HOW TO ASSESS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: DEVELOPING A QUANTITATIVE MODEL

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Nov 6, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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10 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 10-20 (2008)
HOW TO ASSESS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT:
DEVELOPING A QUANTITATIVE MODEL

Mohammad Fathian
1
, Maryam Sotoudehriazi
2
, Peyman Akhavan
3*
and
Ali Amin Moghaddam
4
1, 2
Department of Industrial Engineering
Iran University of Science and Technology
Tehran, Iran
3
Department of management and Industrial Engineering
Malek Ashtar University of Technology
Tehran, Iran
4
Department of Management Business Administration
Allameh Tabatabaie University
Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT

In the current century, Information Technology (IT) has changed the knowledge position in
enterprises. Knowledge as a critical and strategic resource is a powerful tool for
recognizing enterprise leverage in the new world. Systematic management for enterprise
knowledge, e.g. new ideas, innovations and patents, has a great impact on business
sustainability and growth. Current management interests are also focused their efforts to
create, assess and promote knowledge management in enterprises. But the efficiency of
these efforts is not recognized. Without assessment of knowledge assets, agile companies
can not design and run knowledge promotion programs required for survival in competitive
environments in modern economy. For developing knowledge in company, a quantitative
model for the assessment of as-is situation and development of knowledge promotion plans,
a situational program based on assessment results, business strategy, and core competency
is necessary. There is a wide variety of techniques for each step of knowledge management
assessment, if considered separately; however, there exists no integrated model to cover
thoroughly; in other words, no model is available to lead wise managers towards
KM-related goals in enterprises. In an attempt to fill this gap, in this paper, we introduce an
assessment model which covers evaluation, and positioning the level of KM in enterprise in
quantitative vision.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge, Assessment Model, Quantitative Model

1. INTRODUCTION
*

By passing from industrial revolution to a
millennium, motive growth engine is not limited to
capital and man power. Knowledge is the most
important all sides growth variant organizations and
economical agencies at present [1, 2]. Knowledge is a
series of human skills and abilities that are
accompany with information from better ways of
product and main factors are valuable for people
[1][2][3].
Organizations should be flexible to be able to
match themselves with changes in the world these
days. Supporting potential learning is one of the
certain ways for reaching this amount of flexibility. In


*
Corresponding author: akhavan@iust.ac.ir
addition, organizations should have the ability to
answer the internal and external needs. This can be
done by knowledge management [1][2][3].
According to Awad (2004), knowledge
management is the process of collecting, making and
using the people's profession in the organization and
the process of creating, submitting, and publishing,
promoting and employing the knowledge in direction
of the aims and purposes and the activities of the
organization. There are also three basic elements
which are noted in the management of people's
knowledge, people, information technology and the
organizational process [4].
How many approaches expand it? We can also
define knowledge management as an even approach
for reaching organizational aims by considering and
concentrating especially on knowledge in
organization. Knowledge management supports the
M. Fathian et al.: How to Assess Knowledge Management: Developing a Quantitative Model 11

process of creation, transmission and employment of
man's knowledge of organizational knowledge and
making harmony between them [1][3][7][8][9].Such
an approach is only made under the jointing culture.
One of the characteristics is developing and
supporting the information and process which are
well reasoned out in the organization. We can
suppose the following benefits for using knowledge
management in the organization briefly [11][12][13].
 Knowledge management makes the value of
knowledge oriented.
 Knowledge management increases the staff's
motivation by increasing participation.
 Knowledge management promotes competition
and makes us reach the firm (constant)
completion benefit [1][2][3].

One of the most important problems in
Knowledge Management area which managers face
with is knowledge level assessment, In order to
employ the ways for assessing and promoting the
organizational knowledge level. Those are the most
important aims of assessment models. After
considering assessment models, this article submits
the one that contains the whole dimensions of
knowledge management assessment in the
organization and is able to show the real level of it.

2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The following stages had been passed in this
research.
 Completing study about knowledge
management assessment models in the world
and choosing four best models, according to
validity of these models for this research.
 Comparing the selected models according to
expert's idea.
 Choose “the know-all 10” model as the best
knowledge management assessment model.
 Developing this model and adding more
parameters to this model.
 Evaluating the validity of new knowledge
management assessment model.
 Weighting to the parameters of model by
collecting expert’s idea.

3. LITERATURE REVIEW

On the basis of the researchers of the
knowledge management assessment models, four
models have been known as practical models for
knowledge management assessment in the
organization. These models which have been used by
universal propounded organizations are:
 European Knowledge Management Forum
[1][3][5]
 Knowledge Management Assessment Tools,
APQC’s Road Map [1][3][5]
 The Know-Net Assessment [1][3][5]
 The know-all 10: The Quick Knowledge
Management Assessment [1][3][5][6]

We are going to assess these four models of
knowledge management after quick review. You can
replace the explanations for each model by a
summary.

3.1 European Knowledge Management Forum
Eight dimensions are considered for knowledge
management in this model and some questions are
brought up in the area of each dimension. They are
included: [1][3][5]
 Knowledge management strategy:
organizational aims and their roles in
knowledge management.
 Human and social factors: human factors which
influence on knowledge management.
 Knowledge management organization: the
structure and supporting roles in organizing
knowledge management.
 Knowledge management processes: the
business processing and knowledge
management processes such as business,
participation and keeping knowledge.
 Knowledge management technology: the role
of information technology in knowledge
management.
 Leadership: characteristics and activities of
knowledge management action.
 Measurement: general criterions of knowledge
management action.
 Application: necessary aims and purposes for
employing knowledge management.

3.2 The Knowledge Management Assessment Tools,
APQC’s Road Map
This assessment model is actually a systematic
maturity level assessment. According to this model
five levels are considered for organizational maturity,
which contain the questions that we can only answer
yes or no to them. In every part, when most of them
are answers positive, the situation of knowledge
management will be probably on that level [1][3][5].

3.3 The Know-Net Assessment
The models assess knowledge in three
dimensions [1][3][5].
 Properties of Knowledge: it contains human,
organizational and market properties.
 Knowledge Management Structures: strategy,
process, structure and systems.
 Levels of Knowledge Nets: people, teams,
organization, and internal environment of
organization (inside of organization).
12 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2008)

Nine knowledge management processes are
also assessed as a part of infrastructure of knowledge
management. A privilege is given to each of them
which its extreme score is certain and totally is 200.
The noted advantage is the maximum one that we can
allocate to every process.
 Acquisition: how to obtain knowledge and use
of points of people from the past, present and
future of the organization (15 points). Other
process should be revised as this process
 Saving: the rate access to obvious knowledge of
organization (5).
 Partnership: the rate of associating the available
knowledge for improving business (15).
 Participation: measuring the level of active
participation at whole dimensions of
organization (30).
 Collecting the best efforts: applying the
techniques which will be observed again after
exam (20).
 Electronizing the best knowledge sources:
converting knowledge properties of
organization into electronic content (30).
 Experts: obtaining information about
experienced people and using them consciously
(50).
 Associations: working associations with some
parts (25).
 Criterions: measuring the process of them (10).

The numbers in the parenthesis show the
weights of each process in this model.

3.4 The Know-All 10: The Quick Knowledge
Management Assessment
In this model ten categories and five indexes
for each category are brought up. For each category
set 10 questions that provides a quick check of where
your organization is along 10 critical success
dimensions rate your organization (or part of it) on a
score 0-10,where 0 is doing nothing at all, and 10 is
world-class [5]. We find this model more
appropriate to study. Therefore, we will consider and
analyze it in detail. For such analysis, we used some
indexes and made the analysis. In continue we will
provide more information. The categories have been
described below [1][3][5][6].

3.4.1 Leadership and Strategy
The concept of learning knowledge in the
organization as a strategic source has been proved
and this belief is clarified in performance. There is a
strategic planning for leading valuable knowledge
source which is compiled on knowledge management
of the organization. The responsibilities and the roles
are interpreted in comparison with it; all staffs of the
organization including top management and even
operational levels are responsible for the achievement
of knowledge management strategic purposes and the
achievements of them will be supported.

3.4.2 Culture and Structure
In such an organization, personal learning and
organizational growth are received as values. All
staffs from all levels and in every position believe
that they should share their knowledge and
information for development and success of open
culture and knowledge exchange over the
organization. Learning and thinking are supported
and encourage over there. The staffs are permitted to
try and mistake, do experience and learn. In such a
cultural organization, thinking time isn't considered
as wasting the time. People can easily access experts
and professionals. The structure of the organization is
designed in a way that people can talk and discuss in
and informal space without disturbing others in
special places.

3.4.3 Processes
Principal processes of business in the
organizations need knowledge for performing
effectively. Processes of knowledge in the
organization should be able to process effectively
main knowledge of organization or the same
necessary knowledge for receiving organizational
business process. In fact, knowledge management
processes should cover the whole steps of knowledge
life cycle from producing to employing and
operating. This must be compatible with the process
work in the organization and normally have necessary
concrete with performing the activities.

3.4.4 Explicit Knowledge
Organization must be able to manage internal
and external information sources of organization
systematically. So, information bases of organization
must be managed systematically and some people
should be responsible for information departments to
be kept suitable and be ordered in time periods. The
quality of this information must be controlled. One of
the suitable operational characteristics in this part of
knowledge management is concrete content of
information in the whole organization. It means that
the information is linked, harmonious and agreeable
with each other besides being general and preventive.

3.4.5 Tacit Knowledge
Organizations must manage tacit knowledge of
organization (the knowledge in the staffs mind) to
become successful in knowledge management. There
are two general approaches for it. In the first
approach, the knowledge that a few experts have, and
used repeatedly is obtained and changed into explicit
knowledge. In the second approach, the explicit
knowledge exchange directly for doing it. We can use
some mechanism such as preparing data banks of
M. Fathian et al.: How to Assess Knowledge Management: Developing a Quantitative Model 13

experts and channels in relation to them, the meetings
of argument, talking and exchanging ideas and so on.

3.4.6 Knowledge Hubs
Knowledge hubs in organization are actually
the focus of collecting, organizing and publishing of
knowledge. This may be a physical or real center. The
aim of making these centers are leading people to
knowledge sources. In the internal and external of the
organization, knowledge maps are prepared and kept
and principally observed division points that attached
to knowledge source. The existence of these centers
avoids doing things repeatedly specially for obtaining
knowledge.

3.4.7 Market Power
Organizations should try to reveal and reflex
their knowledge in their outlet. The knowledge of
organization should make a distention in the
submitted services from the organization to the
interested. The operation of knowledge management
system must be agreed with the aims of developed
market. Organization must use knowledge as a source
for increasing outcome. Most of the organizations can
sell their knowledge as product or lateral services.

3.4.8 Measurement
Organization must manage their thought stocks
such as knowledge organization systematically. These
stocks must measure their thought properties for
management; basically if we can't measure some
thing, it can't be managed. Most of the organizations
which are successful in knowledge management,
presented the reports of the situation of human
thought properties to the managers and shareholders
coarsely and often yearly.

3.4.9 Skills/People
The skill of organization skills in all levels, in
knowledge management course is very necessary for
the success of the organization. Knowledge
management in the organization must be thought as a
main skill which is needed for all managers in all
levels. Obtaining the skills of knowledge
management in the organization should be
encouraged and even managers can use it in
assessment of employee. All managers in the
organization are responsible for learning the
principles and knowledge management techniques
and developing these techniques in the different
teams.

3.4.10 Infrastructure Technology
The different uses of the information
technology as usable tools can relieve knowledge
management processes. Some of the information
technologies can be informed as follows:
Knowledge portals – internet – skills database –
communities of practice – data warehousing – text
mining – information retrieval tools – electronic
document management – document organization and
data ware technologies – e-learning and CBT
(Computer Based Training) – knowledge based
systems and neutral network.
Each of categories of the fast knowledge
management assessment models has five indexes. For
assessing the organization, first assessing the indexes
in the organization and next, recognizing the level of
categories in organization.

4. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
ASSESSMENT MODELS

For considering knowledge management
assessment models some points must be noted:
 The assessment models must be complete and
be able to evolve the whole dimensions of
organizational knowledge management.
 The categories of the assessment model of
knowledge management must be separated
from each other.
 It is possible to consider the categories and the
indexes of models in the organization, from the
point of view quantity and quality.
 Knowledge management in the top level and
middle level management in organization has
great importance, so the number of questions
must be limited, certain and obvious.

As it has been shown in Table 1 the evaluation
of four model result in the Know all 10 is the best.
However, there are some deficient in performing in
organization and so on.
According to the table 1, the quick knowledge
management assessment model (the know-all 10) is
much better than the others.

5. DEVELOPING OF THE
PRPPOSED MODEL

For achieving the new knowledge management
assessment model, these steps had been performed.
 Study the recent knowledge management
assessment models
 Suggest a new model
 Validity of the model

The quick knowledge management assessment
model has some weaknesses. The categories and
indexes cannot cover the all knowledge dimension of
the organization; therefore, through the
comprehensive study about the knowledge dimension
of organization and also acquisition of the
14 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2008)

professionals’ opinion, a new model was developed
on the basis of the quick knowledge assessment
model. This new model has 12 categories that 10
categories are similar to the quick assessment model
but the indexes have some changes. The new
categories are:

Table 1: Evaluation of knowledge management assessment models
Factor for Evaluation
European
Knowledge
Management Forum
Knowledge
Management
Assessment Tools
The Know-net
Assessment
The
Know-all
10
Implementing in Different
Enterprises
W
G G E
Have a Complete Guideline
for Filling the Questionnaire
of Models
W G W E
Evaluating Whole Internal
Situation of Organization
Completely
G G G E
According to the
Organizational Layers
W G G E
Simplicity in Performing in
the Organization
W W W G
Interaction with Environment W G G E
Have a Good Universal
Experiences
G G G E
Recognize Progress in the
Organization
W W W E
W: Weak, G: Good, E: Excellent

5.1 Network (Teamwork, Cooperating)
Team work is one of the most important parts
of successful knowledge management in
organization. Teamwork should begin from managers
and employers should learn the advantage of
teamwork and cooperating. Performing projects in
teams and transfer the result of teamwork to others is
the best way for saving time and money. Constructing
new culture of cooperating and transferring the
experiences of teams to each others is the aims of this
index. The important points of this index are: [3]
 Developing the structure of team work for
performing organizational learning and learning
in organization
 Performing the projects in teams
 Transferring the team experiences to each
others

5.2 Examining knowledge opportunities out of the
organization
One of the important parts of knowledge
management development in the organization is
considering knowledge evident around a company. It
seems for complete assessment coverage, we need to
assess two main criteria as follows:
1. Training and investing capital on man power for
improving the ability of reflection of external
area organization environment
2. Defining a department in organization
(researching unit of market) to invest capital for
absorbing external chances of organization
The other criteria in this part are:
 The existence of organizational intelligence,
highly organizational programs, for forecasting
knowledge changes out of organization.
 Reviewing the programs of competitors and
volunteers of the market.
 Considering environment factors (lawful,
social, economical, technological and cultural)
for development of knowledge activities
orientation in organization and considering, the
development of principal people out of
organization to obtain knowledge [3].

In addition, Likert spectrum [21] has been used
to complete assessment model and confirmation of
categories and selection a suitable indexes for them.
This platform has some levels (very necessary,
necessary, fairly necessary, not necessary, completely
non necessary). It's given them privilege from one to
five. We score each of the similar categories and
indexes; it will be approved if the obtained privilege
for each of them is more than seventy percent. The
approved categories and indexes are seated in the
model as shown in Table 2.





M. Fathian et al.: How to Assess Knowledge Management: Developing a Quantitative Model 15

6. DETERMINING WEIGHTS OF
CATEGORIES AND INDEXES OF
MODEL

The steps which have been done for fixing the
measure of categories and indexes are as follow:
 Preparing a questionnaire and distributing it
between forty experts in organization learning
and knowledge management and collecting
information related to each categories and
indexes from each of experts.
 Using the Eigenvector method to find the
weights of categories and indexes.
 Approving final weight of categories and
indexes and completing the model.

6.1 Distributing the Questionnaire
In this part we collected the suggestion and
ideas of the experts and researchers in knowledge
management inside and outside of the country. The
questionnaire was sent and received by email. Twenty
of received questionnaires were complete and have
the value of reviewing. The information about experts
is shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Demographic Information of
Statistical Society
Quantity Area
7 PhD
13 MSc
Academic levels
11 Male
9 Female
Sex
15 IRAN
5 Abroad
Work place
7.5
The average experiences
of management (years)

6.2 Weighting of Categories and Indexes
In this algorithm, first we make a preference
matrix. It is a reciprocal matrix which is made based
on pair wise comparisons between pair of
dimensions. Each element of the matrix in the from,
is the number of experts that believe dimension is
more important than dimension, and is the number of
experts that believe dimension is more important than
dimension. The weight of dimensions is calculated by
eigenvector of matrix [21] (the sum of weights is
equal to one).

6.3

Final Weight of Categories and Indexes
By using the way that’s has was expressed. The
following result for the weights of categories and
characteristics have been taken. Each of these
categories has six indexes. By using the eigenvector
method, the weight of indexes will be resulted too. In
this part our defined model is ready to be applied in
different organizations.
7. CONCLUSION

Knowledge and information is the most
valuable asset in for companies. Nowadays the
organizations will be successful if they are able to
assess their knowledge and information well and
control their quality. The best and the most successful
management techniques are assessing successfully
the rate of organizational knowledge and make the
ways for improving the situation of knowledge in the
organization. In this paper we studied the dimensions
of knowledge management carefully and develop an
assessment model in a way that we can examine weak
and strong points and make a mirror of knowledge
management situation in front of the management in
the organization. This isn’t a theory model. This
model can show the weak and strong points of
knowledge management in the organization besides
the complete analysis of knowledge organization
situation, so we can use this model and compare the
situation of the organization against the successful
organization and try to improve the organization.
In this way, we presented the quantities model
for assessing knowledge management with complete
parameters in organization. Complete evaluating of
finding knowledge management assessment model,
develop a new model on the bases of “the know-all
10” model, validity of new model, and weighting the
parameters of new model by "Eigenvector method"
have also been discussed in this paper.

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Mohammad Fathian an assistant professor of
Industrial Engineering Department in Iran University
of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran, with
MSc and PhD in Industrial Engineering from Iran
University of Science and Technology. Working in
area of information technology, electronic commerce,
knowledge management , with more that 18 research
paper and three books in area of industrial
engineering and information technology.

Maryam Sotoudehriazi, received BSc and MSc in
Industrial Engineering from Iran University of
Science and Technology (IUST). Maryam's area of
research is knowledge management. She has
published three papers in international conferences in
the field of knowledge management.

Dr. Peyman Akhavan, faculty of management and
industrial engineering department, Malek Ashtar
University of Technology, received his M.S.c and
PhD degree in Industrial Engineering from Iran
University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
His research interests are in Business Process
Reengineering, Knowledge Management,
Information Technology, and Strategic Planning. He
has published 1 book and has more than 25 research
papers in different academic journals and
international conferences.

Ali Amin Moghaddam, PhD candidate of business
administration at Allameh Tabatabaie University,
Tehran earned his MBA and BSc in Industrial Eng
from Sharif University of Technology. Ali's favorite
areas of research are knowledge management and
strategic management. He has published 13 papers in
academic journals and conferences.

(Received November 2007, revised January 2008,
accepted February 2008)

M. Fathian et al.: How to Assess Knowledge Management: Developing a Quantitative Model 17
Table 2: A quantitative model for the knowledge management
Category Index Category Index
Have a compelling Knowledge vision
that is actively followed
Reselling your core expertise in ways that
will generate new revenue streams

Have activities, Strategies and
programs for developing knowledge in
company
Having available information and
knowledge in a form that enhances your
services to your stakeholders

Have special person for strategies and
knowledge activities (e.g. chief
knowledge officer) in organization
Having the smart service i.e. customizable
and adaptable e.g. by aggregating
knowledge from disparate sources for
customer’s needs

Have a complete program for using
knowledge management techniques for
employees
knowing among your clients and peers as
exemplars of good knowledge management
practice

Treated with knowledge and
information as vital resources and
reviewed regularly at management
meetings
Having the publicity and marketing
messages convey the importance and depth
of your know-how
Leadership & Strategy
Using knowledge management
techniques for providing main goals in
organization
Market Power
Adapting the approach of knowledge
management system in organization with
market development aim
s
Choosing project teams deliberately
including people with a wide level of
experience, different expertise and age
ranges
Managing and measuring intellectual
capital in the organization in a systematic
way

Evaluating personal performance
reviews assess and reward individuals
for their knowledge management
contributions
Having the special programs for evaluating
and measuring the intellectual capital in
organization

Have a special part in person’s tasks
for thinking and teaching other persons
Reporting regularly your knowledge assets,
such as in supplements to your annual
reports

Encouraging individual experts to
contribute time and expertise to
support other persons and teams
Using measurement system for encouraging
people focus on learning and transferring
knowledge

Have a program for keeping and
transferring knowledge in the
organization
Having the bottom line benefits of
knowledge measurement clearly articulated
in terms that all your managers(special chief
manager) understand

Structure & Culture
Setting workplace to encourage
interaction and free flow of
information e.g. informal meeting
areas, open plan offices, project rooms
Measurement
Having a system (including indexes of
measuring the knowledge and another
capitals in organization e.g. customers and
stakeholders) for measuring the tasks in
organization
18 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2008)
Table 2: A quantitative model for the knowledge management (cont.)
Category Index Category Index
Knowing “what is vital knowledge -
knowledge that underpins your core
business processes”
Having individuals in each main group who
are responsible for demonstrating good
knowledge practice within their group and
acting as a coach to others
Evaluating the knowledge readily
accessible and naturally integrated into
the flow of work
Having trained approach learner-centered
and an integral part of the day-to-day
activities of the organization
Have the organization systematic
processes for monitoring external
knowledge sources and for gathering
and classifying it
Having special program for increasing
innovation for keeping and developing
knowledge among people
Have the clear policy guidelines on what
is vital proprietary knowledge and needs
to be protected in processes
Introduce knowledge management as a
special skill that people should learn
Benchmarking your organization
knowledge management activities
against other firms (firms in world class
level)
Have specific knowledge roles identified
and assigned e.g. knowledge editor,
knowledge analyst
Processes
Keeping knowledge in business process
in organization
People/Skills
Encouraging knowledge learning in
organization
Have readily accessible information and
knowledge inventory within your firm
e.g. on an intranet
Accessing all important information be
quickly found by new users on your
intranet

Validating the quality of explicit
knowledge sources in organization
Using intelligent agents/filters to sift and
find and sort key external information that
might not normally be available

Maintaining the databases, especially
textual ones, regularly
Using videoconferences to connect
dispersed locations into regular meetings

Regarding owners and experts specific
information databases clearly identified
and held responsible for the integrity of
the information
Having the discussion forums or computer
conferences that support learning networks
or communities of practice

Have a mechanism e.g. an idea bank,
such that ideas not immediately used are
not lost for future use
Sharing people readily documents and
multimedia objects (e.g. video clips) over
the internal network

Explicit Knowledge
Accessing the information and
knowledge simplicity
Infrastructure Technology
Using information technology
infrastructure for transferring and keeping
knowledge

M. Fathian et al.: How to Assess Knowledge Management: Developing a Quantitative Model 19
Table 2: A quantitative model for the knowledge management (cont.)
Category Index Category Index
Finding the best experts for different
domains of knowledge that necessary
for organization knowledge

Having an infrastructure technology for
team working

Recording the important meeting for
later reference and sharing of
knowledge
Learning teamwork skills to managers in
organization

Documenting each key points of
conversations in subsequent email
memos or discussion databases
Trying to do projects in teams and with
team work techniques

Capturing knowledge at the customer
interface (e.g. call centers, visits)
feeding back and using in service
improvement
Transfered and distributed the result of
teams to each other after fulfilling the
projects

Encouraging the experts to convert
their tacit knowledge into explicit
knowledge e.g. via seminars (videoed),
“how to” guides etc
Cooperating the teams and people that
have a same work for transferring the
experiences to each other
Tacit Knowledge
Documenting the experiences of
experts after retiring and leaving
organization
Network (Teamwork, Cooperating)
Making teamwork’s appointment for
transferring necessary experiences to each

Have a catalogued library that holding
external publications(e.g. books and
journals that published by external
persons)

Scheduling the organization work ‘s
according to economical and political
and … changing (environmental study)

purchasing externally generated
information coordinated to avoid
duplication and fill essential
knowledge gaps
Having an special program for forecasting
about knowledge changing out of
organization

Having the core group responsible for
creating and maintaining a map of vital
knowledge
Researching about competitors successful
work’s in market

Having the reservoir of information
science and library skills that can act as
a source of knowledge management
expertise
Having a research market part in
organization

Having the internal system for
searching necessary information
Training special persons for researching
about opportunities out of organization

Knowledge Hubs
Connecting to information sources for
assessing new discoveries and
information
Examining Knowledge Opportunities out of
Organization
Trying to develop business intelligence in
organization

20 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2008)
Table 4: The weights of indexes and criterion of new model
Categories
Categories
Weight
Index
Code
Index
Weight
Categories
Categories
Weight
Index
Code
Index
Weight
L1 0.1383B1 0.1637
L2 0.2106B2 0.2139
L3 0.1642B3 0.2095
L4 0.1739B4 0.1363
L5 0.1518B5 0.0879
Leadership
and
Strategy
0.1154
L6 0.1612
Market Power 0.0544
B6 0.1887
C1 0.2855M1 0.1709
C2 0.1076M2 0.1452
C3 0.2241M3 0.1384
C4 0.1803M4 0.0835
C5 0.0989M5 0.2165
Culture
and
Structure
0.1104
C6 0.1036
Measurement 0.0648
M6 0.2455
P1 0.1766W1 0.1567
P2 0.3518W2 0.3485
P3 0.0966W3 0.0792
P4 0.2283W4 0.0763
P5 0.0628W5 0.2200
Processes 0.1129
P6 0.0839
People/Skills 0.0914
W6 0.1193
E1 0.1484I1 0.1842
E2 0.2685I2 0.2772
E3 0.1226I3 0.0490
E4 0.1701I4 0.2003
E5 0.1811I5 0.1356
Explicit
Knowledge
0.0672
E6 0.1093
Infrastructure
Technology
0.0583
I6 0.1537
T1 0.1639N1 0.1547
T2 0.1041N2 0.1868
T3 0.1508N3 0.2513
T4 0.0873N4 0.1838
T5 0.3785N5 0.1356
Tacit
Knowledge
0.0833
T6 0.1154
Network (Teamwork,
Cooperating)
0.0883
N6 0.0878
H1 0.1470K1 0.1952
H2 0.1257K2 0.1154
H3 0.1978K3 0.2861
H4 0.2410K4 0.0656
H5 0.0861K5 0.2545
Knowledge
Hubs
0.0767
H6 0.2024
Examining Knowledge
Opportunities out of
Organization
0.077
K6 0.0832