.

In this paragraph, the focus is set on the satellite in flight
monitoring (
during all lifetime
including launch
);

AIT support
through wireless equipment
is
being described in a further
section

of this chapter
.


Figure
1
-
30
:
Different sensor and actuator types in a spacecraft

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.2.15.1

Potential benefit from low power
WSN

In a
n
earth observation or telecom satellite, several hundreds of
si
mple sensors
can be found
, as
depicted in
F
igure
4
-
1
.

These simple sensors can cover a wide range of applications, as shown in
Figure 4
-
1
: from
simple functions
such
as sun sensors to thermal control interfaces. The standardization effort on
these discret
e interfaces is part of ESA strategy.

In the context of spacecraft architecture optimization, the focus is often made on these discrete
interfaces commonly used in a spacecraft, which, because they are point to point interfaces, are
considered to be possib
ly optimized if replaced by
a network configuration, the optimization
being even more relevant
for a wireless network
.

If

wireless sensors are used, the harness needed
for interconnecting the sensors together
and/or
with the on board computer can be entire
ly
removed (provided that the sensors are self powered) and the concept of sensors network is
optimized in terms of harness, but
also in terms of

spacecraft conception
,

integration and testing.

Such use of wireless sensors has been identified as an Agency
-
relevant driving scenario by

ESA
which

initiated a TRP study started in November 2007. This study concerns RF wireless intra
spacecraft communications, focusing on low power proximity sensor networks based on 802.15.
4
and

on
EGSE/AIT support.


1.2.15.2

D
esign consi
derations
for a
low
-
power
WSN


Figure
1
-
31
:
Spacecraft
m
odel showing different activities

Preliminary design parameters to be considered for
the definition of
an intra spacecraft low
power wireless
sensor
s

network can be identified
.

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

Network size

and topo
logy supported
,
existing

spacecraft cavities
:

The approximate size of
the
wireless sensors
network provides a sense of the potential complexity of the network
topology, and the resulting complexity faced by routing protocols.


The presence of several cavi
ties within a spacecraft may require different network topologies to
insure the link budget in each
one
of the cavities, as
shown

in
Figures 4
-
2 and 4
-
3.



OBC

Wheels

GPS

Central
RF
point



MIL
-
STD
-
1553 or other

Secondary
RF point

Secondary
RF point

Secondary
RF point

Power & data lines

Cavity 1

Cavity
2

Cavity
3

Cavity
4





OBC

Wheels

GPS

Central
RF
point



MIL
-
STD
-
1553 or other

Cavity 1

Cavity
2

Cavity
3

Cavity
4


Low power sensor network using secondary
RF access points to the local RF wireless
networks

Lo
w power sensor network using a single RF
access point to the RF network

Figure
1
-
32
:
Low power sensor network topologies


Traffic and flow diversity
:

A low power proximity sensor network would need to transport
only one class of traffic,
e.g.

sensor data
. Greater traffic diversity may increase the need for the
networ
k to provide QoS assurance to t
he different classes of traffic.

Battery power
:

For local RF networks, self
-
powered sensors can be considered as promising.
Self powered sensors allow the wirel
ess sensors to be free from any power cables by embedding
their own power source to supply the sensor, the internal electronic and the radio device. The
main constraint is the life time of the battery directly dependent on the average consumption of
the un
it. Roughly, high data rate sensor will be usable only on short missions (launchers,
vibration or shock monitoring, manned station with maintenance
…)

while long mission of
several years will be reached only with ultra low consumption units needing a very l
imited
number of transferred bits.

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

Energy efficient protocols

&
Power
-
aware routing algorithms
:
Highly efficient on the air
message formats should be used to minimize the power consumed transmitting data over an RF
link. Where possible, compute cycles sho
uld be traded off against bits transmitting on the air.
However, developing general rules for making these trade
s

is very difficult.

Moreover, it can be
useful in some cases for the network layer protocol to provide a facility to compress application
data
(sensors transmitting a high amount of data…)


Electromagnetic compatibility
:

The EMC compatibility between the low power sensors
network and the spacecraft is a potential design constraint. Limited emission power is needed in
order not to disturb any unit

located inside the spacecraft.
The

frequency band of th
e emitting
sensors needs to meet the EMC requirements of the spacecraft.


Wireless sensors technology selection
:

Many commercial of the shelf wireless standards and
technologies are probably able to p
rovide a technical answer to the wireless sensor bus concept
for space. However, their enhancement is likely to be needed would it be only to stand the harsh
space environment conditions. When choosing a wireless sensors technology, different
parameters ca
n be traded off:

Current status of wireless technology
:

Currently available technologies could avoid the risk of
lengthy and expensive development programs. Several criteria can be considered when
evaluating the current state of the technologies required
for low power proximity sensor
networks: applicability, reliability, scalability (can support large networks with few significant
changes to the technologies), longevity, technology readiness level
.
The compliance to
international standards insures interop
erability of different sensor devices, and the long term
availability of wireless technology.

The conformance to space requirements or the upgradeability
to space qualified components is an asset for space use.

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

CREWED SPACECRAFT AN
D HABITATS

1.2.15.3

Lunar Habita
t and Outpost


The evaluation of the wireless communications networks required to support manned operations
for a lunar habitat serves to identify requirements and constrain available options. Figure 1
shows the Shackleton Crater Rim Outpost location at t
he South Pole of the Moon. This potential
outpost location site has several important properties: it is located at a pole


so there’s an
increased probability of ice (either H
2
0 or C0
2
) available for in
-
situ resourc
e utilization, there is
ample sunlight,

and scientifically intriguing geology and topography. Importantly, from a
communications standpoint, the outpost site will experience direct
-
to
-
Earth communication gaps
of at least seven days. Hence, a Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) will be required for Ea
rth
communications.




Figure
1
-
33
:
Shackleton Crater Rim Outpost

Wireless communications usage associated with the lunar outpost exploration base can be
expected for:

Internal Habitat Communications

Systems

1)

Structural, enviro
nmental, and physiological monitoring

2)

Crew communications: voice, video, and data
; includes data caching for terrestrial
delivery

3)

High
-
rate data communications to LRS and direct
-
to
-
earth when line
-
of
-
sight is available

4)

Video conferencing: voice and video d
elivery between crew members and from habitat
-
to
-
earth

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

5)

Crew member personal computing and entertainment devices

1.3

PLANETARY SURFACE CO
MMUNICATIONS


An over
-
arching design driver for the outpost communications infrastructure is that the surface
communications

assets are expected to be developed by independent international partners. An
outcome of this expectation is that
planetary surface

communication architectures will be driven
by the fact that there will be multiple Earth
-
based mission operations centers
for the differing
international partners, and there will be multiple communications systems from different space
agencies and commercial industries. The result is that
planetary surface

communications
architectures will be mission
-
operations focused, and
the constituent communications systems
will need to be both flexible and interoperable. In support of this observation, NASA has
specified that its lunar communications architecture shall support IP
-
addressable endpoints, thus
potentially easing a transit
ion to standards
-
based COTS products.


Figure
4
-
5

depicts a candidate network topology for a lunar outpost utilizing a Lunar
Communications Tower (LCT). The LCT functions as a basestation relay for external
communications within an external wireless wide
-
area (WWAN) network. Also depicted is a
single Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS). The LRS is used to relay habitat and surface
communications to Earth when a direct to earth (DTE) line of site to terrestrial receiving stations
does not exist from the surface.

For the Shackleton Crater area, two Lunar Relay Satellites,
forming a relay constellation, are required for continuous relay capability. Three relay satellites
would provide for
redundant

continuous lunar surface to Earth communications capability.
Whil
e the LCT provides for networked communications in the immediate vicinity of the outpost,
a link encompassing a Lunar Rover Vehicle (LRV) and a Lunar Relay Satellite enables long
range (baseline of up to 250 km) excursions from the outpost while maintainin
g LRV
-
to
-
habitat
and/or LRV
-
to
-
Earth communications links. Table 1 contains a more detailed listing of
anticipated communication support services for a lunar outpost.


Also depicted in Figure 2, is a communications link from a Lunar Relay Satellite to a
n orbiting
spacecraft. This
c
ould be the
Orion

Crew Exploration Vehicle that provides Earth
-
to
-
Lunar
transit of crew and supplies. From a communications perspective the CEV is simply another
network asset that can receive, transmit and route communicatio
ns.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS


Figure
1
-
34
:
A Lunar Communications Tower, LCT, functioning as a WMAN

Surface
-
Surface Links

1)

EVA (Extra
-
Vehicular Activity) local links with Lunar Rover Vehicle (LRV) or habitat;

2)

LRV
-
habitat links when LRV is close to habit
at;

3)

Links between independent local systems (habitat, robots, external asset control,
environment monitoring).

Surface
-
Orbiter Links

1)

Habitat
-
orbiter
-
Earth;

2)

LRV
-
orbiter
-
Earth;

3)

EVA
-
orbiter links (contingency


includes EVA
-
orbiter
-
EVA, EVA
-
orbiter
-
Habitat,
E
VA
-
orbiter
-
Earth);

4)

Simultaneous habitat, LRV, EVA and robotic links through a relay orbiter, including
surface
-
surface links relayed through the orbiter.


Wireless LAN for EVA and Robots

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS



Local coordination between humans and robots for construction and exp
loration activities



Provide normal voice conversation between internal and external environments



Transport audio, video and data from scientific and engineering instruments



Wireless WMAN among dispersed human locals: habitats, vehicles and EVA sorties



WM
AN extensions including radio towers, relay satellites and possibly balloons



Enable coordination for extended exploration; provide coverage for emergencies



Transport audio, video and data from scientific and engineering instruments


EVA suit communications



EVA audio and visual communications to habitat, LRV, Earth when DTE link exists; to
Earth using the LRS when no DTE exists



Human and suit system health monitoring and control (BioMed data)



DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.3.1

SURFACE VOICE COMMUN
ICATIONS



Figure
1
-
35
:
Surface voice comm
unications and data flows
.



Data Flow

Operational Needs

Data Rate

BioMed and Suit Data with 1
ECG channel

Nominal

25.2 kbps

BioMed and Suit Data without
ECG

Contingency

1.2 kbps

Nominal Voice (G.729)

Nominal

16.0 kbps

Contingency Voice (G.729, no
netw
ork overhead)

Contingency

8 kbps

Standard Definition Video
(NTSC Quality)

Nominal

1.383 Mbps

High Definition Video (HDTV:
720p Quality)

Draft or Desired

7.375 Mbps




DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS


The following practical concerns are noted for a Lunar Outpost that depends upon wir
eless RF
communications:


1)

The lunar topography is complex with craters, mountains and valleys: while external
communications in the immediate vicinity of the habitat can be met be a Lunar
Communications Tower, longer range excursions will require use of an

orbiting Lunar
Satellite Relay.


2)

The RF environment is prone to multipath, producing both intersymbol interference (ISI)
and frequency
-
selective fade (FSF)


internal to habitat the FSF
-
dominated
communications are analogous to RF transmission inside of a

“tin can”, while external
ISI
-
dominated communications will result from multipath due to local terrain variations.
Predictive RF path loss models will need to be adapted for the absence of a lunar
atmosphere, increased direct solar radiation effects, and

the incorporation of site
-
specific
terrain and surface composition.


3)

Quality of Service (QoS) of the multiple wireless communications links is anticipated to
be an important issue. Why traditional telecommunications engineering can be employed
to design
the initial links, once the links are in operation Internet
-
based QoS may play an
important role is the transiting of prioritized data as the network load increases.


4)

Missions operations require complex modalities when humans are in the loop. The
coordina
tion of communications between a crew member in a Lunar Rover Vehicle with
both the lunar habitat and potentially multiple terrestrial mission control centers is a
complex communications problem that simply cannot be solved using legacy point
-
to
-
point comm
unications links.


5)

Delay tolerant networking is an enabling technology for the Interplanetary Internet
envisioned to provide communications for Lunar Exploration Mission activities. Long
-
haul, or interplanetary
2
, communications links (e.g., Earth
-
to
-
Moon
and Earth
-
to
-
Mars
links) must contend with large transmission latencies, potentially high bit
-
error rates, and
asymmetric data rates on the communication channels. Additionally, the availability of
the communications links (connectivity) is variable due t
o periodic orbits of
communications relay satellite and availability of terrestrial assets, such as the Deep
Space Network (DSN), to participate in a multi
-
hop communications link. The capability
to provide in
-
network storage of voice, video, and data whe
n the network is disconnected


then transmit when the communications link is re
-
established can dramatically improve
the transmission efficiency of the data communications system.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.4

IEEE STANDARDS IN SU
PPORT OF LUNAR EXPLO
RATION ACTIVITIES


Based upon the

anticipated environmental and operational requirements associated with a lunar
outpost, it is recommended that the following IEEE standards
-
based protocols be evaluated for
incorporation into the baseline wireless communications system:


Short
-
range wirel
ess protocols (less than 100m): IEEE 802.15 WPAN (Wireless Personal Area
Network).

The IEEE 802.15 standard encompasses both Bluetooth, which is designated as IEEE
802.15.1, and IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices commonly termed “ZigBee” devices for the
ZigB
ee network implementation. Bluetooth and ZigBee (along with 802.11b, 802.11g) terrestrial
wireless technology operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band as
designated by the FCC and similar governing bodies in Europe and Asia

in
cluding the ITU
.


Annex C summarizes the current

IEEE standards group activities for 802.15 as well as 802.11
and 802.16. For the 802.15 WPAN, note that 802.15.3 is a high
-
rate WPAN with the goal of
100+ Mbps data rates.


Mid
-
Range (less than 1 km range):

IEEE 802.11 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) for both
ad
-
hoc and infrastructure networks
. 802.11b
Wi
-
Fi

devices and networks dominate current
terrestrial wireless network communications. Products based on 802.11b have gained
mainstream acceptance as t
he first wireless networking products with acceptable speeds


more
that 98% of today’s WLAN infrastructure is based upon 802.11b products
3
. IEEE 802.11g,
provides data rates up to 54 Mbps, and requires backward compatibility with 802.11b devices.
802.11
a transmits in the 5.7 GHz frequency band. Note that 802.11e specifically incorporates
QoS, 802.11i (approved) addresses the security issues of authentication and encryption, and
802.11s (in progress) is working to incorporate mesh (any node can act as a
router) networking
into the 802.11 standard.


Long
-
range (less than 70 km): IEEE 802.16 WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network).

802.16 is also termed “WiMax” and can be used in non line
-
of
-
sight environments. Non
-
LOS
may be critical to ensuring maximu
m coverage with minimum infrastructure. NLOS radios can
dramatically reduce the number of repeaters necessary for a large area.


Note that IEEE has built
-
in QoS, is addressing mobility (important for the LRV) with 802.16e
and is addressing co
-
existence wi
th 802.11 devices in the 2.4 GHz unlicensed frequency band.


The IEEE 802.11, 802.15, and 802.16 standards all directly support the Internet Protocol (IP),
address RF co
-
existence issues with other IEEE protocols from the design phase forward, and
importan
tly provide a defined upgrade path that includes improved performance
and

backwards
compatibility with pre
-
existing assets. The use of COTS products that are standards
-
based
moves communications protocol development away from smaller research group activi
ties to
large
-
scale commercial

space industry, including international space industries
.


DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

1.5

ASSEMBLY, INTEGRATIO
N AND TEST (AIT) ACT
IVITIES

The different AIT applications from ESA and NASA (Wireless Workshop
, ESA Wireless
Dossier
)

DR
AFT CCSDS REPORT ON INTEROPERABLE WIRELESS NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS

ANNEX A