Vision, Mission, Goals, Strategic Plan, and Needs

mammettiredMechanics

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



1

Background

Vision, Mission
,
Goals
, Strategic Plan, and Needs

of the FAA Center of Excellence for Airline Cabin Environment Research


On

October 29, 2003, Congress delegated the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) to initiate research to address five major air
qual
ity issues within the aircraft (Vision 100


Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act,
Public Law 108
-
176). The mandate for research was due, in part, to the findings of an
expert committee of the National Research Council. The findings and recommendations
are found in a report (NRC 2002). In addition to the appropriations
to

investigate health
concerns in the cabin environment, the FAA received funds to address chemical and
biological terrorist attacks in aircraft as per the Fiscal Year 2004 Transportation,

Treasury
and General Government Appropriations bill (HR 2989).


The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) sponsored the formation of a Center of
Excellence (CoE) to address the Congressional interest in the environmental and
bio/chemical issues of commerc
ial aircraft cabin environments. The CoE for Airliner
Cabin Environment Research (ACER)

is a consortium of researchers from eight
universities representing
leading env
ironmental health scientists and

engineers
,
manufacturers, airliners, and flight crew

to
address the health co
n
cerns associated with
commercial aircraft cabin environments. Included on the team are experts in chemical
and biological detection, advanced sensor technologies and system integration, to address
the issues related to security on ai
rcraft and restoration of equipment.



Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



2

Vision

Congress established the Commission on the Future of the United States
aerospace Industry in Section 1092 of the fiscal year 2001 National Defense
Authorization Act (P.L. 106
-
398). The Commission formed a Federal Adv
isory
Committee under the White House Office of Science and Technology Council. The
Committee made nine recommendations to restore/maintain the U.S. preeminence in
Aerospace science and technology. Among these recommendations, the Commission
called for sig
nificant increase in federal investment in basic aerospace research which, in
part, will attract and retain an technically trained workforce.



Our vision looks over the horizon to anticipate and contribute to the fast approaching
advancements in personali
zed communications, sensors and control, interactive virtual
models, intelligent agents, and energy efficiency, etc.

We will contribute to a future
where human
comfort and well being

are central and explicit in the manufactured
environments we shape.

Imag
ine that the “physiology” of
an

aircraft cabin enhances the
ph
ysiology and psychology of the

passengers and crew. Imagine an aircraft cabin with an
environmental control system that depict
s

dispersion of infectious agents and
incorporating infectivity of s
usceptible passengers so passengers and crew will benefit
from the disinfected and cleaned air and its airflow manages comfort without additional
risk of contaminants or pathogens. Imagine aircraft security systems that can immediately
detect a terrorist’s

release of a chemical/biological warfare agent (or even anticipate this
release, based on a combination of intelligence data and behavioral factors) and cabin
environmental control systems that can automatically create safe refuge for passengers
and crew
and assist in the subsequent clean
-
up and return to service of the aircraft.
Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



3

Mission

Imagine an environmental control system that actually enhances human comfort,
productivity and sense of well being (at a personal level) at energy efficiencies that
greatly exceed

current achievements. Imagine that fixed thermostats in an aircraft are
replaced with human health/productivity sensors that determine optimal local
environmental conditions for each individual,
so that some passengers enjoy a

“spring
day” while others ac
climatize to their tropical upbringing, leading to dramatic
improvements in comfort.


The
vision

of ACER is
t
o enable a safe, health
y, comfortable and secure cabin
environment for passengers and crew
.


The
mission

of ACER
is t
o produc
e scientifically val
id research for the
safest and most efficient aircraft environment
and responsive to the key
constituencies served by and serving the airline industry
.


Initially our research program is responsive to the Congressional directions as established
in the leg
islation cited above. Beyond this initial set of activities ACER works with
industries, airlines, professional bodies
,

and pilot/flight crew associations to further the
understanding of factors in the cabin environment that will lead to improvements in the

flying experience for passengers and flight crews.


Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



4

Goals

Strategies

The
goals

of ACER are




To provide advanced technologies for the safest, most healthful, most secure, and
most efficient aircraft cabin environment and solutions to mitigate potential
threats;



To

prov
ide
reliable
data for appropriate standard development and rulemaking
;



To
maintain

U
.
S
.

technological leadership in cabin environment issues
(encompassing safety, public health and security) and related aeronautics, through
pre
-
competitive research and dev
elopment, for the public good
; and



To se
ek collaborative solutions avoiding

duplication of effort and provide synergy,
in an increasingly competitive world where there are many demands on industry
and government funds.


The eight core i
n
stitutions (seven
un
i
versities and one national
laboratory)
that form ACER
and other national laboratories, along with
our labor and industrial partners and through connections to federal and international
bodies and facil
i
ties, provide the FAA

a rich opportunity to pursue
complex research and
tec
h
nical development for protecting passengers, crew and equipment, revising
regulations as well as advancing the next generation of environmental control systems.
Our
strategies

are




To promote

a forum for continuous informal and fo
rmal dialog between all major

stakeholders in civil aviation;

Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



5



To provide

integration of appropriate part
ners, the FAA and the ACER team;



To provide

mechanisms for conducting meaningful
research and development

activitie
s with partners;



To promote

beneficia
l relationships amongst the partners i
n a pre
-
competitive
environment;



To understand

the health and safety concerns of crews/flying
public and operate
accordingly;



To understand the fiscal and European Union
industry cartel pressures facing
companies invol
ved in the U
.
S
.

civil aviation in
dustry and operate accordingly;



T
o seek win
-
win solutions and hence respond constructively and simultaneously
to
the health and safety concerns of crews and the flying public and the pressures
from the European Union;



To re
cognize

that industry and academia work on different timescales and the
need for “research at the speed of industry” and “right time research”
; and



To seek

high
-
level solutions, wherever appropriate, that will benefit the entire
industry, but also recogniz
es the value of (and seek to promote) incremental
improvements
.


ACER u
niversities can provide important forums for

scholarly, transparent

and
rigorous
debate

serving the common good and in turn, shaping public and private policy
.
Universities have
a
long
tradition
as

the incubators of ideas, invention, research and
policy
. This
c
reate
s a

“safe territory” for dialog
, debate, and consensus
building
among
all stakeholders
. ACER is also connected to

the network of universities inter
ested in
Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



6

Challenges

aerospace research
and development via the other FAA CoEs; government laboratories,
such as
DOE, DOD, NOAA, NASA, CDC, NIOSH, OSHA
, etc.; and government offices,
such as
the
White House Office of Science and Technology,
the
Congress
, and

the
National Academy of Science
. This

will broader our horizon and leverage each other to
maximize our research and development outputs.


The trend of an aging and “super
-
sizing” population in the United
States is reflected in the fl
y
ing public as well.

More of the public
including many peo
ple
who have impaired health or who are otherwise potentially
sensitive to cabin environmental conditions

are tr
aveling by air than ever before.
Elevated
ozone levels on some flights have been measured.
The low humi
d
ity of the cabin
environment might lengt
hen viability and shrink the size of droplet nuclei, thus creating a
travel e
n
vironment that is unlike others. Lower atmospheric pre
s
sures may differentially
place those with heart or obstructive lung diseases
at risk,
though not impairing the
healthy pass
enger.
Thus, air travel makes

them more susceptible to the potential effects
of flight
.
Cabin crew are responsible for the safety and comfort of the passengers, work at
a higher energy level than passengers, and are exposed to cabin air for longer duration
s
,
which enhances their vulnerability
.

Passengers and crew in flight encounter a
combination of environmental factors including low humidity, low air pressure, and
sometimes, exposure to air contaminants, such as ozone,
oxidation products,
carbon
monoxide,

various organic chemicals, and biological agents.

The FARs related to
pressurized cabins need r
e
view, as do those on ventilation.
Standards must be based on
Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



7

Barriers

technical requirements and a clear understanding of the wider and diverse fiscal and
societal issu
es, rather than the narrow interests of any given stakeholder.



Contaminants in the cabin
are
not well characterized and it is now more difficult to
conduct onboard studies
.
The recent SARS experience gives rise to new concerns about
the survival of virus
es on surfaces and transmission through air.
Unfortunately the times
we live in require us to consider the deliberate attempts to contam
i
nate others with
chemical and biological agents.

The chem.
-
bio. terro
rist threat strongly impacts research
and developm
ent

imperatives and the distribution of resources
.


The current state of the airline industry, implies a need, wherever possible
to seek win

win solutions that both solve health/safety/security problems
and make the industry more efficient (both economica
lly and operationally).


Unfortunately, l
ack of publicly available data concerning aircraft cabin environment
s

make
s

the research more difficult. The research on b
oth health and technology aspects
require
s

close, cro
ss
-
disciplinary collaborations. To impro
ve
the
cabin environment, we
n
eed alternative and novel designs of environmental control systems and integration with
sensor output (
i.e.
remediation, not just detection)
. However, it is difficult to retrofit

existing aircraft
. Since most of U.S. airliners

are not financially strong, there are serious
concerns
regarding their ability to implement alternative
and retrofit solutions. Without
major improvements,

liability issues

regarding cabin environment are with the industry.
As a result, the

U.S. stakehold
ers are

a “house divided”
. In addition, we are c
ompeting
Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



8

Approaches

Five
-
Year Plan

against an industry

government cartel in Europe, rather than a level playing field for
free
-
enterprise
. The European

Union

has a l
arge cabin air quality budget

and r
elatively
little spending on homel
and security
. They do not publish their research and development
results. All those barriers make it very challenging to achieve the vision
outlined
here.


The U.S. stakeholders must work together

to create a safer, healthier,
more secure and more
comfor
table cabin environment. ACER will
work with the stakeholders to d
evelop and advance technologies to strengthen
the
U
.
S
.

aerospace industry.

ACER will seek technologies to e
nhance the travel experience while
providing improved airplane economics and lower
environmental impact.

ACER will
also conduct risk trade
-
off analysis that
balances the cost of avoided health damages,
discomfort, equipment and maintenance against the cost of design, operation and
maintenance
.


According to the needs to address the prob
lems related to
the
cabin environment, ACER has
divided the
five
-
year
research
plan
into three themes:




Theme 1: Cabin Air Quality and Health



Theme 2: Environmental Control Systems



Theme 3: Sensing, Decontamination and Security Issues


Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



9

Theme 1: Cabin Air
Quality and Health


ACER will establish a
surveillance program to obtain systematic and reliable data
concerning

contaminant levels and exposures in aircraft. Then ACER can

conduct
research that addresses the enviro
n
mental conditions of the passenger

cabi
n and various
related health concerns. Epidemiology i
n
volving large cohorts of flight attendants and
passengers will ascertain information on the fr
e
quency, s
e
verity and health consequences
of incidents (adverse air quality events
). Through nested studies
, ACER
will examine the
relationship of ventilation and filtration on infection, carbon dioxide on cognitive
function, ozone
and ozone
-
reaction
-
byproducts
on respiratory irritation and pressure on
cardiovascular r
e
sponses. In addition,
ACER will conduct

s
tudies on the toxicological
effects of burnt oils and assessment of pesticides, and ozone chemistry in the context of
the cabin enviro
n
ment.

Figure 1 shows ACER’s five
-
year plan for Theme 1. The top bar
indicates the starting date of each project and the b
ottom bar the finishing date.


Theme 2: Environmental Control Systems


In addition to excellence in environmental health,
ACER

has outstanding engineering
un
i
versities as members. Together with affiliated industrial partners, we will apply
integrated sy
s
t
em analysis to the entire Environmental Control Systems (ECS), not just
separate comp
o
nents. A comprehensive model of the system, along with detailed
knowledge of individual comp
o
nents, a
l
lows our team to
simulate and
predict air
distributions, and comfor
t and contaminant conditions within the cabin environment.
Alternative and novel designs can be evaluated such as personal air delivery, air curtains
Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



10

for isolating infectious passengers, and disinfecting air cleaners.
Our

predictive
capabilities
can serv
e

health assessments, as well as the chemical and biological sensor
deploy
ment and the decontamination co
m
ponents.

Figure 2 shows ACER’s five
-
year plan
for Theme 2. The same as Figure 1, the top bar indicates the starting date of each project
and the botto
m bar the finishing date.


Theme 3: Sensing, Decontamination and Security Issues


Modeling and measuring the chemical and biological constituents of the cabin air (and on
surfaces) along with better models for air distribution are the foundation for design
ing
and d
e
ploying detection devices. ACER
has members that are developing sophist
i
cated
sensors for airborne pathogens and chemicals
. Drawing upon ACER
’s e
x
pertise in
biochemistry, electronics, nanotechnology, and microfluidics, state
-
of
-
the
-
art chem
-
bio

sensors are under development. To be applicable to protecting the cabin environment,
add
i
tional development and testing will be necessary. Cost, background contaminant
levels, cond
i
tions of the flight environment (pressure, humidity, vibration,
electrom
agnetic interference) will need to be addressed.
ACER’s

research on sensors
addresses not just the technology of dete
c
tion but will also thoroughly evaluate systems
integration, training and policy requirements to build a true capacity, to utilize the
tec
hnology in a decision framework.
Figure 3 shows ACER’s five
-
year plan for Theme 3.


ACER

is commi
t
ted to providing the FAA, the
stakeholders

and the nation the science
upon which to make well
-
informed, critical judgments a
bout the health, safety,

security
and comfort
of commercial air transport
a
tion. In part,
ACER

is responding to the current
Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



11

Accomplishments

needs to identify existing cond
i
tions and protect against terrorist assaults on airplanes.
We

also serve the f
u
ture needs of our country by advancing innovation thro
ugh education
and research.
ACER

is ebullient about the possibilities of enhancing health and safety for
passengers and crew, through research oriented towards improving the cabin environment
of commercial aircraft.


With a ten
-
year effort, ACER expect
s to have the following
accomplishments if it has the necessary support. ACER will
have:




Identified the contaminants that flight crew and passengers are exposed to during
air
-
quality incidents, estimate
d

the associated health risks, a
nd suggested
correcti
ve measures;



Characterized ozone
and ozone
-
reaction
-
byproduct
concentrations on aircraft and
developed estimates of the associated impacts on health and comfort.


Evaluated
the efficacy of technologies and practices for maintaining lower ozone leve
ls on
ai
rcraft;



Demonstrated the efficacy of a practical protocol for disinfecting aircraft after
contamination by toxic bioaerosols
;



Developed advanced environmental control systems that can mitigate or solve the
cabin environment problems
;



Developed and tested a
dvanced sensor systems that can provide reliable and
useful information of

cabin environmental conditions;

Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



12

Needs

References



Developed and demonstrated feasible strategies for on
-
ground and on
-
board
decontamination
; and



Provided crew with valuable tools that improve overall

safety of flight and assure
service reliability
.


In order to complete ACER’s mission, the center would need

a
n industry
-
wide perspective

regarding
on its vision. We will need g
uidance
from key
stakeholders
to ensure
our research and development

will sol
ve the problems. ACER
would need cash and i
n
-
kind support
from the U.S. government and its stakeholders to
conduct the research.


NRC 2002.
The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of
Passengers and Crew.

National Academy Press. Washington, DC.



Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



13

2005
2007
2006
2009
2008
2010
2005
2007
2006
2009
2008
2010
Theme 1
Starting
Pesticide
pilot
sampling
Incident
reporting
system
Fuel &
hydraulic
byproducts
animal
toxicology
Passive O
3
monitoring
Real time O
3
monitoring
O
3
human exposure
In simulated cabin
O
3
chemistry
Incident
cohort
study
Field test
& integrated
exposure
studies
Infection
& low
pressure
studies
Pesticide
screen
exposure &
assessment
Pesticide
detailed
sampling &
evaluation
Theme 1
Ending
Pesticide
pilot
sampling
Incident
reporting
system
Fuel &
hydraulic
byproducts
animal
toxicology
Passive O
3
monitoring
O
3
chemistry
(1
st
list)
O
3
human
exposure
in simulated
cabin
Incident
cohort
study
Field test
& integrated
exposure
studies
Infection
& low
pressure
studies
Pesticide
screen
exposure &
assessment
Pesticide
detailed
sampling &
evaluation
Permanent
in
-
flight monitoring
Physiological
response
due to O
3
byproducts
O
3
mitigation
O
3
mitigation
Physiological
responses
O
3
chemistry
(2
nd
list)
O3 evaluation &
recommendation
Real time
O
3
monitoring
In
-
flight evaluation
of candidate
technologies
In
-
flight evaluation
of candidate
technologies
O
3
evaluation &
recommendation

Figure 1. Five
-
year plan for Theme 1: Cabin Air Quality and Health


Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



14

2005
2007
2006
2009
2008
2010
2005
2007
2006
2009
2008
2010
Theme 2
Starting
Theme 2
Ending
ECS components
& models
Particle contaminant
transport model
ECS system
& model
integration
Evaluation
of ECS
components &
systems
Adv.
equi
. &
systems
Clean supply
air systems
Evaluation &
design of air
distribution
systems
Liquid droplet
contaminant
transport model
Gaseous contaminant
transport model
Outdoor air
Model for
respiratory
illness
Update
outdoor
air
guide
Gaseous contaminant
transport model
Particle contaminant
transport model
Liquid droplet
contaminant
transport model
ECS components
& models
ECS system
& model
integration
Evaluation
of ECS
components &
systems
Evaluation &
design of air
distribution
systems
Update outdoor
Air guide
Outdoor air
Model for
respiratory
illness
Adv.
equi
. &
systems
Clean supply
air systems

Figure 2. Five
-
year plan for Theme 2: Environmental Control Systems


Draft for discussion on June 8, 2005



15

2005
2007
2006
2009
2008
2010
2005
2007
2006
2009
2008
2010
Theme 3
starting
Theme 3
Ending
Sensor
requirements
and
trade studies
Selection of tech
to target
Sensor
Sensitivity, selectivity &
location
Optimize
on
-
the
-
ground decon
delivery systems
Sensor
modifi
-
cations
Sensor
system
integration
Permanent
sensor
deployment
Laboratory evaluation of
COTS/GOTS
near market sensors and systems
Sensors
Deployed for
expanded panel
of bioagents
Materials/systems
compatibility
confirmed
Trade studies of in
-
flight
decontamination of
fast
-
acting agents
Lab test of in
-
flight decon. tech.
Field test of in
-
flight
decon. tech.
Sensor requirements
and trade studies
Laboratory evaluation of
COTS/GOTS near market
sensors and systems
Sensor modification
Sensor location
Sensor system integration
Permanent
sensor
deployment
Sensors
Deployed for
expanded panel
of bioagents
Selection of
tech to target
Efficacy
Materials/systems
compatibility
confirmed
Optimize
on
-
the
-
ground decon
delivery systems
Trade studies of in
-
flight
decontamination of
fast
-
acting agents
Lab test of
in
-
flight decon.
tech.
Field test of in
-
flight
decon. tech.

Figure 3. Five
-
year plan for Theme 3: Sensing, Dec
ontamination and Security Issues