Note: The following texts are for the master students who are ...

madbrainedmudlickAI and Robotics

Oct 20, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Note:

The following texts are for the master students who are preparing for the English state
exam. The texts will be followed by reading comprehension and vocabulary exercises. Also will
be added speaking

and grammar tasks in the exam.


Computer Science
and Management School

Text 1

How did the computer evolve and where did it all start?

The computer first started with a machine that could calculate math problems known as a
calculator to us today, but known as the difference engine to Charles Babbage in 18
33. The main
purpose of the machine was to calculate astronomical tables. The machine was never built
because the government ignored his ideas. In 1940 an idea of the Analytical machine, which
claimed could perform any mathematical calculation. The machine

was built but there were too
many bugs and defects that made the machine incompatible of doing a lot of mathematics.


The first computer costs over a million dollars, and the first personal computer was around
10,000 dollars. The computer system used pun
ch cards to record numerical data. “The computer
took up a whole room and consists of; 19,000 vacuums, weighed over 30 tons, and consumed
over 200 kilowatts of energy. In comparison the first calculator had a 5 horsepower engine,
measured 2x51 feet, weighe
d 5 tons, and contained hundreds of miles of wiring, which could do
less math than a calculator we use today.


Today over 60% of the metropolitans in the U.S have families with access to computers.
Likewise General Motors has a 1:2 ratio of computers in th
eir workplace for their employees.
The Microsoft Corporation hit big with its operating system and had 3 major changes in their
lives. In 1992 Microsoft’s stock reached a record high of $113 a share, it shipped windows 3.1
and sold the most number of copie
s, and established a separation from IBM and became an
independent company. With Microsoft in control they sent out over 1,000 upgraded computer
components from 1990 to 2000.


In 2006 a computer record was released followed by many statistics that astound
ing the
computer companies
. “The annual search revenue was around $4,000,000,000, ¾ of Americans
spent 12 hours on the computer a week, Spam on the internet increa
ses 60%, 70% of Americans
said they would rather shop online than go to a store, and windows newest release xp had 50
million lines of code, which grows over 20% more each year.” As soon as the business world
noticed the drastic change in computers in the
1990s a revolution of the business world was soon
to come.


Today we
use computers

everyday, we don’t think about how it all started or how many years
and hard work

there is behind every program, operating system, and website, that make a
computer what it is today.


Text 2

What is a computer virus

Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computer to
another and to interfere wi
th computer operation.

A virus might corrupt or delete data on your
computer, use your e
-
mail program to spread itself to other computers, or even erase everything
on your hard disk.

Viruses are often spread by attachments in e
-
mail messages or instant mes
saging messages. That
is why it is essential that you never open e
-
mail attachments unless you know who it's from and
you are expecting it.

Viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or
audio and video files.

Viruses also spre
ad through downloads on the Internet. They can be hidden in illicit software or
other files or programs you might download.

To help avoid viruses, it's essential that you keep
your computer current with the
latest updates

and
antivirus tools
, stay informed about
recent
threats
,
and that you follow a
few basic rules

when you surf the Internet, download files, and
open attachments.

Once a virus is on your computer, its type or the method it used to get there i
s not as important as
removing it and preventing further infection.

Viruses may take several forms. The two principal ones are the boot
-
sector virus and file viruses,
but there are others.

-

Boot
-
sector virus: The boot sector is that part of the system softw
are containing most of
the instructions for booting, or powering up, the system. The boot sector virus replaces
these boot instructions with some of its own. Once the system is turned on, the virus is
loaded into main memory before the operating system. Fr
om there it is in a position to
infect other files.

-

File virus: File viruses attach themselves to executable files
-

those that actually begin in a
program. (these

files have extensions .com and .exe.) When the program is run, the virus
starts working, trying to get into main memory and infect other files.


Text 3

Recent trends of supporting your Computer with Modern Hardware

Recently computer hardware has become on
e of the most flourishing industries in the world. As
a number of people are getting familiar with the computer technology the demand of hardware
industry for has grown up enormously.


A number of companies are handling the sales of computer hardware and a
chieving the demands
of a several computer literate customers. Apart from the hardware sales these companies also
provide essential computer support, which is needed by most of all computerized organizations
irrespective of their scale, location or size. T
hese companies usually offer proficiency in all kinds
of computer hardware mechanism and computer hardware support service in a rate, which is
highly competitive. As there is a cutthroat competition in the market different companies offer
various kinds of
specialized service in a highly affordable rate to the customers.


Some big and reputed companies like IBM, HP, Microsoft or Apple have their own websites,
which offer wide support services and hardware sales in many ways to their customers for the
produc
ts they sale. All these brands have their centers,

online PC support
, tutorials and tips and
FAQs all over the world from where they offer corresponding hardware supports. Their wide
range of supports includes
different topics such as recovery and back up, brand components,
battery related issues, maintenance and performance of the hardware/software of the brand and
the security features offered with them and many more.


In most of all metro cities there are a n
umber of companies, which are involved in hardware
sales. Most of all these shops have hardware engineers and mechanics who are trained enough to
solve all kinds of PC related issues and hence provide necessary PC supports whenever you need
them. According

to its rule a computer support services can also offer maintenance and repair for
a certain period of time.


Moreover recently a number of websites are offering
online PC support
tutorials, which are
mostly cr
eated by award winning professionals, authors and technology and expertise. These
websites also offer reliable computer support to the customers. You may also visit these websites
to download the support utilities by simply registering yourself in these si
tes.


Text 4

Robots commanded by man thought

Honda has lately highly
-
developed fresh interface engineering that grants man thought to
command the Asimo android merely by thinkings. The user interface is known as BMI (brain
-
machine int.) and was produced along with Advanced Telecommunications Research

Institute
International (ATR) and Shimadzu Corporation. It comprises of a sensor
-
laden helmet that
quantifies the user's brainpower and a computing device that examines the thinking models and
relays them as radio instructions to the android.


Once the ex
ploiter thinks of displacing his or her right, the pre
-
programmed Asimo answers
numerous moments later by elevating its right limb. Similarly, Asimo elevates its left arm once
the individual imagines locomoting their left, it commences to walk once the hum
an thinks of
locomoting their legs, and it bears its deal upwards before of its utter if the individual thinks of
locomoting their tongue.


The high
-
precision BMI engineering trusts upon 3 dissimilar cases of brainpower action
measures:


-

EEG (electroence
phalography) detectors evaluate the slim variations in electric potential on the
scalp that happen while imagining

-

NIRS (near
-
infrared spectrometry) detectors evaluate alterations in intellectual blood flow

-

Fresh acquired data origin engineering is acc
ustomed method the complex information by these
2 cases of detectors, leading inwards a more exact indication.


BMI scheme bears an accuracy grade of more than 90%.


Honda has been carrying on BMI inquiry and developing on ATR since 2005. It's checking ove
r
the hypothesis of one day expending this case of user interface engineering with AI and robotics
to produce devices that exploiters can engage without having to make a motion.


Text 5

Possible Coming Attractions: From Gallium Arsenide to Nanotechnology t
o Biochips

Future processing technologies may use optical processing, nanotechnology and biochips.

The old theological question of how many angels could fit on the head of a pin today has become
the technological question of how many
circuits

could pin the
re. Computer developers are
obsessed with speed, constantly seeking ways to promote faster processing. Some of the most
promising directions, already discussed, are
RISC

chips and
parallel processing.

Some other
research paths being explored are the follow
ing:

-

Opto
-
electronic processing:

Today’s computers are electronic, tomorrow’s might be
opto
-
electronic
-
using light, not electricity. With optical
-
electronic technology, a machine
using lasers, lenses, and mirrors would represent the on
-
and
-
off codes of dat
a with pulses
of light.

Light is much faster than electricity. Indeed, fiber
-
optic networks, which consist of hair
-
thin
glass fibers, can move information at speeds 3000 times faster than conventional networks.
However, the signals get bogged down when the
y have to be processed by silicon chips.
Opto
-
electronics chips would remove that bottleneck.

-

Nanotechnology:

Nanontechnology, nanoelectronics, nanostructures, and
nanofabrication
-

all start with a measurement known as a nanometer. A

nanometer
is a
billion
th of a mete, which means we are operating at the level of atoms and molecules. A
human hair is approximately 100,000 nanometers in diameter. (Nanotechnology is a
science based on using molecules to create tiny machines to hold data or perform tasks.
Exper
ts attempt to do “nanofabrication” by building tiny “nanostructures” one atom or
molecule at a time. When applied to chips and other electronic devices, the field is called
“nanoelectronics.”)

-

Biotechnology:

A final possibility is using biotechnology to grow cultures of bacteria,
such as one that, when exposed to light, emits a small electrical charge. The properties of
this “biochip” could be used to represent the on
-
off digital signals used in computing.

Im
agine millions of nanomachines grown from microorganisms processing information at the
speed of light and sending it over far
-
reaching pathways. What kind of changes could we
expect with computers like these?


Text 6

Human
-

Biology Input Devices

Human biol
ogy input devices include biometric systems, line
-
of
-
sight systems, cyber gloves and
body suits, and brainwave devices.

Characteristics and movements of the human body, when interpreted by sensors, optical
scanners, voice recognition, and other technologie
s, can become forms of input. Some examples
are as follows:

-

Biometric systems: Biometric security devices
identify a person through a fingerprint,
voice intonation, or other biological characteristic. For example, retinal
-
identification
devices use a ray o
f light to identify the distinctive network of blood vessels at the back
of one’s eyeball. Biometric systems are used in lieu of typed passwords to identify people
authorized to use a computer system.

-

Line
-
of
-
sight systems: Line
-
of
-
sight systems
enable a p
erson to use his or her eyes to
“point” at the screen, a technology that allows physically handicapped users to direct a
computer. This is accomplished by a video camera mounted beneath the monitor in front
of the viewer. When the user looks at a certain p
lace on the screen, the video camera and
computer translate the area being focused on into screen coordinates.

-

Cyber gloves and body suits:

Special gloves and body suits
-

often used in conjunction
with “virtual reality” games (described shortly)
-

use sen
sors to detect body movements.
The data for these movements is sent to a computer system. Similar technology is being
used for human
-
controlled robot hands, which are used in nuclear power plants and
hazardous
-
waster sites.

-

Brainwave devices:

Perhaps the u
ltimate input device analyzes the electrical signals of
the brain and translates them into computer commands. Experiments have been
successful in getting users to move a cursor on the screen through sheer power of
thought. Other experiments have shown user
s able to type a letter by slowly spelling out
the words in their heads. Although there is a very long way to go before brainwave input
technology becomes practicable, the consequences could be tremendous, not only for
handicapped people but for everyone.


Text
7

Display screens

Display screens are either CRT (cathode
-
ray tube) or flat
-

panel display. CRTs use a vacuum
tube like that in TV set. Flat
-
panel displays are thinner, weigh less, and consume less power but
are not as clear. Flat
-
panel displays are
liquid
-
crystal display (LCD), electroluminescent (EL)
display, or gas
-
plasma display. Users must decide about screen clarity, monochrome versus
color, and text versus graphics (character
-
mapped versus bitmapped). Various video display
adapters (such as VGA
, SVGA, and XGA) allow various kinds of resolution and colors.

Display screens


also variously called monitors, CRTs, or simply screens


are output devices
that show programming instructions and data as they are being input and information after it is
pr
ocessed. Sometimes a display screen is also referred to as a VDT, for video display terminal,
although technically a VDT includes both screen and keyboard. The size of a screen is measured
diagonally from corner to corner in inches, just like television sc
reens. For desktop
microcomputers, 14
-
inch screens are a common size. Portable computers of the notebook and
subnotebook size may have screens ranging from 7.4 inches to 10.4 inches. Pocket
-
size
computers may have even smaller screens. To give themselves a

larger screen size, some
portable
-
computer users buy a larger desktop monitor (or a separate “docking station”) to which
the portable can be connected. Near the display screen are control knobs that, as on a television
set, allow you to adjust brightness
and contrast.

Displays screens are two types: cathode
-
ray tubes and flat
-
panel displays.

Cathode
-
ray tubes (CRTs)


The most common form of display screen is the CRT. A CRT, for
cathode
-
ray tube, is a vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer or v
ideo display
terminal. This same kind of technology is found not only in the screens of desktop computers but
also in television sets and in flight
-
information monitors in airports.

Flat
-
panel displays


if CRTs were the only existing technology for comput
er screens, we would
still be carrying around 25
-
pound “luggables” instead of lightweight notebooks, subnotebooks,
and pocket PCs. CRTs provide bright, clear images, but they consume space, weight, and power.
Compared to CRTs, flat
-
panel displays are much
thinner, weigh less, and consume less power.
Thus, they are better for portable computers.


Text 8

Robots

The first Robot Olympics was held in Toronto in November 1991. “Robots competed for honors
in 15 events


jumping, rolling, fighting, climbing, walking, racing against each other, and
solving problems,” reported writer John Malyon. For instance, in the Mic
romouse race, robots
had to negotiate a standardized maze in the shortest possible time.

A robot is an automatic device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings or
that operate with what appears to be almost human intelligence. Actually,

robots are of several
kinds
-
industrial robots, perception systems, and mobile robots, for example. All are the objects
of study of robotics, a field that attempts to develop machines that can perform work normally
done by people. Robotics in turn is a sub
set of artificial intelligence, a family of technologies that
attempts to develop computer systems that can mimic or simulate human thought processes and
actions.

Robots are of interest to us as output devices because they can perform computer
-
driven
elect
romechanical functions that the other devices so far described cannot. For example, a robot
resembling a miniature tank was able to explore the inside of the Great Pyramid of Giza in
Egypt. Equipped with treads bottom and top, and carrying lights and telev
ision camera, the robot
was able to probe an 8
-
inch
-
square 63
-
yard
-
long shaft to a formerly hidden chamber in the
pyramid. A robot called ScrubMate
-
equipped with computerized controls, ultrasonic “eyes,”
sensors, batteries, three different cleaning and scr
ubbing tools, and a self
-
squeezing mop
-
can
clean bathrooms.

Rosie the HelpMate delivers special
-
order meals from the kitchen to nursing stations in hospitals.
Robodoc is used in surgery to bore the thighbone so that a hip implant can be attached. Robots
ar
e also used for dangerous jobs such as fighting oil
-
well fires, doing nuclear inspections and
cleanups, and checking for mines and booby traps. When equipped with video and two
-
way
audio, they can also be used to negotiate with terrorists.



Text 9

Neural
Networks

Fuzzy
-
logic (a method of dealing with imprecise data and vagueness, with problems that have
many answers rather than one) principles are being applied in another area of AI, neural
networks. The word
neural

comes from neurons, or brain cells.
Neur
al networks

are physical
electronic devices or software to mimic the neurological structure of the human brain. The
human brain is made up of nerve cells (neurons) with a three
-
dimensional lattice of connections
between them (axons). Electrical connections

between nerve cells are activated by synapses. In a
hardware neural network, the nerve cell is replaced by a transistor, which acts as a switch. Wires
connect the cells (transistors) with each other. The synapse is replaced by an electronic
component call
ed a resistor, which determines whether a cell should activate the electricity to
other cells. A software neural network emulates a hardware neural network, although it doesn’t
work as fast.

The essential characteristics of neural networks are as follows:

-

Learning: Like a small child, a neural network can be trained to learn by having its
mistakes corrected, just as the human brain learns by making changes in the links
(synapses) between nerve cells.

One writer gives this example: “If you’re teaching the ne
ural network to speak, for
instance, you train it by giving it sample words and sentences, as well as desired
pronunciations. The connections between the electronic neurons gradually change,
allowing more or less current to pass.” The current is adjusted u
ntil the system is able to
“speak” correctly.

How effective are neural networks? One such program learned to pronounce a 20,000
-
word
vocabulary overnight. Another helped a mutual
-
fund manager to outperform the stock market by
2.3
-
5.6 percentage points over

three years. As a San Diego hospital emergency room in which
patients complained of chest pains, a neural network program was given the same information
doctors received. It correctly diagnosed patients with heart attacks 97% of the time, compared to
78%
for the human physicians.


Text 10

3G T
echnology

3G refers to the third generation of mobile telephony (that is, cellular) technology. The third
generation, as the name suggests, follows two earlier generations.

The first generation (1G) began in the early

80's with commercial deployment of Advanced
Mobile Phone Service (
AMPS
) cellular networks. Early AMPS networks used Frequency
Division Multiplexing Access (
FDMA
) to carry analog voice over channels in the 800 MHz
frequency band.

The second generation (2G) emerged in the 90's when mobile operators deployed two co
mpeting
digital voice standards. In North America, some operators adopted IS
-
95, which used Code
Division Multiple Access (
CDMA
) to multiplex up to 64 calls per cha
nnel in the 800 MHz band.
Across the world, many operators adopted the Global System for Mobile communication (
GSM
)
standard, which used Time Division Multip
le Access (
TDMA
) to multiplex up to 8 calls per
channel in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands.

The International Telecommunications Union (
ITU
) defined the third generation (3G) of mobile
telephony standards


IMT
-
2000


to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more
diverse applications. For example,

GSM could deliver not only voice, but also circuit
-
switched
data at speeds up to 14.4 Kbps. But to support mobile multimedia applications, 3G had to deliver
packet
-
switched data with better spectral efficiency, at far greater speeds.

However, to get from
2G to 3G, mobile operators had make "evolutionary" upgrades to existing
networks while simultaneously planning their "revolutionary" new mobile broadband networks.
This lead to the establishment of two distinct 3G families: 3GPP and 3GPP2.

The 3rd Generati
on Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed in 1998 to foster deployment of 3G
networks that descended from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved as follows.

• General Packet Radio Service (
GPRS
) offered speeds up to 114 Kbps.

• Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (
EDGE
) reached up to 384 Kbps.

• UMTS Wideband CDMA (
WCDMA
) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92 Mbps.

• High Speed Downlink Packet Access (
HSDPA
) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps.

• LTE Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E
-
UTRA) is aiming for 100 Mbps.