BA9254 - Advertising & Sales Promotion - Sudharsan ...

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Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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1.0 INTRODUCTION :


Marketing is dynamic, fascinating, challenging and exciting. Th
e polices adopted by
manufacturers to attain success in the marketing mix promotion aspect is viewed as
a mean of implementing a communication strategy. The promotion is directed
towards facilitating and enhancing specific products and brands. Thus promo
tion is
most often intended to be a supporting component in a marketing mix. This does not
mean that it is less important than the product of other marketing decision areas.
Rather, promotion decisions must be integrated and coordinated with the rest of
the
marketing mix, so that it may effectively support an entire marketing mix strategy.
The promotion mix consists of

four

basic elements :


1.
Advertising

2.
Personal selling


3.
Sales promotion

4.
Publicity.



Figure 1.1
shows the components of
promotion mix.


Figure 1.1
-

Components of promotion mix.



P
ROMOTION

PUBLICITY

PERSONAL
SELLING

SALES
PROMOTION

A
DVERTISING

Today the word ' advertising ' is a very common term known to us. It figures in
each of our lives every day. The term ' advertising ' is derived from the Latin word
'
advertere

' which

means
' to turn the attention '.




Definition : Advertising :

A
merican

M
arketing

A
ssociation
( AMA )
defines advertising as
, " any paid
form of non
-

personal presentation of ideas, goods or services by an
identified sponsor ".


Advertising:

Definition:

Paid form of non personal communication about an organization or its products that is
transmitted to a target audience through a mass/broadcast medium.

Pros



Flexibility allows you to
focus on a small, precisely defined segment (School
newspapers) or a mass market (baseball show = Males, 35
-
50).



Cost efficient
-
reach a large number at a low cost per person, allows the message to
be repeated, and can improve public image.



Allows for repea
ting the message
-
lets the buyer receive and compare the messages
of various competitors.



Very expressive, allows for dramatization.



Also used to build a long term image of a product.



Trigger quick sales, Sears advertising a weekend sale.

Cons



Absolute $ ou
tlay very high, make a national TV ad. approx $150,000, local ad.
$60,000. 30 second spot, Superbowl $1.1 m 1995



Rarely provides quick feedback, or necessarily any feedback



Less persuasive than personal selling



Audience does not have to pay attention



Indir
ect feedback (without interactivity)



SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE

OF ADVERTISING

advertisements are important for:



standardized products



products aimed at large markets



products that have easily communicated features



products low in price



products sold through i
ndependent channel members and/or are new.

BROADCAST AD SPENDIN
G IS AT AN ALL TIME
HIGH DUE TO HEAVY
COMPETITION IN THE:



computer industry



telecommunications industry



auto industry

whenever severe competition between marketers, introducing new products etc
.
even with evolution of direct marketing, and interactive media.

NATURE OF ADVERTISIN
G

used by many types of organizations including churches, universities, civic groups and
charities, politicians!!

Need to consider the following issues:



does the product
possess unique, important features to focus on

unique selling
point

(usp)



are the hidden qualities important to the buyers



is the general demand trend for the product adequate



is the market poten
tial for the product adequate



is the competitive environment favorable



is the organization able and willing to spend the required money to launch an
advertising campaign




USE OF ADVERTISING

classic distinctions



Promoting Products or Organizations

Institu
tional advertising

promotes organizations, images, ideas or political issues.
Ie beer company sponsors responsible drinking to promote the company image.

Philip morris advertising

Product advertising

promotes goods and services.



Stimulating Primary and Sel
ective Demand

First to introduce product needs to stimulate

primary

demand. Pioneer advertising
informs people about the product (
introduction stage

of the product life cycle). Do
not em
phasize the brand name.

Can also be used to stimulate the demand for a product group, ie beef council.

For

selective

demand, advertisers use competitive advertising, brand uses, benefits
not available with other brands. Can use

comparative

advertising, 198
8 trademark
law revision act, cannot misinterpret. American
Express et al.

Handout...When Visa and American Express...

Deals with the competitive advertising between visa and amex

At&t true rewards...using new kind of math/use former mci customers

mci frie
nds and family...hammer advantages of friends ff..."put it in writing"...

Sprint 10 cents a minute



Offsetting Competitors Advertising

Defensive advertising, offset to lessen the effect of competitors advertising. Used
in fastfood industry, extremely compet
itive consumer products markets.





Making salespersons more effective

Tries to presell product to buyers by informing them of uses, features and benefits
-

encourage them to contact dealers etc. Cars...bring to retail store.



Increasing use of product

Consum
er can consume only so much of a product, this limits absolute demand.
May need to convince the market to use the product in more than one way.



Reminding and reinforcing customers

Reminder, need to keep company/product name at the forefront of consumers'
m
inds in the competitive marketplace. Reinforcement prevents

cognitive
dissonance
.



Reducing Sales fluctuations

increase sales during slow periods will help increase production efficiency, ie

advertising reduced prices of lawn mowers in the winter months (reduce inventory
costs). coupons for pizza only mon
-
thurs.







objectives of advertising


inform

informative advertising, seeks to tell the market
about the product, explain how the prod
uct works,
provide information on pricing, and build
awareness of both the product and the company.
such objectives are normally pursued at the
launch of a new product, or re
-
launch / up
-
date of
an existing product.




example : the dyson contrarotator

the dyson contrarotat
or™ is the only 2
-
drum wash
action washing machine on the market. a key
objective for dyson is to inform the market about
this unique product, explaing how the product
works, and its advantages over normal washing
machines.




click to link to view examples of informative
dyson advertising


persuade

here objectives are to encour
age the target
audience to switch brands, make the purchase,
and create a preference in the market for the
product as opposed to its competition. advertising
of this nature is required in highly competitive
markets, where a range of products compete
direct
ly with each other. in such circumstances
businesses often seek to differentiate their product
through comparison advertising


either directly or
indirectly comparing its product to that of its
competitors.




example : halifax 'who gives you extra'
campaign

the halifax 'who gives you

extra' campaign has
been an extremely succesful example of
comparative advertising, used to persuade savers
to switch banks. in a highly competitive market,
the aim of the work is to show the extra value the
bank delivers to customers across a range of
fi
nancial services, and was produced by the
delaney lund knox warren & partners agency.




click to link to view examples of comparative
advertising by halifax


remind

reminder advertising, is used to maintain interest
and awareness of a well established product in the
market, often in t
he latter stages of its product life
cycle. it is often used at the point
-
of
-
purchase to
remind consumers of the brand. such advertising
is used by the likes of coca
-
cola and other leading
brands, to maintain their position in the market.





1.4

SOCIAL

EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING :

A discussion of the social issues in advertising covers the means of advertising as well
as its effects. The points raised below include questions of manipulkation of
consumers against their will .


1.

Deception / Deceptive advertisi
ng :

There should not be misrepresentation to make it appera thatit is true. Some
advertisements may be deceptive, although technically or literally it may not be true.
The claim may be untrue in the light of prevailing practises.


2.

Manipualtion :

Critics
of advertising feels that the freedom of choice of consumers is restricted by the
power of advertising since it can maipuallte buyers into making a decsion against
their will or interests.




3.

Taste :

Some critics feel that advertising has adverse effects a
s creative exposition may not
always be in good taste.


4.

Materailism :

Advertising is accused of promoting materialism by inducing people to attach too
much importnce to the material asepcts of life.


5.

Promoting stereo types :

By portyaying certain individua
ls in certain roles, advertising promotes stereo types.
Women are usully portrayed as housewifes or mothers.


6.

Advertising to children :

It is argued that children are more suceptible to deception, lack of perceptual
defenses that adults have and cannot o
bjectively evaluate advertisement. Thus there
is substantial scope for manipulation of children specifically through Tv advertising.


7.

Advertising creates insecurity :

Advertising can make people worry about tooth decay, body odur, lack of self
confidence
and many other ills while claiming that the advertised products will reduce
these worries.





A
n advertising agency or ad agency is a service business
dedicated to creating,
planning
and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) fo
r its
clients. an ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view
to the effort of selling the client's products or services. an agency can also handle overall
marketing andbranding strategies and sales promotions for its cli
ents.

typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non
-
profit organizations
and government agencies. agencies may be hired to produce an advertising campaign.

History

George reynell, an officer at the london gazette, set up what is believ
ed to be the first
advertising agency in london, united kingdom, in 1812. This remained a family business
until 1993, as 'reynell & son', and is now part of the tmp worldwide agency (uk and
ireland) under the brand tmp reynell.[citation needed] another ear
ly advertising agent in
london was charles barker, and the firm he established traded as 'barkers' until 2009 when
it went into administration.

Volney b. Palmer opened the first american advertising agency, in philadelphia in 1850.
This agency placed ads p
roduced by its clients in various newspapers

Produce "photographs, ambrotypes and daguerreotypes. His ads were the first whose
typeface and fonts were distinct from the text of the publication and from that of other
advertisements. At that time all newspap
er ads were set in agate and only agate. His use
of larger distinctive fonts caused a sensation. Later that same year robert bonner ran the
first full
-
page ad in a newspaper.

In 1864, william james carlton began selling advertising space in religious magaz
ines.
James walter thompson joined this firm in 1868. Thompson rapidly became their best
salesman, purchasing the company in 1877 and renaming it the james walter thompson
company, which today is the oldest american advertising agency. Realizing that he co
uld
sell more space if the company provided the service of developing content for advertisers,
thompson hired writers and artists to form the first known creative department in an
advertising agency. He is credited as the "father
of modern magazine adverti
sing" in the
us.

TYPES OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES

Ad agencies come in all sizes and include everything from one or two
-
person shops
(which rely mostly on freelance talent to perform most functions), small to medium sized
agencies, large independents such as s
ma
rt and taxi, and multi
-
national, multi
-
agency
conglomerates such as omnicom group, wpp group, publicis, interpublic group of
companies andhavas.


Limited
-
Service Advertising Agencies

Some advertising agencies limit the amount and kind of service they off
er. Such agencies
usually offer only one or two of the basic services. For example, although some agencies
that specialize in "creative" also offer strategic advertising planning service, their basic
interest is in the creation of advertising. Similarly, s
om
e "media
-
buying services" offer
media planningservice but concentrate on media buying, placement, and billing.

When the advertiser chooses to use limited
-
service advertising agencies, it must assume
some of the advertising planning and coordination activ
ities that are routinely handled by
the full
-
service advertising agency. Thus, the advertiser who uses limited
-
service
agencies usually takes greater responsibility for the strategic planning function, gives
greater strategic direction to specialist creati
ve

or media agencies, and exercises greater
control over the product of these specialized agencies, ensuring that their separate
activities are well
-
ordered and
-
coordinated.


Specialist Advertising Agencies

In addition to the full
-
service, general
-
line ad
ve
rtising agencies, there are also agencies
that specialize in particular kinds of advertising: recruitment, help
-
wanted, medical,
classified, industrial, financial, direct
-
response, retail, yellow pages,
theatrical/entertainment, investment, travel, and s
o on.

Specialization occurs in such fields for a variety of reasons. Often, as in recruitment
advertising, for example, specialized media or media uses are involved that require
knowledge and expertise not ordinarily found in a general
-
line agency. In othe
r
cases,
such as medical or industrial advertising, the subject is technical and requires that writers
and artists have training in order to write meaningful advertising messages about it.

Such specialist advertising agencies are also usually "full
-
service
,"

in that they offer all
the basic advertising agency services in their area of specialization plus other, peripheral
advertising services related to their area of specialization.


In
-
house advertising agencies

Some advertisers believe that they can provi
de

such advertising services to themselves at
a lower cost than would be charged by an outside agency.



Interactive Agencies

Interactive agencies may differentiate themselves by offering a mix of web
design/development, search engine marketing, internet a
dvertising/marketing, or e
-
business/e
-
commerceconsulting. Interactive agencies rose to prominence before the
traditional advertising agencies fully embraced the internet. Offering a wide range of
services, some of the interactive agencies grew very rapidly
, although some have
downsized just as rapidly due to changing market conditions. Today, the most successful
interactive agencies are defined as companies that provide specialized advertising and
marketing services for the digital space. The digital space
is defined as any multimedia
-
enabled electronic channel that an advertiser's message can be seen or heard from. The
'digital space' translates to the internet, kiosks, cd
-
roms, dvds, and lifestyle devices (ipod,
psp, and mobile). Interactive agencies funct
ion similarly to advertising agencies, although
they focus solely on interactive advertising services. They deliver services such as
strategy, creative, design, video, development, programming (flash and otherwise),
deployment, management, and fulfillment
reporting. Often, interactive agencies provide:
digital lead generation, digital brand development, interactive marketing and
communications strategy, rich media campaigns, interactive video brand experiences,
web 2.0 website de
sign and development, e
-
lear
ning tools, email marketing, seo/sem
services, ppc campaign management, content management services, web application
development, and overall data mining & roi assessment.

The recent boost in the interactive agencies can also be attributed to the rising po
pularity
of web
-
based social networking and community sites. The creation of sites such as
myspace, facebook and youtube have sparked market interest, as some interactive
agencies have started offering personal and corporate community site development as o
ne
of their service offerings. It still may be too early to tell how agencies will use this type
of marketing to monetize client roi, but all signs point to online networking as the future
of brand marketing and interactive bein
g the core of brand's commun
ication and
marketing strategy.

Due to the social networking explosion, new types of companies are doing reputation
management. This type of agency is especially important if a company needs online
damage control. If a customer becomes disgruntled, it is v
ery easy to damage a
company's reputation via social networking sites. Because of how rapidly the information
spreads, it becomes absolutely necessary to address any rumors, gossip or other negative
online press immediately.


Search Engine Agencies

Lately
, pay per click (ppc) and (seo) search engine optimization firms have been
classified by some as 'agencies' because they create media and implement media
purchases of text based (or image based, in some instances of search marketing) ads. This
relatively y
ou
ng industry has been slow to adopt the term 'agency', however with the
creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases, they do technically qualify as
'advertising agencies'.

Social Media Agencies

Social media agencies specialize in promotion
of brands in the various social media
platforms like blogs, social networking sites, q&a sites, discussion forums, microblogs
etc. The two key services of social media agencies are:


social media marketing


online reputation management


Healthcare Commun
ications Agencies

Healthcare communications agencies specialize in strategic communications and
marketing services for the healthcare and life science industries. These agencies
distinguish themselves through an understanding of the strict labeling and mar
keting
guidelines mandated by the u.s. Food and drug administration (fda) and industry group
guidelines, most notably advamed and pharma.

Notable examples include: dudnyk

Medical Education Agencies

Medical education agencies specialize in creating educatio
nal content for the healthcare
and life science industries. These agencies typically specialize in one of two areas:


promotional education
-

education and training materials tied to the promotion of a
given product or therapy


continuing medical educati
on
-

accredited education and training materials created
for continuing physician and medical professional education.

Other Agencies

While not advertising agencies, enterprise technology agencies often work in tandem
with advertising agencies to provide a
specialized subset of services offered by some
interactive agencies: web 2.0 website design and development, co
ntent management
systems, web application development, and other intuitive technology solutions for the
web, mobile devices and emerging digital
platforms.

The student
-
run advertising agency model, which mainly operates out of university
classrooms or as a

student groups, provides free advertising services to clients in
exchange for the educational opportunity.





AGENCY DEPARTMENTS


creative department

The people who create the actual ads form the core of an advertising agency. Modern
advertising agencies usually form their copywriters and art directors into creative teams.
Creative teams may be permanent partnerships or formed on a p
roject
-
by
-
project basis.
The art director and copywriter report to a creative director, usually a creative employee
with several years of experience. Although copywriters have the word "write" in their job
title, and art directors have the word "art", one
does not necessarily write the words and
the other draw the pictures; they both generate creative ideas to represent the proposition
(the advertisement or campaign's key message). Creative departments frequently work
with outside design or production studi
os to develop and implement their ideas. Creative
departments may employ production artists as entry
-
level positions, as well as for
operations and maintenance. The creative process forms the most crucial part of the
advertising process.


ac
count services

Agencies appoint account executive to liase with the clients. The account executives need
to be sufficiently aware of the client’s needs and desires that can be instructed to the
agency’s personnel and should get approval from the clients on

the agency’s
recommendations to the clients. Creativity and marketing acumen are the needed area of
the client service people. They work closely with the specialists in each field.


media services

The media services department may not be s
o well known, but its employees are the
people who have contacts with the suppliers of various creative media. For example, they
will be able to advise upon and negotiate with printers if an agency is producing flyers for
a client. However, when dealing wi
th the major media (broadcast media, outdoor, and the
press), this work is usually outsourced to a media agency which can advise on media
planning and is normally large enough to negotiate prices down further than a single
agency or client can.



production

Without the production department, the ads created by the copywriter and art director
would be nothing more than words and pictures on paper. The production department, in
essence, ensures the tv commercial or print ad, etc., gets prod
uced. They are responsible
for contracting external vendors (directors and production companies in the case of tv
commercials; photographers and design studios in the case of the print advertising or
direct mailers). Producers are involved in every aspect
of a project, from the initial
creative briefing through execution and delivery. In some agencies, senior producers are
known as "executive producers" or "content architects".

Modern agencies might also have a media planning department integrated, which do
es all
the spot's planning and placements


other departments and personnel

In small agencies, employees may do both creative and account service work. Larger
agencies attract people who specialize in one or the other, and indeed include a numbe
r of
people in specialized positions: production work, internet advertising, planning, or
research, for example.

An often forgotten, but integral, department within an advertising agency is traffic. The
traffic department regulates the flow of work in the
agency. It is typically headed by a
traffic manager (or system administrator). Traffic increases an agency's efficiency and
profitability through the reduction of false job starts, inappropriate job initiation,
incomplete information sharing, over
-

and und
er
-
cost estimation and the need for media
extensions. In small agencies without a dedicated traffic manager, one employee may be
responsible for managing workflow, gathering cost estimates and answering the phone,
for example. Large agencies may have a tra
ffic department of five or more employees.

Advertising interns are typically university juniors and seniors who are genuinely
interested in and have an aptitude for advertising. Internships at advertising agencies
most commonly fall into one of five areas
of expertise: account services, interactive,
media, public relations and traffic.

An internship program in account services usually involves fundamental work within
account management as well as offering exposure to other facets of the agency. The
primary
responsibility of this position is to assist account managers. Functions of the
account management intern may include:

• research and analysis: gathering information regarding industry, competition, customer
product or service; as well as presenting findin
gs in verbal/written form with
recommendations

• involvement in internal meetings and, when appropriate, client meetings

• assisting account services in the management of creative projects

Interns often take part in the internal creative process, where the
y may be charged with
creating and managing a website as well as developing an advertising campaign. Hands
on projects such as these help interns learn how strategy and well
-
developed marketing
are essential to a sound advertising and communications plan.

During their internship, the intern will experience the development of an ad, brochure and
broadcast or communications project from beginning to end. During the internship, the
intern should be exposed to as much as possible within the agency and advertisi
ng
process.


TOP ADVERTISING COMPANIES OF INDIA:

Ogilvy and mather:


This is one of the leading advertising company in india. This organization believes that
devotion to the brand defines the profile of their company. This company has offices
across the gl
obe. The objective of the company is to build brands. I t is a subsidiary of
wpp group plc. The headquarter of the company is in new york.


J walter thompson india:

One of the most popular company in the advertising industry is j walter thompson india.
The
ir objective is to make advertising a part of the life of the consumers. This is also
world's best advertising brand with about 200 offices in 90 countries. This company is the
first one to introduce pioneer careers in ad for women,sex
-
appeal ads and also
produced
the first ever sponsored
-
tv program.

Mudra communication pvt. Ltd:

This is one of the renowned advertising company of india. This advertising organization
was founded in the year 1980 at mumbai. Recently the ad company declared the addition
of pu
blic relations,rural marketing,events etc. The head office of the company is in
bombay area.

Fcb
-
ulka advertising ltd:

One of the best company in india in the advertising arena is fcb
-
ulka advertising ltd. In us
,this advertising company ranks third and te
nth in the world having about 188 offices in
102 countries. Their aim is to reflect the needs of the brand and not the personality of the
brand. It has about 500 professionals and no prima donnas.

Rediffusion
-
dy&r:

this advertising company of india has mad
e a benchmark in the field of creativity. india's
5th largest advertising company is rediffusion. this advertising agency offers a wide array
of integrated pr services for external and internal communications. the primary strength
of the company lies in th
e media relations.

mccann
-
erickson india ltd:

the prominent name among the best advertising companies of india is mccann
-
erickson
india ltd. they define work in relation to the impact that advertising has on the lives of
masses. the testimony of the compan
y in which it firmly believes is the campaign of coca
-
cola
-
'thanda matlab coca cola'.

rk swamy/bbdo advertising ltd:

it maintained the record of remaining consistently among the top ten advertising agencies
in india. established in 1973,this advertising r
eached great heights. this is also india's no.1
research company in the market sector and is fully run by indians. brand equity is an
integral part of the company.

grey worldwide (i) pvt. ltd:

a significant name in india in the world of advertising agencie
s is grey worldwide (i) pvt
ltd.the company is primarily based in mumbai and has offices in kolkata, ahmedabad,
bangalore and new delhi. it is a subsidiary of grey worldwide. the company specializes in
advertising and marketing services.

leo burnett india
pvt. ltd :

it has a significant presence in about 96 offices in 10 countries. this advertising agency
was awarded the 'worldwide agency of the year' in 2004.they are proficient in explaining
how a single image is worth thousand words and can break the barr
iers of language but
not at the cost of the ad's emotional power.

contract advertising india ltd:

this advertising company of india is one of the leading advertising agencies in india. it is
one
-
to
-
one customer lifecycle management advertising agency. it w
as founded in 1992
and is situated in mumbai. it offers a wide range of services like online marketing and
strategy and many others.


ADVERTISING MEDIA SELECTION IS THE PROCESS

Choosing the most cost
-
effective media for advertising, to achieve the require
d c
overage
and number of exposures in a target audience.

Performance

This is typically measured on two dimensions: frequency and spread.

Frequency

To maximize overall awareness, the advertising must reach the maximum number of the
target audience. There is

a limit for the last few per cent of the general population who
don't see the main media advertisers use. These are more expensive to reach. The
'cumulative' coverage cost typically follows an exponential curve. Reaching 90 per cent
can cost double what i
t costs to reach 70 per cent, and reaching 95 per cent can double
the cost yet again. In practice, the coverage decision rests on a balance between desired
coverage and cost. A large budget achieves high coverage

a smaller budget limits the
ambitions of th
e

advertiser.

1.

Frequency

even with high coverage, it is insufficient for a target audience
member to have just one 'opportunity to see' (ots) the advertisement. In traditional media,
around five ots are believed required for a reasonable impact. To build

attitudes that lead
to brand switching may require more. To achieve five ots, even in only 70 per cent of the
overall audience, may require 20 or 30 peak
-
time transmissions of a commercial, or a
significant number of insertions of press advertisements in
the national media. As these
figures suggest, most consumers simply don't see the commercials that often (whereas the
brand manager, say, sees every one and has already seen them many times before their
first transmission, and so is justifiably bored).

The

life of advertising campaigns can often extend beyond the relatively short life usually
expected. Indeed, as indicated above, some research shows that advertisements require
significant exposure to consumers before they even register. As david ogilvy long

ago
recommended, "if you are lucky enough to write a good advertisement, repeat it until it
stops selling. Scores of good advertisements have been discarded before they lost their
potency."

Spread

More sophisticated media planners also look at the 'spread
' of frequencies. Ideally all of
the audience should receive the average number of ots. Those who receive fewer are
insufficiently motivated, and extra advertising is wasted on those who receive more. It is,
of course, impossible to achieve this ideal. As
with coverage, the pattern is weighted
towards a smaller number

of heavy viewers, for example

who receive significantly
more ots, and away from the difficult last few percent. However, a good media buyer
manages the resulting spread of frequencies to weigh

it close to the average, with as few
audience members as possible below the average.

Frequency is also complicated by the fact that this is a function of time. A pattern of 12
ots across a year may be scarcely noticed, whereas 12 ots in a week is evident
to most
viewers. This is often the rationale for advertising in `bursts' or `waves' (sometimes
described as `pulsing'). This concentrates expenditure into a number of intense periods of
advertising, spread throughout the year, so brands do not remain uncov
e
red for long
periods.

Media buyers

In the end, it is the media buyers who deliver the goods; by negotiating special deals with
the media owners, and buying the best parcels of `slots' to achieve the best cost (normally
measured in terms of the cost per th
ousand viewers, or per thousand household
`impressions', or per thousand impressions on the target audience. The "best cost" can
also be measured by the cost per lead, in the case of direct response marketing). The
growth of the very large, international,
a
gencies has been partly justified by their
increased buying power over the media owners.

Types of media and their characteristics

In terms of overall advertising expenditures, media advertising is still dominated by press
and television, which are of comp
arable size (by value of 'sales'). Posters and radio
follow some way behind, with cinema representing a very specialist medium.

Press

In the united kingdom, spending is dominated by the national and regional newspapers,
the latter taking almost all the cla
ssified advertising revenue. The magazines and trade or
technical journal markets are about the same size as each other, but are less than half that
of the newspaper sectors.


national newspapers

-

these are still traditionally categorized, from the media
buyer's viewpoint, on the basis of class; even though this is of declining importance to
many advertisers. `quality' newspapers for example, tend to have a readership profile

of
in excess of 80 per cent of abc1 readers, though it is more difficult to segment readerships
by age categories. They are obviously best matched to national advertisers who are happy
with black and white advertisements, although colour is now available
-

and high
-
quality
colour is available in some supplements. National newspapers in general, and the quality
press in particular, are supposed to carry more `weight' with their readers (since they are
deliberately read, not treated just as `background'); so

that an advertisement placed in one
is taken more seriously than a comparable one in a regional newspaper, although it may
be more transitory (since it is not kept for reference as some local weeklies may be).


regional newspapers

these may be dailies, w
hich look and perform much like
the nationals, or weeklies, which are more specialized, though they dominate the
classified advertising market. There is usually much more advertising competing for the
reader's attention, and the weekly newspaper is now lar
gely the province of the 'free
-
sheet'

typically delivered free to all homes in a given area

which earn revenue from
their high proportion of advertising, and accordingly having the least `weight' of all.

Advertisements in newspapers, referred to as `insert
ions', are usually specified as so
many centimetres across so many columns. In these days of metrication, a multiple of 3
cm is used as the standard measure in the uk, instead of the previously traditional inch.
Thus, a `30 cm double' is an advertisement t
hat is 30 cm long, down the page, and across
two columns of type; where the width of columns varies from paper to paper
-

an
important consideration when you are having the printing `blocks' made. The position is
also often specified; so that, for example,

an advertiser of a unit trust will probably pay
extra to make certain that the insertion is next to the financial pages.


magazines

these offer a more selective audience (which is more `involved', with
the editorial content at least). Magazines are tradi
tionally categorized into general
interest, special interest and trade or technical. The advertiser will, therefore, be able to
select those that match the specific profile demanded by the advertising strategy. The
weight, or `authority', of magazines is c
orrespondingly high, and they may be kept for a
considerable time for use as reference
-

and passed to other readers (so that `readership'
figures may be much higher than `circulation' figures). They can offer excellent colour
printing; but, again, the clu
tter of many competing advertisements may reduce the impact
of the advertiser's message.


trade and technical
-

in the trade and professional fields there are now a significant
number of 'controlled circulation' magazines. These are like the `free press',

in that they
are delivered free to the recipients; but, at least in theory, those recipients should have
been carefully screened to ensure that they are of value to the advertisers
-

and the
circulation can, if properly controlled, represent a wide cross
-
section of the buyers, and
influencers, in the advertiser's target audience. The rates for positioning are usually more
varied than for newspapers, with premiums being paid for facing editorial matter and, of
course, for colour.

Television

This is normally

the most expensive medium, and as such is generally only open to the
major advertisers, although some regional contractors offer more affordable packages to
their local advertisers. It offers by far the widest coverage, particularly at peak hours
(roughly

7.00

10.30 p.m.) And especially of family audiences. Offering sight, sound,
movement and colour, it has the greatest impact, especially for those products or services
where a 'demonstration' is essential; since it combines the virtues of both the 'story
-
t
eller'
and the `demonstrator'. To be effective, these messages must be simple and able to
overcome surrounding family life distractions

especially the tv remote.

Television is relatively unselective, and offers relatively poor coverage of upper class and
y
ounger age groups. Being regionally based, however, it can be used for regional trials or
promotions (including test markets).

The price structures can be complicated, with the 'rate card' (the price list) offering
different prices for different times thro
ughout the day. This is further complicated by a
wide range of special promotional packages and individual negotiations. This
complication provides work for specialist media buyers.


satellite television

long believed the medium of the future, as once was

cable
television


has largely fulfilled that expectation in the us. It is now an important feature
in other countries, though terrestrial 'freeview' broadcasting poses a challenge.



Posters

This is something of a specialist medium, which is generally use
d in support of
campaigns using other media. On the other hand, some advertisers, particularly those in
brewing and tobacco, have successfully made significant use of the medium; alth
ough, to
achieve this, they have developed the requisite expertise to mak
e efficient use of its
peculiarities.

The main roadside posters are described in terms of how the poster is physically posted
on to them (pasted on, one sheet at a time, by a bill
-
poster); as 16 sheet (the main, 10' x
6'8" size in vertical format) and 48 s
heet (10' x 20', in horizontal/landscape format).
Those smaller ones, seen in pedestrian areas, are typically four sheet (5' x 3'4"). The best
sites are typically reserved for the lon
g
-
term clients, mainly the brewers and tobacco
companies (hence one reaso
n for their success in use of the medium), so that new users
may find this a relatively unattractive medium.

This industry is also known as out of home media. However, this category is not limited
to posters and billboards. It may involve the use of media
space in airports, malls,
convenience stores, etc., and it could even tie into guerilla marketing, a nontraditional
approach to advertising that may involve grassroots tactics (e.g. P
osting branded stickers
or static clings to buildings, restrooms, and oth
er surfaces in metropolitan areas).

In malaysia there are numerous sizes from 10'x40', 20'x60', 20'x80' to 40'x60'. In both
formats..landscape and portrait. Current outdoor media owne
rs include seni jaya and big
tree.

Radio

Radio advertising has increased
greatly in recent years, with the granting of many more
licenses. It typically generates specific audiences at different times of the day

adults at
breakfast, housewives, and commuters during rush hours. It can be a cost
-
effective way
of reaching these aud
iences

especially since production costs are much cheaper than
television, though the lack of visual elements may limit the message.

Cinema

Though national audience numbers are down,
this may be the most effective medium for
extending coverage to younger a
ge groups, since the core audience is 15 to 24.

Internet/web advertising

This rapidly growing marketing force borrows much from the example of press
advertising, but the most effectiv
e use

adopted by search engines

is interactive.

Mobile advertising

Person
al mobile phones have become an attractive advertising media to network
operators, but are relatively unproven and remain in media buyers' sidelines.

Audience research

Identifying the

audience for a magazine or newspaper, or determining who watches
televis
ion at a given time, is a specialized form of market research, often conducted on
behalf of media owners.

Press figures are slightly complicated by the fact that there are two measure
s: readership
(total number of readers of a publication, no matter where
they read it), and circulation
(the number of copies actually sold, which is mostly independently validated).

Advertising
-
free media

Advertising
-
free media refers to media outlets whose output is not funded or subsidized
by the sale of advertising space. I
t includes in its scope mass media entities such as
websites,television and radio networks, and magazines.

The public broadcasters of a number of countries air without commercials. Perhaps the
best known example of this is the united kingdom's public broad
caster, the bbc, whose
domestic networks do not carry commercials. Instead, the bbc, in common with most
other public broadcasters in europe, is funded by a television licence fee lev
ied on the
owners of all television sets.

A 2006 report by the senate of
canada suggested that the country's public broadcaster, the
canadian broadcasting corporation, be funded sufficiently by the federal government so
that it could air without any advert
ising[1].

Advertising media scheduling

Scheduling refers to the pattern o
f advertising timing, represented as plots on a yearly
flowchart. These plots indicate the pattern of scheduled times advertising must appear to
coincide with favorable selling periods. The classic scheduling models are continuity,
flighting and pulsing.

C
ontinuity

This model is primarily for non
-
seasonal products, yet sometimes for seasonal products.
Advertising runs steadily with little variation over the campaign period.

There may be short gaps at regular intervals and also long gaps

for instance, one ad

every week for 52 weeks, and then a pause. This pattern of advertising is prevalent in
service and packaged goods that require continuous reinforcement on the audience for top
of min
d recollection at point of purchase.

Advantages:


works as a reminder


covers the entire purchase cycle


cost efficiencies in the form of large media discounts


positioning advantages within media

Program or plan that identifies the media channels used

in an advertising campaign, and
specifies insert
ion or broadcast dates, positions, and duration of the messages.

Flighting (or "bursting")

In media scheduling for seasonal product categories, flighting involves intermittent and
irregular periods of advertising, alternating with shorter periods of no adv
ertising at all.
For instance, all of 2000 target rating poinered in a single month, "going dark" for the rest
of the year. Halloween costumes are rarely purchased all year except during the months
of septem
ber and october.

Advantages:


advertisers buy heavier weight than competitors for a relatively shorter period of
time


little waste, since advertising concentrates on the best purchasing cycle period


series of commercials appear as a unified campaign on different media vehicles

Pu
lsing

Pulsing combines flighting and continuous scheduling by using a low advertising level all
year round and heavy advertising during peak selling periods. Product categories that are
sold year round but experience a surge in sales at intermittent period
s are good candidates
for pulsing. For instance, under
-
arm deodorants, sell all year, but more in summer
months.

Advantages:


covers different market situations


advantages of both continuity and flighting possible


An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea
and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (imc). Adverti
sing
campaigns appear in different media across a specific time frame.

The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining a champion theme as
it sets the tone for the individual advertisements and other forms of marketing
communications tha
t will be used. The campaign theme is the central message that will
be communicated in the promotional activities. The campaign themes are usually
developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are
short lived due to f
actors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or
competition in the marketplace and marketing mix.



The goal of advertising is to cost
-
effectively reach a large audience and attract
customers. If done correctly, advertising can enhance the suc
cess of your business.
Here are 10 advertising tips to pay attention to:

1.

Go after your target audience. An advertising campaign should be geared to your
niche market. It is a common mistake to create generic ads that do not speak the language
or grab th
e attention of your potential customers. For more information, read how to
identify and reach niche markets for your business.

2.

Highlight your competitive advantage. One of the keys to all advertising is to
accentuate the pros of your company, those fact
ors that give you your competitive edge.
Too many ads are clever but fail to sell the benefits of the product or service.

3.

Establish an image. You can recognize the mcdonald's arches while whizzing by
on the highway. Likewise, there are plenty of product
s that you recognize by their
packaging or logo. Image counts when it comes to advertising and promoting your
business. Too many advertisers do not work to build a consistent image. Check out three
brand identity myths that will bring your business downfor

additional issues to avoid.

4.

You have to spend money to make money.there are ways to save money, but
typically advertising is not the place to cut corners. It will affect sales, and that affects the
bottom line. Successful advertising may cost some mone
y, but that is because it works.
Check out more bang for your advertising buck for cost
-
cutting tips that won't cut your
goals.

5.

Advertise in the right places. Your favorite magazine, radio station, or even
television program might not be a favorite of y
our audience. Know what they read,
watch, and listen to, and advertise in media that reaches your target market.

6.

Don't allow your budget to run your advertising campaign. If you budget $5,000
per month for advertising, you've made it very easy from a bo
okkeeping perspective.
However, if like most businesses you have seasonal highs and lows, you are spending too
much money advertising during down times and not enough when you want to attract
customers. Too many entrepreneurs do not budget according to the
ir seasonal advertising
needs.

7.

Diversify. It is all too common for business owners to choose the best place to
advertise based on price and potential rate of returns and then stop. As is the case with
investing, you do not want to put all of your eggs i
n one basket. Spread your advertising
dollars around.

8.

Don't try to be everything to everyone. No product or service will appeal to
everyone. Many business owners, including corporate executives, try to come up with
ways to reach every market. Typically,

this does not work. It can spell disaster for small
businesses, who cannot afford to spread themselves too thin. Therefore, find your market
and be everything you can be to that audience.

9.

Test your ads in advance. If you have the time or money to inves
t in focus groups,
you should test your ads on other people. Do they understand and accept the message that
you are trying to convey? For further information, read focus groups: how they can work
for your small business. There are other less
-
expensive ways

to test your ads as well:
questionnaires, for example. The article creating questionnaires for gathering market
research can be helpful.

10.

Monitor your ads. It is very easy to ask new customers or clients where they heard
about you. As simple as this is
, many entrepreneurs do not bother to do so. It is
advantageous to know which ads generate business.

Unit 2


A wise man once said, "the person who saves money by not advertising is like the man
who stops the clock to save time." in today's fast
-
paced, high
-
tech age, businesses have to
use some form of advertising to make prospects aware of their products and services.

Even a famous company like coca
-
cola continually spends money on media advertising
to support recognition of their products. Last year coca
-
c
ola spent more than $150 million
to keep its name in the forefront of the public's eye. So the question isn't whether or not
you can afford to advertise, you simply must if you want your business to succeed.

Some questions you should consider before buying

ads are (small business advertising
marketing media):

1. What marketing media is the best to use?

2. How important is creativity?

3. Is there a way to buy space and time that will stretch my advertising budget?

When it comes to advertising, a lot of peopl
e really don't know what they want, where to
get it or what to do with it after they have it. This guide will help you learn to determine
what type of advertising media is best for you, and learn to identify guidelines you can
use to obtain the advertising

exposure you need. It will help you identify ways to make
your advertising more cost efficient.

Advertising is an investment in your business's future. And like any investment, it's
important to find out as much as you can before you make a decision. You'
ll be able to
use this guide as a reliable reference tool often in the months and years to come.


Newspaper media advertising

Every advertising medium has characteristics that give it natural advantages and
limitations. As you look through your newspaper(s
), you'll notice some businesses that
advertise regularly. Observe who they are and how they advertise their products and
services. More than likely, their advertising investment is working if it's selling!

Some advantages in newspaper media advertising

Al
most every home receives a newspaper, either by newsstand or home delivery. Reading
the newspaper is a habit for most families. And, there is something for everybody: sports,
comics, crosswords, news, classifieds, etc. You can reach certain types of people

by
placing your ad in different sections of the paper. People expect advertising in the
newspaper. In fact, many people buy the paper just to read the ads from the supermarket,
movies or department stores.

Unlike advertising on tv and radio, advertising i
n the newspaper can be examined at your
leisure. A newspaper ad can contain details, such as prices and telephone numbers or
coupons.

There are many advantages to advertising in the newspaper. From the advertiser's point
-
of
-
view, newspaper advertising can
be convenient because production changes can be
made quickly, if necessary, and you can often insert a new advertisement on short notice.
Another advantage is the large variety of ad sizes newspaper advertising offers. Even
though you may not have a lot of

money in your budget, you can still place a series of
small ads, without making a sacrifice.

Some disadvantages with newspaper advertising

Advertising in the newspaper offers many advantages, but it is not without its inherent
disadvantages, such as:



ne
wspapers usually are read once and stay in the house for just a day.



the print quality of newspapers isn't always the best, especially for photographs.
So use simple artwork and line drawings for best results.



the page size of a newspaper is fairly lar
ge and small ads can look minuscule.



your ad has to compete with other ads for the reader's attention.



you're not assured that every person who gets the newspaper will read your ad.
They may not read the section you advertised in, or they may simply ha
ve skipped the
page because there wasn't any interesting news on it.

How should i work with my newspaper representative?

Every newspaper has its own sales staff, and you're normally appointed your personal
newspaper "sales representative." a newspaper sale
s rep can be very helpful. He or she
can keep you posted on special sections or promotions that may apply to your business,
but always keep in mind it is the sales rep's job to sell you advertising.

Your sales rep might say that the newspaper can layout an
y of your ads, pre
-
prepared or
not. But these ads are assembly line products and are not often very creative or eye
-
catching. Consider using an artist or agency for your ads.

In addition, your sales rep can sometimes be instrumental in making sure your sto
ry or
upcoming announcement "finds" the right reporter because the relationship between the
advertising and editorial staff is chummier than most people think, even though they
claim total anonymity.

To small business advertising media planning
-

top

Buyin
g newspaper marketing media space

Newspaper marketing media space advertising is sold by column and inch. You can
determine the size ad you want just by looking in the newspaper in which you want to
advertise. If you can't locate an ad that's the size you
want, just measure the columns
across and the inches down. For example, an ad that measures 3 columns across and 7
inches down would be a 21 inch ad. If the inch rate is $45.67, your ad would cost
$959.07. In case your newspaper is still on the line rate s
ystem, remember there are 14
lines to an inch. So, if the line rate is $3.75, multiply it by 14 and you will have the cost
of an inch rate. (the rate would be $45.50 an inch.)

Here are some other things to remember:



newspaper circulation drops on saturda
ys and increases on sundays, which is also
the day a newspaper is read most thoroughly.



position is important, so specify in what section you want your ad to appear.
Sometimes there's a surcharge for exact position...but don't be afraid to pay for it if
you
need it.



request an outside position for ads that have coupons. That makes them easier to
cut out.



if a newspaper is delivered twice daily (morning/evening), it often offers
"combination" rates or discounts for advertising in both papers, you usual
ly can reach
more readers, so this kind of advertising may be something to consider.

Other important tips to remember are:



before you advertise, have in mind a definite plan for what it is you want to sell.



create short, descriptive copy for your ad. I
nclude prices if applicable. Consider
using a copywriter or ask your newspaper for free copy assistance.



face your products toward the inside of the ad. If the product you want to use faces
right, change your copy layout to the left.



be sure to include

your company name and logo, address and telephone number in
the ad.



neat, uncluttered and orderly ads encourage readership. Don't try to crowd
everything you can in the layout space. If the newspaper helps you with the layout, be
sure to request a proof

of the final version so you can approve it or make changes before
it is printed.

Always make sure you are satisfied with what your advertising says and how it looks
before it goes to print.

To small business advertising media planning


top

Magazine marke
ting media

Many of the same "print" type principles which apply to newspaper advertising also
apply to magazine advertising. The biggest differences are:



magazines are usually weekly or monthly publications instead of daily.



advertising messages are mo
re image
-
oriented and less price
-
oriented.



the quality of the pictures and paper are superior to newsprint.



advertisements involve color more often.

The general rule that you can run the same ad 3
-
5 times within a campaign period before
its appeal less
ens applies to magazine advertising as well, even with a monthly
publication. So it makes sense to spend extra time and money to prepare a worthwhile ad
that can be successfully repeated. Over long terms such as these, however, be aware that
the client (yo
u) often tire of the ad before the audience does.

Because ads in magazines are not immediate, they take more planning. Often, an ad for a
monthly magazine must be prepared at least a month in advance of publication, so ads
detailing prices and items have t
o be carefully crafted to insure accuracy.

Since the quality of the magazines are superior, the advertising that you generate must be
superior as well. Negatives are usually required instead of prints or "pmts" (photo
-
mechanical transfers). Consider gettin
g assistance from a graphic artist or an advertising
agency.

There are two categories of magazines: trade magazines and consumer magazines
.
Trade magazines are publications that go to certain types of businesses, services and
industries. Consumer magazines

are generally the kind you find on the average news
stand. Investigate which type would do your business the most good.

An agency can also purchase the magazine space for you, often at no charge, because the
magazine pays the agency a commission directly.

If you wish to purchase the advertising
yourself, contact the magazine directly and ask for an "ad kit" or "media package." they
will send you a folder that includes demographic information, reach information, a
current rate card and a sample of the publi
cation.

Although most magazines are national in nature, many have regional advertising sections
that allow your business to look like it purchased a national ad when it only went to a
certain geographical area. This can be especially useful if your product

or service is
regional in nature as well and could not benefit from the magazine’s complete readership.
Each magazine does this differently, so contact the one(s) you are interested in and ask
them about their geographic editions. Some sophisticated magaz
ines even have
demographic editions available, which might also be advantageous.

Radio advertising media

Since its inception, radio has become an integral part of our culture. In some way, it
touches the lives of almost everyone, every day. Radio, as a med
ium, offers a form of
entertainment that attracts listeners while they are working, traveling, relaxing or doing
almost anything. A farmer, for example, may listen to the radio while he is having
breakfast or plowing his field. People driving to work often

listen to the radio. Radio
offers information such as: news, weather reports, traffic conditions, advertising and
music for your listening pleasure.

What are some of the good things about radio?

Radio media advertising is a relatively inexpensive way of r
eaching people. It has often
been called the "theater of the mind" because voices or sounds can be used to create
moods or images that if crested by visual effects would be impossible to afford.

You can also negotiate rates for your commercials, or even ba
rter. Stations are often
looking for prizes they can give away to listeners, so it's possible to get full commercial
credit for the product or service you offer.

Advantages to radio advertising media include:



the ability to easily change and update scrip
ts are paramount to radio broadcasting,
since news stories can and often do happen live.



radio is a personal advertising medium. Station personalities have a good rapport
with their listeners. If a radio personality announces your commercial, it's almost

an
implied endorsement.



radio is also a way to support your printed advertising. You can say in your
commercial, "see our ad in the sunday times," which makes your message twice as
effective.

What are some limitations to radio advertising media?

Radio a
dvertising is not without its disadvantages too, such as:



you can't review a radio commercial. Once it plays, it’s gone. If you didn't catch
all the message, you can't go back and hear it again.



since there are a lot of radio stations, the total listen
ing audience for any one
station is just a piece of a much larger whole. That's why it's important to know what
stations your customers and prospects probably listen to. Therefore, most of the time,
you'll have to buy time on several radio stations to reac
h the market you are after.



people don't listen to the radio all the time...only during certain times of day. So,
it's important to know when your customers or prospects are listening. For example, if
you want to reach a large portion of your audience by

advertising during the morning
farm report, you'll have to specify that time period to the radio station when you buy the
time.

One of the most popular times to reach people is during drive times (from 6 a.m. To 10
a.m. And 3 p.m. To 7 p.m.) It's called t
hat because most people are going to or from work
during this period, and because most people listen to their radio when they drive.
Unfortunately, radio stations know that this is a favorite time to advertise, so commercial
costs are much higher during th
is time.



radio as a broadcasting medium, can effectively sell an image...or one or two ideas
at the most. It is not, however, a detailed medium...and is a poor place for prices and
telephone numbers.



radio listeners increase in the spring and summer, c
ontrary to television audiences
which increase in the fall and winter and decrease in the summer. This is an important
aspect to consider when you are choosing advertising media.

To small business advertising media planning
-

top

How should i buy time on t
he radio?

Like a newspaper, each radio station has its own advertising staff. Each wants you to
believe that their station is the absolute best buy for your money...and many will go to
great lengths to prove it. But if you've done your research, or you are

using an advertising
agency, you probably have a good idea of the station you want to buy time on and when.
If you don't know which stations you want to use, ask each station for its own research,
that is, the type of programming, musical format, geograph
ic reach, number of listeners
and station ratings.

By getting the station ratings and the number of people it reaches, you can figure out the
cost
-
per
-
thousand people (cpm) by simply dividing the cost of a commercial by the
thousands of people you are reac
hing.

Example: cost of commercial = $35.00, audience reached = 45,000 people.

Cost of commercial per 1000 people = 35/45 = $0.78 per 1000

Without getting complicated, here are two cardinal rules for radio advertising:

1. It's better to advertise when peopl
e are listening than when they are not.

2. It's better to bunch your commercials together than to spread them apart.

A lot of radio sales reps will try to talk you out of advertising during specific times.
They'll offer you a reduced rate called tap (total

audience plan) that splits your
advertising time into 1/3 drive, 1/3 mid
-
day and 1/3 night. This may sound like a good
deal, but airing commercials during times when your audience isn't listening is bad
advertising. If however, you are sponsoring a show s
uch as paul harvey or the morning
farm report, it makes sense to advertise once or twice a day on a regular basis, since those
programs have regular listenership. Frequency is a vital element for effective radio
advertising.

Since you can't automatically r
ecall the radio commercial and hear it again, you may have
to hear the same commercial two, four, or maybe six times before the message sinks in. If
you missed the address the first time, you consciously or subconsciously are hoping the
commercial will be
aired again so you can get the information you need. That's the way
radio advertising works. And that's also the way you buy it.

Most of the time, radio advertising should be bought in chunks. High frequency over a
short period of time is much more effecti
ve than low frequency over a longer period of
time. It's important for your audience to hear your spot again to get more information out
of it. For example, if you wanted to advertise a two week campaign and you could afford
42 radio commercials, the follo
wing buy would serve you well: on tuesdays, wednesdays
and thursdays, place three spots between 7
-
9 a.m. And four spots between 3
-
6 p.m. For
two weeks. Notice that both day and hour periods are concentrated.

By advertising in concentrated areas in tight da
y groups, you seem larger than you really
are. And people hearing your concentrated campaign for two or three days will think
you're on all the time. The radio sales reps may try to sell you three spots everyday on the
station for 14 days (a total of 42 sp
ots). But your campaign won't be nearly as effective.

Here are a few tips to help you plan your commercials:



if you're including your address in the commercial, simplify it. Instead of "134525
east pines," say "at the corner of first & pines, next to gum
bies." it's easier to remember.



don't use phone numbers in your commercial. If you have to mention your phone
number, refer to the yellow pages in the local phone book.



radio works better when you combine it with other advertising media.



check out th
e price differences between 60
-
second and 30
-
second commercials.
Normally, 30
-
second commercials are only 1/3 less than 60's, which makes a 60
-
second
commercial a better buy.



be creative with your radio advertising, too. If it sounds like all the rest of

the
commercials, it won't stand out. Your message won't be heard nearly as well. Advertising
agencies are usually quite good at producing creative radio commercials.

If you decide to write your own radio scripts, remember these basic copy writing rules:



get your listener's attention immediately.



write in conversational style.



avoid using buzz words or jargon.



repeat your important points.



make your ending strong and positive with call
-
to
-
action for response.

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anning
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Television marketing mrdia

Television is often called "king" of the advertising media, since a majority of people
spend more hours watching tv per day than any other medium. It combines the use of
sight, color, sound and motion...and it works.

Tv has proven its persuasive power in
influencing human behavior time and time again. But it's also the "king" of advertising
costs.

Advantages in television advertising media

Television reaches very large audiences
-
audiences that are usually larger than
the
audience your city's newspaper reaches. The area that a television station's broadcast
signal covers is called a.d.i., which stands for "area of dominant influence."

Some advantages of television advertising include the following:



advertising on tele
vision can give a product or service instant validity and
prominence.



you can easily reach the audiences you have targeted by advertising on tv.
Children can be reached during cartoon programming, farmers during the morning
agricultural reports and house
wives during the afternoon soap operas. A special
documentary on energy sources for heating homes and business will also attract viewers
interested in heating alternatives.



tv offers the greatest possibility for creative advertising. With a camera, you c
an
take your audience anywhere and show them almost anything.



since there are fewer television stations than radio stations in a given area, each tv
audience is divided into much larger segments, which enables you to reach a larger, yet,
more diverse aud
ience.

Disadvantages in television advertising media

Because tv has such a larger a.d.i., the stations can charge more for commercials based on
the larger number of viewers reached.

The cost of television commercial time is based on two variables:

1. The n
umber of viewers who watch the program.

2. The time during the day the program airs.

One 30 second television commercial during prime time viewing (8 p.m. To 11 p.m.)

Can cost 10 to 30 times more than one radio spot during drive time (which is considered
p
rime listening time).

While the newspaper may cover the city's general metropolitan area, tv may cover a good
portion of the state where you live. If such a coverage blankets most of your sales
territory, tv advertising may be the best advertising alternat
ive for your business.

Producing a commercial is also an important variable to consider. On the whole,
television audiences have become more sophisticated and have come to expect quality
commercials. A poorly produced commercial could severely limit the ef
fectiveness of
your message, and may even create a bad image in your customer's mind.

Advertising agencies or tv commercial production facilities are the best organizations for
creating a commercial that will be effective for the goods or service you are o
ffering. But
the cost of a well
-
produced commercial is often more expensive than people think. Some
tv stations will claim they can put together commercials for "almost nothing." before
agreeing to this, find out what "almost nothing" means. Then, determin
e if the
commercial quality and content they are proposing will represent your firm's image.

Many companies use the station's commercial production facilities for creating "tag lines"
on pre
-
produced commercials. Often, the station will help you personaliz
e the spot for
little or no cost...if you advertise with them. Remember, more than anything else, when it
comes to making a tv commercial, you get what you pay for. And when you're buying
commercial time, it makes sense to have the best sales presentation
possible.

Remember, like radio, the message comes and goes...and that's it. The viewer doesn't see
your commercial again unless you buy more placements.

To small business advertising media planning
-

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Creativity: a vital element

When you advertise on tv
, your commercial is not only competing with other
commercials, it's also competing with the other elements in the viewer's environment as
well.

The viewer may choose to get a snack during the commercial break, go to the bathroom
or have a conversation abo
ut what they just saw on the show they were viewing. Even if
your commercial is being aired, viewers may never see it unless it is creative enough to
capture their attention. That's why it's so important to consider the kind of commercial
you are going to
create...and how you want your audience to be affected. Spending
money on a good commercial in the beginning will pay dividends in the end.

Don't use tv unless your budget allows

Attempting to use tv advertising by using a poorly
-
produced commercial; buyin
g
inexpensive late night commercial time that few people watch; or just placing your
commercial a couple times on the air will guarantee disappointing results. To obtain
positive results from tv advertising you must have enough money in your budget to:

1.
Pay for the cost of producing a good tv commercial.

2. Pay for effective commercial time that will reach your viewer at least 5
-
7 times.

Properly done, television advertising is the most effective medium there is. But it is big
league advertising...and you

shouldn't attempt it unless you have enough money in your
budget to do it right.

If you're still attracted to tv, it's a good idea to call in an advertising agency for
production and media buying estimates. Then, figure out what sales results you can
expe
ct. With such data, you should be able to reach a logical advertising decision.

Buying television advertising media time

There are many things to know and consider before buying a tv programming schedule.
That's why, in most cases, using an advertising age
ncy or a media buying service is
recommended when advertising on tv. If these services are unavailable, find a tv
representative that you can trust. Your agency or representative can help you select the
programs you should advertise on in order to reach yo
ur market. Also, ask about "fringe"
time, adjacencies and package plans.

When you are engineering your schedule, remember that repetition (or frequency) is a
very important ingredient to use. Make sure your audience sees your commercial with the
context of

the programs you're buying. Ask for a commercial affidavit. Normally, it
doesn't cost any more and the station will provide you with a list of the exact times your
commercial was run.

Other considerations

For an effective and inexpensive way to get your m
essage on the tv screen, consider
using pre
-
prepared tv commercials that may be available to you through a manufacture or
distributor you deal with. You can add your name and logo to the end of the commercial

For little or no cost. Look at cooperative adve
rtising too. Many companies offer prepared
advertising materials you can use and at the same time may pay for a portion of the
advertising schedule.

Cable advertising

Cable advertising is a lower cost alternative to advertising on broadcast television. It
has
many of the same qualities as broadcast television, and in fact, since it offers more
programming, it's even easier to reach a designated audience.

The trouble with cable is it doesn't reach everyone in the market area, since the signal has
to be wired

instead of broadcast, and also because not everyone subscribes to cable.

If cable does reach a large part of your market, have an advertising agency investigate its
cost or call the cable company's advertising sales department. Chances are the
commercial
time will be 10 to 20 percent of the costs of regular broadcast time.

To small business advertising media planning
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Yellow pages

Telephone book advertising is another way to reach your market area. It allows you to
place your business listing or ad in

selected classifications within the book, with the
theory being that when people need your product or service, they look up the
classification and contact you.

Much of the "sell" copy for a product or service, therefore, does not have to be in your ad
con
tent, since the people who have looked up your classification are already in the
market to buy. The thing to be aware of when you write the ad is the other firms' ads
within your classification. In other words, why should the reader select your firm over
y
our competition? That is the crucial question
--

and your ad should provide the answer.

Telephone yellow pages salespeople often employ the technique of selling as large of ad
as they can to one company, then showing the other companies in the same classif
ication
what the one company is doing so that they can match it or beat it. This is not the best
criteria for determining ad size, but is definitely good for the ad salesperson.

To determine the size you should use, consider the following:



your ad should

be large enough to incorporate the vital information the reader
needs to make a contact decision (as mentioned above).



remember your lessons in print advertising. Keep your ad clean, creative and eye
-
appealing. Even though the phone company will "design

your ad for free," some firms
employ graphic artists and advertising agencies to create a yellow pages ad that really
stands out.



give yourself a budget to work with. Figure out how much you want to spend on
yellow pages advertising for the entire year,

then divide it by 12. That will give you the
payment that is automatically attached to your phone bill every month.



do something unique or different. If no one else is using color, use color. Even
shades of gray can make an ad look better and more appea
ling.

Advantages of yellow pages advertising



one ad works all year long.



gives your prospect a method of easily locating and contacting your business, even
if they didn't initially know your name.



can help you describe the differences between you and

your competition.



you pay by the month instead of one large payment.

Disadvantages of yellow pages advertising



you must commit to an entire year of advertising.



you are immediately placed with a group of your competitors, making it easy for
the pros
pect to comparison shop.



some classifications are so cluttered with advertising, your ad is buried and
ineffective.



it is only effective when a prospect looks you up in the correct classification,
assuming the prospect knows what classification to look

for in the first place.

If you require more than one classification, your yellow pages representative often has
packages and programs that can save you some money. In addition, the same is often true
if you need to be advertising in more than one city or
market.

Yellow pages advertising is an important medium to consider in our fast
-
paced,
information
-
hungry society. People really do let their "fingers do the walking" instead of
driving around blindly. Make sure your yellow pages ad is attractive and infor
mative
enough to be the one or two businesses the prospect actually does select to call. And then
make sure you have the resources to deal with the inquiry. After all, there is nothing more
annoying than being put "on
-
hold" by a busy checker or being serve
d by an uninterested
or unknowledgeable employee.

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top

Outdoor advertising media

When people think of outdoor advertising, they usually think of the colorful billboards
along our streets and highways. Included
in the "outdoor" classification, however, are
benches, posters, signs and transit advertising (the advertising on buses, subways,
taxicabs and trains). They are all share similar advertising rules and methods.

Outdoor advertising reaches its audience as an

element of the environment. Unlike
newspaper, radio or tv, it doesn't have to be invited into the home. And it doesn't provide
entertainment to sustain its audience.

Some outdoor advantages



Since it is in the public domain, outdoor advertising assuredly

reaches its
audience. People can't "switch it off" or "throw it out." people are exposed to it whether
they like it or not. In this sense, outdoor advertising truly has a "captured audience."



it's messages work on the advertising principle of "frequency
." since most
messages stay in the same place for a period of a month or more, people who drive by or
walk past see the same message a number of times.



particular locations can be acquired for certain purposes. A billboard located a
block in front of you
r business can direct people to your showroom. Or you can reach
rural areas efficiently by placing a billboard in each small town.



outdoor advertising is an excellent adjunct to other types of advertising you are
doing. In fact, it is most effective when

coupled with other media.

Some outdoor disadvantages



outdoor advertising is a glance medium. At best, it only draws 2
-
3 seconds of a
reader's time.



messages must be brief to fit in that 2
-
3 second time frame. Ninety
-
five percent of
the time, either th
e message or the audience is in motion.



the nature of the way you have to buy outdoor advertising (usually a three month
commitment) is not conducive to a very short, week
-
long campaign.

When you buy outdoor advertising, remember that location is everyth
ing. High traffic
areas are ideal. A billboard in an undesirable area will do you little good. Keep your
message concise (use only five to seven words) and make it creatively appealing to attract
readership. Few words, large illustrations (or photos), bold

colors and simple
backgrounds will create the most effective outdoor advertising messages.

Direct mail

What makes "direct" mail different than regular mail? Nothing. It's just a way the
advertising world describes a promotional message that circumvents tr
aditional media
(newspaper, radio, tv) and appeals directly to an individual consumer. Usually through
the mail, but other carriers also participate.

Direct mail may be used more than you think. Studies indicate that it is the third largest
media expenditu
re behind television and newspaper.

Rules to remember



define your audience. Figure out who you want to reach before developing your
direct mail program. This allows you to specifically target your message to fit common
needs. It is the best advertising m
edium for "tailoring" your appeal.



locate the right mailing list. You can either build a "house list" by doing the
research yourself and compiling the information on a computer
-

or you can purchase an
"outside list" from a list house or mailing organiza
tion already pre
-
prepared and ready to
go.



there are many ways to purchase lists. You can buy them demographically (by
age, profession, habits or business), or geographically (by location, or zip code). Or you
can by a list with both qualities. More than

likely, there is a mailing list company in your
area that would happy to consult with you on your needs. If not, there are a number of
national mailing lists available.



for assembly, addressing and mailing your project, you also have the choice of
doing

it yourself or locating a mailing service company to do it for you. As the numbers
of your direct mail pieces increase, the more practical it is for you to enlist such an
organization for assistance. They also are very good at getting you the lowest posta
l rates.



consider using a self
-
addressed reply card or envelope to strengthen return. Use a
business reply postage number on the envelope and you'll only pay for the cards which
are sent back to you.

The blessing (or curse) of direct mail is that there a
re no set rules for form or content. The
task of deciding what your mailing should have as content, its design and its message(s)
is up to you. However, remember to attract the reader's attention with color and
creativity. Use clear, comfortable writing an
d make your appeal easy to respond.

And of course, coordinate the mailing with other advertising media if you are also using
them in the same campaign. It can significantly increase the potential return.

Specialty advertising

"giveaways"
--

the pencils, pe
ns, buttons, calendars and refrigerator magnets you see
everyday
--

are called "specialty advertising" in the advertising business.

Chances are, you have some specialty advertising items right at your desk. Businesses
imprint their name on items and give t
hem away (or sometimes sell them at very low
cost) in order that:



you notice their name enough times on the item to build "top
-
of
-
the
-
mind"
awareness. So when you need a restaurant, for instance, you think of their name first.



you appreciate the goodwi
ll of the company giving you the item and eventually
return the favor by giving them some business.

These are both long
-
term advertising investments that can take months or years to turn
into actual sales.

First, select the best item that would tell your s
tory most effectively. While an accountant
can give away an inexpensive calculator, the same item may not be ideal for a
hairdresser. A comb or brush might be more appropriate in that case.

Second, decide what you are going to say on the item. A company sl
ogan? Address
directions? Since you have a relatively small area, you must be very concise and direct.

Third, figure out your method of distribution. Are you going to send them to each
customer through the mail? If so, how much will that cost? Will you hav
e them in a big
bowl that says "take one"? Distribution is just as important to consider as buying the
item.

Just as there are many reputable specialty advertising professionals in your area, the
industry is notorious with a lot of high
-
pressure telephone
and mail solicitors who often
give specialty advertising a bad name. Don't buy specialty advertising through the mail
without checking the quality and prices with trusted local representatives first. And,
buying specialty advertising over the telephone is
not recommended at all.

Specialty advertising is a unique way to generate goodwill and put your name on items
that people remember. But don't do it unless you have an item and distribution plan that
will benefit your business.

Magazines, unless local, usua
lly cover too much territory to be cost
-
efficient for a small
firm, although some national publications offer regional or city editions. Metropolita
n
radio stations present the same problems as tv and metro newspapers; however, in smaller
markets, the loca
l radio station and newspaper may sufficiently cover a small firm's
audience.

That's why it's important to put together a media plan for your advertising
campaign. The three components of a media plan are as follows
:


1.

Defining the marketing problem. Do you

know where your business is
coming from and where the potential for increased business lies? Do you
know which markets offer the greatest opportunity? Do you need to reach
everybody or only a select group of consumers? How often is the product
used? How m
uch product loyalty exists?


2.

Translating the marketing requirements into attainable media objectives.
Do you want to reach lots of people in a wide area (to get the most out of
your advertising dollar)? Then mass media, like newspaper and radio,
might work

for you. If your target market is a select group in a defined
geographic area, then direct mail could be your best bet.



3.

Defining a media solution by formulating media strategies. Certain
schedules work best with different media. For example, the rule of

thumb is
that a print ad must run three times before it gets noticed. Radio advertising
is most effective when run at certain times of the day

or around certain
programs, depending on what market you're trying to reach.




Advertising media generally incl
ude:



television



radio



newspapers



magazines (consumer and trade)



outdoor billboards



public transportation



yellow pages



direct mail



specialty advertising (on items such as matchbooks, pencils, calendars, telephone
pads, shopping bags and so

on)



other media (catalogs, samples, handouts, brochures, newsletters and so on)

When comparing the cost and effectiveness of various advertisin
g media, consider the
following factors:



Reach
. Expressed as a percentage, reach is the number of individual
s (or homes)
you want to expose your product to through specific media scheduled over a given period
of time.



Frequency
. Using specific media, how many times, on average, should the
individuals in your target audience be exposed to your advertising messa
ge? It takes an
average of three or more exposures to an advertising message before consumers take
action.



Cost Per Thousand
. How much will it cost to reach a thousand of your
prospective customers (a method used in comparing print media)? To determine a

publication's cost per thousand, also known as cpm, divide the cost of the advertising by
the publication's circulation in thousands.



Cost Per Point
. How much will it cost to buy one rating point for your target
audience, a method used in comparing broa
dcast media. One rating point equals 1 percent
of your target audience. Divide the cost of the schedule being considered by the number
of rating p
oints it delivers.



Impact
. Does the medium in question offer full opportunities for appealing to the
appropr
iate senses, such as sight and hearing, in its graphic design and production
quality?



Selectivity
. To what degree can the message be restricted
to those people who are
known to be the most logical prospects?


Reach and frequency are important aspects of
an advertising plan and are used to analyze
alternative advertising schedules to determine which produce the best results relative to
the media pla
n's objectives.

Calculate reach and frequency and then compare the two on the basis of how many
people you'll

reach with each schedule and the number of times you'll connect with the
average person. Let's say you aired one commercial in each of four television programs
(a, b, c, d), and each program has a 20 rating, resulting in a total of 80 gross rating points.

It's possible that some viewers will see more than one announcement
--
some viewers of
program a might also see program b, c, or d, or any combinati
on of them.

For example, in a population of 100 tv homes, a total of 40 are exposed to one or more tv
program
s. The reach of the four programs combined is therefore 40 percent (40 homes
reached divided by the 100 tv
-
home population).


Many researchers have charted the reach achieved with different media schedules. These
tabulations are put into formulas from whic
h you can estimate the level of delivery
(reach) for any given schedule. A reach curve is the technical term describing how reach
changes with increasing use of a medium. The media salespeople you work with or your
advertising agency can supply you with th
ese reach curves and numbers.

Now let's use the same schedule of one commercial in each of four tv programs (a, b, c,
d) to determine reach versus frequency. In our example, 17 homes viewed only one
program, 11 homes viewed two programs, seven viewed three

programs, and five homes
viewed all four programs. If we add the number of programs each home viewed, the 40
homes in total viewed the equivalent of 80 programs and therefore were exposed to the
equivalent of 80 commercials. By dividing 80 by 40, we estab
lish that any one home was
exposed to an average of two commercials.


To increase reach, you'd include additional media in your plan or expand the timing of
your message. For example, if you're only buying "drive time" on the radio, you might
also include
some daytime and evening spots to increase your audience. To increase
frequency, you'd add spots or insertions to your existing schedule. For example
, if you
were running three insertions in a local magazine, you'd increase that to six insertions so
that y
our audience would be exposed to your ad more often.


Gross rating points (grps)

are used to estimate broadcast reach and frequency from
tabulations and formulas. Once your schedule delivery has been determined from your
reach curves, you can obtain your a
verage frequency by dividing the grps by the reach.
For example, 200 grps divided by an 80 percent reach equals a 2.5 average frequency.

frequency is important because it takes a while to build up awareness and break through
the consumer's selection proces
s. people are always screening out messages they're not
interested in, picking up only on those things that are important to them. repetition is the
key word here. for frequency, it's much better to advertise regularly in small spaces than
it is to have a
one
-
time expensive advertising extravaganza.


Scheduling Strategies For Advertising Campaigns

Burst campaigns:

Higher quality, more reliable products.” Or, “people think big bank has more services and
products than we do. Things like investments and insura
nce, even inexpensive safe
deposit boxes. So they think big bank is more convenient.”

Or perhaps it's not so much what people think about competitors, but what they think
about your client:

"gosh, i don't know if i want to buy a mac. Just not as much
softw
are as i can get for a
pc."

Get the idea? Psycho
-
dynamics is everything. It’s all that stuff rattling around between
the ears of potential customers. The thoughts, feelings and ever
-
changing prejudices that
influence purchase decisions. That's the psy
cho
-
d
ynamics of the market.

And it is always changing.


Know, or define, exactly what you want the advertising to accomplish.

Strangely enough, this is called the advertising objective. Do you want the advertising to
get people to think or feel or do something?

Or a combination of the three?

“we want people to think of us as a maker of truly top quality sports wear, for real
athletes. We want people to buy our brand instead of brand n. And feel cool, proud to
wear our logo.”

Another way to define the ad obj
ectiv
e is to ask, what’s the most important task for our
advertising?

Is it to encourage an emotional connection with the brand?

To provoke, challenge or give them an incentive to re
-
appraise the brand? Give the
product another try?

Is it to convince them
ratio
nally that the service delivers better value for the money?

Is the objective to get consumers change their usage patterns? To buy your butter instead
of the butter mom always bought?

Or react immediately in some way to the advertising? Such as pick up

the
phone or go
online and order?


Understand or define the marketing objective and strategy.

The marketing objective is a business goal. For example, “in the first year we want to
capture 10% of the market in six cities.” Or, “our goal is to be profitable in
this country
within 6 months.” Or, “we want to increase sales with this product to the point where
profits reach $50,000 per month, and do this in 12 months.”

All of the above, of course, to be accomplished within a budget.

The advertising strategy su
pport
s the marketing strategy.

So let’s say we’re selling fred’s farm fresh ice cream. Chocolate, strawberry and vanilla
are flying out of the freezer. But no one wants the prune flavor.

So fred says, “hey, i want my purple prune flavor to add 20% to my sales
-

not steal sales
from the existing three
-

or i’m going to dump it in 12 months. Here's one million dollars
to work with. What do you suggest?”

In this case your strategy might be to:

A) re
-
name the product: prune surprise.

B) re
-
position it: surprisi
ngly
sweet, surprisingly healthy.

C) build a brand based on a fussy old lady, a great cook, who is very demanding: it’s got
to taste great, and be great for your health. Or she's rejects it.

Project the brand with tv ads showing a young mrs. Consumer absentmind
edly reaching
for some ice cream at the store. Mrs. Fussy taps her on the shoulder, and she starts, “oh!
You surprised me.”

Mrs. Fussy, “honey, here’s a bigger a surprise …”

D) achieve immediate sales with an in
-
store promo plan or discount coupons, s
ometh
ing
to encourage people to give it a try.

All the while, keep in mind that one single thread you want to weave into all of your
communications; that one most important thing you want to say:

"prune surprise is loaded with healthy fiber, and surprisingly sw
eet."

That's your position. Here are some more examples:

-

satalindo gives you clearer international calls.

-

bogasari is the pasta preferred by professional chefs.

-

the new tempest goes farther on a tank of gas than any car in its class.

-

minibank is sm
all, which makes you big and important, no matter how much you have
in your account.





unit 3



Message development :

Process of creating the advertising message. Advertisers must first deter
mine the desired
audience response and then develop the advertising message to achieve that response.
Desired audience response may be to heighten awareness of a product, service, or general
situation, or to inspire an audience action such as voting for a
candidate, placing a
telephone order, or going out and purchasing a particular product. In the creation of the
advertising message, message developers talk to competitors, dealers, and potential
customers and then engage in brainstorming techniques to try
to imagine using the
product and determine the benefits sought. The advertising message is very important to
the success of the advertising campaign. It must attract audience attention and
communicate effectively.


Having identified advertising objectives,

the advertising budget must be set. Determining
exactly how much a business should spend on advertising to achieve the desired level of
sales, is more an art than a science. Commonly, the decision is based on past experience
of expenditure on advertising,

and the sales subsequently achieved. There are however a
number of factors that can be considered in setting the advertising budget.






Factors Influencing The Setting Of Advertising Budgets

________________________________________

product life cycle st
age

new products in the 'launch' stage of their product life cycle,
will normally require greater expenditure on advertising to create product awareness, and
encourage consumers to trial the product. whilst products that have reached 'maturity' in
their pr
oduct life cycle, will often require smaller advertising budgets to achieve the level
of sales required.

________________________________________

competition

the number of competitors in the market, and their expenditure on
advertising competing products,
will influence a business to spend to a similar or higher
degree.

________________________________________

product differentiation

a product very similar to other products on the market may
require greater expenditure on advertising to differentiate it fro
m its competitors.

________________________________________

advertising expenditure

Whilst businesses will differ in their approach to setting advertising budgets, uk
advertising expenditure as a whole has increased over the last decade.

Total advertising
expenditure by med
ia sector at current prices (£m)

________________________________________

Media sector

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

________________________________________

National newspapers

1187

1121

1155

1220

1336

1433

1510

1650

1824

199
1

2252

2071

Regional newspapers

1715

1628

1640

1715

1871

1963

2061

2238

2390

2483

2762

2834

Consumer magazines

541

506

466

448

499

533

583

660

709

727

750

779

Business & professional

790

708

746

714

785

897

1018

1106

1209

1195

1270

1202

D
irectories

492

504

523

551

589

639

692

737

780

831

868

959

Press production costs

412

417

427

438

472

514

550

577

620

650

702

670

________________________________________

Total press expenditure

5137

4884

4957

5085

5552

5979

6413

6967

7531

7877

8609

8514

_
_______________________________________

Television

2325

2295

2472

2604

2888

3136

3379

3704

4029

4321

4646

4147

Direct mail

979

895

945

907

1050

1135

1404

1635

1666

1876

2049

2228

Outdoor & transport

282

267

284

300

350

411

466

545

613

649

810

788

Radio

163

149

157

194

243

2
96

344

393

460

516

595

541

Cinema

39

42

45

49

53

69

73

88

97

123

128

164

Internet

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

19

51

155

166

________________________________________

Total expenditure (£m)

8925

8532

8859

9139

10136

11026

12080

13340

14415

15412

16988

16548

________________________________________

Source: advertising association



Government expenditure on advertising

In 2001 it was reported that the government overtook consumer giants unilever and
proctor & gamble to become the country's biggest spende
r on advertising. The
government spent over £16.4m on advertising campaigns in february 2001, according to
figures from media monitoring service acnielsen mms. The second highest advertiser,
unilever, spent £12.2m, while rival soap giant proctor & gamble w
as at number three

with £10.1m.

The government's main advertising campaigns in february 2001 included encouraging
families to claim the new children's tax credit, attempting to recruit more nurses, and
urging people to plan sufficient pension provision.

In

2000, the government was ranked as the fourth biggest advertiser, below unilever,
proctor & gamble, and bt. Government spending on advertising has increased steadily
since labour was elected. In 1997, spending totalled £43.8m, but by 2000 this had more
th
an doubled to £102
.7m.

Source : press association


ADVERTISING STRATEGY


Developing an advertising strategy to achieve the objectives of a campaign, requires that
consideration be given to both the ‘message’ which will be communicated and the
‘media’ throu
gh which it will

be sent.

Advertising message

An advertising campaign, no matter how much money is spent, no matter what media is
used, will only be successful if the message appeals to the target audience. Given the
level of advertising which bombards the

average consumer, a successful advertising
message must stand out amongst the advertising clutter. Thus marketing professionals are
required to be creative, imaginative and innovative in developing the advertising
message, both in terms of what is said, a
nd how it is sai
d.

What is said...

This is often referred to as the ‘big idea’, and will normally address the key benefits
sought by the target audience, motivating the audience to pay attention. Given the
constant search for new ways to appeal to target a
udiences, it is
difficult to categorise the
content of advertising messages which a business may send, below we include a couple
of examples of actual message strategy.



N addition to deciding upon the content, style and tone of the advertising message, t
he
media through

which the message will be communicated to the target audience must also
be selected, be it television, newspaper, magazine, radio or other.

In order to select the most appropriate media, consideration should be given to the
advantages and
disadvantages of each of the available types of media. In the table below
we have identified commonly accepted advantages and disadvantages of each of the
major media. This is followed by more detailed consideration of each of these media in
later sections

of the article.

Media strengths and weaknesses

________________________________________

Media

strengths


weaknesses

________________________________________

Television



dynamic attention getting media, combining visual, sound and
animated stimulus



stro
ng potential impact & high market coverage



good at demonstrating products



enabling targeting through selection of viewing channels and slots between
specific programmes




high level of initial expenditure required



‘now you see it, now you don’t’ med
ia, in that commercials are on the screen and
gone within seconds



poor at communicating lengthy technical information

________________________________________

Newspapers



the coffee table effect


advert can be referred back to several times



targeting

is possible through profiling readership



good level of market coverage




static media, not suitable for
product demonstration



potential for poor reproduction, sometimes limited to black and white print



possibility of an individual advert being lost

on a page of adverts



short
-
life span, i.e. Todays newspapers become tomorrows rubbish

________________________________________

Radio



mass use of radio by audience, particularly in cars on the way to work and
home



high geographic and demographic reac
h



targeting is possible through selection of channel and programme




audio communication only



now you hear it, now you don’t



lower attention levels than television from the audience

________________________________________

Magazines



high quality r
eproduction, of
colour images



targeting is possible through specialist publications



coffee table effect


advert can be referred back to



good pass on readership




static media, not suitable for product
demonstration



control of the positioning of a
dverts is often under the control of magazine editor,
rather than the sponsor



lengthy lead
-
time between advert being placed and magazine being published

________________________________________

Outdoor



high repeat exposure to advert



relatively low co
st



low levels of competition, in terms of advertising clutter




limited audience selectivity / targeting possible



static media, not suitable for product demonstrations



difficult to monitor effectiveness



potential for damage, via weather and graffi
ti

________________________________________

Note

All of the above media share one common characteristic, and as a result one common
weakness, in that they are one
-
way communication, not requiring the audience to respond
and thus not motivating the audience

to pay attentio
n in the same way that is required in
two
-
way communication.




The press includes both newspapers and magazines representing in excess of 10,000
different publications in the uk. The table below gives an indication of the current
structure

of press in the

uk.


Uk press structure

________________________________________

National newspapers


14 daily papers

11 sunday papers

________________________________________

Local / regional papers


18 morning papers

72 evening papers

7 sunday papers

47
7 weekly papers

According to the advertising association, in the fourth quarter of 2002 regional
newspapers saw a 2.8% increase in ad spend compared with the same quarter of 2001.
For the year as a whole, ad revenue in the regional press grew by 1.3% to £2
.9 billion.
Regi
onal press was one of only two media sectors to grow advertising for two years in a
row.

There are 1,286 regional and local newspapers in the uk today, including 24 mornings (18
paid
-
for and 6 free), 75 evenings, 21 sundays, 524 paid
-
for we
eklies, and 642
free weekly
newspapers. (source : the newspaper society)

________________________________________

Magazines


3,500 consumer & special interest magazines

(including women's magazines, tv times, teenage magazines)

6,300 business & professiona
l magazines / papers (covering anything from teaching, law,
through to groceries).

________________________________________

Controlled circulation magazines


not distributed through newsagents, mailed to
subscribers / members of the relevant professional a
ssociation.

________________________________________

Free distribution publications


hundreds of door to door publications,
distributed for free, covering limited geographic areas.

________________________________________

(source : advertising association)

Selection crite
ria

In selecting publications for advertisement placement, consideration will be given to the
readership profile, in terms of geographic, demographic, and buying power
characteristics. The diverse range of publications, outlined above, enab
le advertisers to
target segments of the market. A further consideration will be the distribution /
circulation of a publication. Below are circulation figures for several well known
publications.

Circulation figures

_______________________________________
_

The sun


3,239
,041 per day

________________________________________

The daily mirror


1,748,026 per day

________________________________________

The financial times


425,259 per day

________________________________________

Radio times


1,104,767 per week

________________________________________

Woman’s own


446,194 per week

________________________________________

(source : audit bureau of circulations january 2005)


Click to visit the audit bureau of circulations site, for further circulation data


Circu
lation figures, however, do not tell the full story given the ‘coffee table’ advantage
of magazines (see table). For example the radio times, will normally remain in the house
for the whole week at least, and possibly be read by the whole household. This r
esults in
the ac
tual readership of the radio times being closer to 5 million per week.


Television

Expenditure on uk television advertising in 2002 was £3.7 billion, which far exceeds
expenditure on any other advertising media. Terrestrial television adver
tising is shown on
the itv network ,channel 4 and channel 5, between programmes, and during programme
intervals. The programmes themselves are broadcast by 15 uk programme companies
who are each assigned a region of the uk to cover, and include the likes o
f carlton, and
grampian tv. These companies sell advertising time, and the money this generates pays
for the programmes they show. The three channels itv, channel 4, and channel 5 are
regulated by the independent television commission, which stipulates the

time allowed
each hour to broadcast advertisements. Currently this is set at seven minutes per hour, on
average, during daytime ‘off
-
peak’ periods, and seven and a half minutes during ‘peak
time’ viewing in the evenings when audiences are at their highest

levels.


A
dvertising spots

An advertising ‘spot’ can range from over 1 minute to seven seconds, the cost of using
such ‘spots’ varies according to the time of day, the number of homes in the region in
which it is broadcast, the average income per head of
the population, and audience
viewing figures for the programme / programmes it is broadcast between. A 30 second
weekday spot during peak time (approximately 7.30 pm to 11.30 pm) in london provided
by carlton, will cost in the region of £20,000, where as t
he same spot on grampian
television will cost approximately £1,250. In addition to the commercial break, since
1991 companies have also been allowed to sponsor programmes themselves, examples of
this include cadburys sponsorship of coronation street.

The r
egional str
ucture of the itv network means that an advert can be broadcast nationally
or in a specific number of regions, enabling both geographic targeting of an advertising
campaign, or testing of a campaign in one region before being launched nationally
.

Viewing f
igures

During peak
-
time viewing (5.30 to 10.30) audience figures can rise to 20 million for a
programme shown across all regions. Considering the fact that the uk population is
approximately 59 million this represents 1 in 3 people in the countr
y. More normal
viewing figures range from 10 to 14 million at peak
-
time. Actual viewing figures are
recorded by the broadcasters audience research board and can be accessed at their web
site www.barb.co.uk, also on this site are figures concerning the perc
entage share of
viewing audience achieved by the competing channels. Barb has carefully selected
approximately 3,000 homes across the country, which they feel provide a representative
sample of the entire population. Each of these houses is monitored via a

meter atta
ched to
the tv set, recording when the television is switched on and off, and what channels are
being watched.

Unfortunately, just because the tv set is switched on, does not mean anyone is watching,
commercial breaks are also opportunities for
people to do other things, put the kettle on
for example. For this reason commercials are often repeated during an evening in order to
increase the chances of being watched and remembered by the audience.

Regulation : independent television commission

The
itc controls the use companies make of television advertising, through its code of
advertising standards and practice. The programme companies are responsible to the itc
for all material they broadcast be it programmes or commercials, and the itc does have

the power
to review a companies itv license if it is not found to be adhering to the
standards set.


Radio advertising is broadcast on commercial radio in the uk. There are approximately
some 250 local commercial radio stations and 3 national commercial r
adio stations,
classic fm, talksport and virgin 1215, broadcasting in the uk. Commercial stations require
a license to broadcast which is issued by the radio authority, the statutory body set up to
regulate commercial radio in the uk. The authority’s ‘adve
rtising and sponsorship code’
lays down standards for the presentation and content of radio advertisements, requiring
that adverts are legal, decent, honest and truthful. In addition, the radio advertising
clearance centre (racc), has the job of vetting na
tional advertising campaigns, and adverts
which are to be broadcast on more than one station. Unlike television there is no limit on
the number of adverts a station can play per hour, however stations often apply a limit of
9 minutes per hour, as too many
adverts
may well loose a station many of its listeners.

Commercial listening figures have rapidly grown over the last 10 years, mostly at the
expense of the bbc public service stations. As with television, advertising time is sold as
‘spots’, with peak lis
tening t
imes being at breakfast and evening rush hour periods.

There are a number of sources of information available on radio and radio advertising,
but the best by far is the radio advertising bureau web site. This site provides a wealth of
information,
we parti
cularly recommend you visit the case study section of their site to
gain an insight into the planning that goes on behind major radio advertising campaigns.















UNIT 3


Advertising persuades members of a
particular market to take some form
of action, such as buying a product or service. There are many ways to spread
an advertising message. A good ad campaign incorporates several types of
advertising to get maximum exposure.

Television Advertising

TV commer
cials are a popular way to mass
-
market messages to large
audiences. Although this medium has the ability to reach a high number of
potential buyers, it is also one of the most costly forms of advertising. For
example, one 30
-
second TV commercial during the

Super Bowl cost about $3
million in 2009.

Infomercials are another form of television advertising. The infomercial is
different than a commercial because it is longer, includes more product
information, and has more of a personal tone. Although they are a
lso costly to
produce, infomercials are highly effective in creating impulse buys because of
their demonstrative and persuasive nature.


Radio Advertising

Radio commercials are an effective way for businesses to target a group of
people based on location o
r similar tastes. For example, a local night club
seeking college student clientele would probably consider advertising on a local
pop station. Likewise, a country and western bar would choose a local country
station.

Print Advertising

Magazine and newspap
er ads are another way to spread the word about a
product or service. Print also offers the ability to target a specific audience based
on geography or common interests. Print advertising usually includes larger
display ads, as well as classified advertisi
ng. The classifieds are typically very
affordable, whereas display ads are a bit more pricey.

Online Advertising

Advertising online is an increasingly popular method for promoting a business.
There are many forms of online advertising. Banner ads are image

ads displayed
on web pages. Google AdWords is another popular form of online advertising
that matches an ad to an Internet user's search inquiry.

Social network marketing has been the fastest
-
growing form of Internet
advertising. This includes using sites

like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn to
promote a product or service. Many social networks have advertising available,
such as Facebook Ads.

Billboard Advertising

Billboard ads are large advertisements displayed on structures in public places.
Most common
ly, billboards are located along highways to target passing
motorists. Another type of billboard advertising is a mobile banner or billboard.
This can range from the signs seen at major sporting event arenas to billboard
advertisements pasted on the sides
of semi trailers.

In
-
Store Advertising

In
-
store advertising takes place within a retail store. For example, a company that
produces a new cleaning product might include an end cap display when they
ship the product to stores. This gives the store an attrac
tive display that draws
attention to the new product. Other types of in
-
store advertising include banners
and display cases.

Word of Mouth Advertising

While some may argue that word of mouth is not advertising because it's free,
this form of promotion is o
ne of the most credible and priceless assets of any
business. Even if business owners can't buy word of mouth advertising, they can
encourage their customers to tell their friends and family about the great product
or service they purchased.

Endorsements

E
ndorsement is similar to word of mouth promotion but typically does cost
money. Having a product or service endorsed by a celebrity can increase sales
and product awareness. Not every company can afford to have a major A
-
list
celeb promoting a product, tho
ugh. For smaller companies, consider using local
celebrities or well
-
known individuals within the product's niche market. For
example, many equine companies look for professional horse trainers to endorse
their products.


Which Type of Advertising is Best?

The best type of advertising depends on the business or organization and its
particular needs. If a company needs mass
-
market exposure and has the capital,
television advertising is probably a good fit. For a local company on a budget, a
customer referral

program to stimulate word of mouth might be the best option.
The best advertising campaigns typically involve several forms of media to
effectively gain maximum exposure.

WHAT IS AN ADVERTISI
NG APPEAL?

An advertising appeal refers to the approach used to
attract the attention of consumers
and/or to influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause. It's something that
moves people, speaks to their wants or need, and excites their interest. Often it is the
underlying content of the advertisemen
t; think of it as a “movie script”. Don’t confuse
this with executional framework, that will be another topic.

Deciding on an Advertising Appeal

When y'all are deciding on a direction for your submissions, review the Creative Brief
(specifically objectives

section) for tone, the nature of the product, the preferences of the
client (very important). Most importantly though, use your common sense and gut
feelings. There are two major types of appeals. They are:

Emotional

Rational

Emotional Appeal

This relat
es to the customers’ social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a product
or service. This appeal is so effective because many consumers’ motives for purchase
decisions are emotional. Many advertisers believe an emotional appeal to work better at
sel
ling brands that do not differ markedly from competing brands. Witin the emotional
appeal, there are two subsets
-

the personal and the social. These are made up of:

Personal
-

Safety, Security, Fear, Love, Affection, Humor, Happiness, Joy, Nostalgia, Sent
iment,
Excitement, Arousal/stimulation, Sorrow/grief, Pride, Achievement/accomplishment,
Self
-
esteem, Actualization, Pleasure, Ambition, Comfort



Social
-

Recognition, Status, Respect, Involvement, Embarrassment, Affiliation/belonging,
Rejection, Acceptan
ce, Approval

So, a little more detail on some of the important Personal Appeals...

Fear Appeal

Increases viewer interest in the ad and the persuasiveness of the ad.

Used with health and beauty products, idea marketing, insurance.

Most experts believe that
a moderate level of fear is most effective.

Humor Appeal

Used in 30% of all advertisements.

Excellent at capturing attention.

Score high in recall tests.

Should be related directly to customer benefit. Or else, the joke can overpower the
message
.

Sex Appea
l

Subliminal techniques

Nudity or partial nudity

Sexual suggestiveness

Overt sexuality

Sensuality

Are Sex Appeals Effective?

Research Results
-

Sex and nudity do increase attention.

Rated as being more interesting.

Often leads to strong feelings about the
advertisement.

Brand recall is lower.

Often interferes with message comprehension




Using Sex Appeals Effectively

Be aware of differences in the international arena.

Should be an integral part of the product.

Should utilize a variety of models in terms o
f age, size, ethnicity and gender.

Should consider using “regular person” models.

Be careful sex does not overpower advertisement.

Consider shifting to more sensuality.

Music Appeals

Has intrusive value.

Gains attention and increases the retention of visua
l information.

Can increase persuasiveness of an advertisement.

Design Questions
-

What role will music play?

Will a familiar song be used or new song created?

What emotional feeling should song solicit?

How does the music fit with the message of the ad?

T
unes and Taglines

See if you can think of the tune that matches each of the following taglines:

Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there.

Feel like a woman (Revlon).

Come see the softer side of Sears.

The ABC News theme (also used in commercials for the n
ews).

I am stuck on Band Aid, cause Band Aid is stuck on me.

Scarcity Appeals

Based on limited supply or

Based on limited time to purchase.

Often tied with promotion tools such as contests, sweepstakes and coupons.

Encourages customers to take action.



Ra
tional Appeals

Focus on the consumer’s practical, functional, or utilitarian need for the product or
service and emphasize features of a product or service and/or benefits or reasons for
owning or using a particular brand

Print media is well
-
suited for rat
ional appeals.

Used by business
-
to
-
business advertisers.

Well
-
suited for complex and high involvement products.

Consumer purchase decisions are often made on the basis of both emotional and rational
motives, and attention must be given to both elements in
developing effective advertising.