INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CARLOW

madbrainedmudlickAI and Robotics

Oct 20, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

48 views

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CARLOW


SCHOOL OF BUSINESS & HUMANITIES


DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS & COMMUNICATIONS



SUMMER EXAMINATIONS 2009




Course Code:

CW818

DATE:

SATURDAY,

23 MAY 2009


BBACTB

TIME:

14.00


17.00



DURATION:

3 HOURS






Year:

2



Course Title:

BACHELOR OF ARTS (HONS) IN ACCOUNTING



Subject:

INFORMATION SYSTEMS






Examiners:

Ms C Murphy

Mr N O Brien

Mr P Weadack




INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES:


1.

Write your Name, Course, Course Year and Class Group on your answer
book.

2.

Answer
FOUR (4) questions only.

3.

All questions carry equal marks.

_________________________________________________________









QUESTION 1


(a)

Describe Strategic Information Systems
.




(5 m
arks)


(b)

What are the five forces that Porter says could endanger a firm’s
position in its
industry or marketplace?






(5 m
arks)


(c)

What
five
strategies might companies use to gain competitive advantage? Use
examples of companies that you know which use those strategies.

(15 m
arks)



TOTAL
:

25 MARKS


QUESTION 2


(a)

The problem
definition is the 1
st

step in the Systems Life Cycle. What
information is contained
in the Problem Definition?



(5 m
arks)


(b)

What is the difference between systems analysis and systems design
?


(5 m
arks)


(c)

Describe prototyping as an alternati
ve
to the
Systems Life Cycle.

(5 m
arks)


(d)

Explain end user computing including the factors which have led to its
increasing popularity







(10 m
arks
)


TOTAL
:

25 MARKS




QUESTION 3


(a)

Define eCommerce, and d
istinguish it from eBusiness


(5 m
arks)


(b)

Differentiate
between B
2C and B2B types of eCommerce


(5

m
arks)


(c)

Describe mobile commerce including at least one example which you are
familiar with








(10 m
arks)


(d)

Procter and Gamble changed from a ‘push’ system of forecasting demand for
its products to establishing

a B2B network. Explain the difficulties that P&G
encountered in its ‘push’ system, what changes it made and the improvements
achieved.








(5 m
arks)


TOTAL
:

25 MARKS





QUESTION 4


(a)

Define supply chain and su
pply chain management (SCM)


(8 m
arks)


(b)

List the major c
omponents of supply chains




(7 m
arks)


(c)

What

is the bullwhip effect?






(5 m
arks)


(d)

Describe solution
s to supply chain problems




(5 m
arks)


TOTAL: 25 MARKS



QUESTION 5


(a)

In your practical classes this year, you used MS
Access (a relational database)
to develop a newsagents system. Explain the following objects found in
Access:
-



Tables (Relations)



Relationships



Queries



Forms



Reports



Wizards








(18 m
arks)


(b)

List the 2 other database models
and describe them briefly


(7 m
arks)


TOTAL
:

25 MARKS


QUESTION 6


Explain the following:
-


a.

Expert Systems

b.

Decision Support Systems (DSS)

c.

Neural Networks

d.

Fuzzy Logic

TOTAL
:

25 MARKS





Solutions

Question 1:

a.

Describe Stra
tegic Information Systems.





(5 Marks)



Any information
system
--
EIS, OIS, TPS, KMS
--
that changes the goals,
processes, products, or environmental relationships to help an organization
gain a competitive advantage or reduce a competitive disadvantage.



b.

What are the five forces that Porter says could endanger a
firm’s position in its
industry or marketplace?









(5 Marks)



The model recognizes five major forces that could endanger a company’s
position in a given industry.


i.

The threat of entry of new competitors

ii.

The bargaining power of suppliers

iii.

The bargaining
power of customers (buyers)

iv.

The threat of substitute products or services

v.

The rivalry among existing firms in the industry


c.

What
five
strategies might companies use to gain competitive advantage? Use
examples of companies that you know which use those stra
tegies.




(15 Marks)



Cost leadership strategy: Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost
in the industry.



Differentiation strategy: Offer different products, services, or product
features.



Niche strategy: Select a narrow
-
scope segment (niche ma
rket) and be the best
in quality, speed, or cost in that market.



Growth strategy: Increase market share, acquire more customers, or sell more
products.



Alliance strategy: Work with business partners in partnerships, alliances,
joint ventures, or virtual
companies.




Innovation strategy: Introduce new products and services, put new features in
existing products and services, or develop new ways to produce them.




Operational effectiveness strategy: Improve the manner in which internal
business processes are
executed so that a firm performs similar activities
better than rivals.


TOTAL 25 Marks




Question 2:

a.

The problem definition is the 1
st

step in the Systems Life Cycle. What
information is contained in the Problem Definition?





(5 Marks)



Requirement:
Identify a valid problem
in writing, clearly and
unambiguously.



The problem definition contains an introduction which is a short
paragraph describing the situation at the present and the reason for the
proposed system.



It also contains a list of user
requirements. This information is established
following an initial discussion with the user to identify needs. The user
requirements are explained generally and are used to get an overview of
the requirements of the system. Additional details will be estab
lished and
reported in later stages of the SLC


b.

What is the difference between systems analysis and systems design?

(5 Marks)



Analysis

i.

During this stage you will be expected to

ii.

Investigate and report on the existing system and problems
associated with it

iii.

R
ecognise the requirements of the intended user and the
capabilities and limitations of the resources available

iv.

Specify objectives for the new system

v.

e.g. better customer service, faster and/or more accurate
operation, ability to handle increased volume of

business, better
management information




Design

i.

The Systems Designer will consider

ii.

Possible solutions


iii.

Output


iv.

Input


v.

Files, tables or workbooks


vi.

Processing


vii.

Security


viii.

Testing Strategies


ix.

Hardware




c.

Describe prototyping as an alternative to the Systems Lif
e Cycle.


(5
Marks)



Prototyping



Develop a prototype of the system



Allows users to ‘see’ what the system will look like



More user friendly

d.

Explain end user computing including the factors which have led to its increasing
popularity








(10
Marks)



End User Computing

i.

Users develop their own systems



Why?

i.

Delays in getting systems developed

ii.

Increased levels of user computer literacy

iii.

Availability of applications such as Access and 4
th

Generation
Languages


TOTAL 25 Marks


Question 3:

a.

Define eComm
erce, and distinguish it from eBusiness




(5
Marks)

eCommerce
Electronic commerce

(
e
-
commerce, EC
) describes




the buying,



selling,



transferring or



exchanging of products, services or information

via

computer networks, including the Internet.

eBusiness is a wider definition including



Collaborating



eLearning


b.

Differentiate between B2C and B2B types of eCommerce



(5
Marks)



B2C refers to eCommerce where the seller is a business and the buyer is a
consumer. 3.4% (2008) of all retail sales are eCom
merce sales. Amazon is an
example of eTailing. eShopfront and eMalls. Brick and Mortar, Pureplay,
Click and Mortar





B2B refers to interorganisational ecommerce where both seller and buyer are
businesses. 92.7% of all eCommerce transactions are B2B. Linking

with
suppliers and customers can increase an organisations efficiencies. E.G.
Procter and Gamble and Walmart.

c.

Describe some of the applications of Mobile Commerce in the financial services
industry











(5 Marks)



Mobile commerce refers to
Mobile Com
merce

(also known as
M
-
Commerce
,
mCommerce

or
U
-
Commerce
, owing to the ubiquitous nature of its services) is
the ability to conduct commerce, using a mobile device e.g. a mobile phone (cell
phone), a PDA, a smartphone and other emerging mobile equipment su
ch as
dashtop mobile

devices. Mobile Commerce has been defined as follows:



"Mobile Commerce is any transaction, involving the transfer of ownership or
rights to use goods and services, which is initiated and/or completed by using
mobile access to computer
-
mediated networks with the help of an electronic
device.”

d.

Procter and Gamble changed from a ‘push’ system of forecasting demand for its
products to establishing a B2B network. Explain the difficulties that P&G
encountered in its ‘push’ system, what changes

it made and the improvements
achieved.



(10 Marks)



A short description of the old and new systems should be provided.



The output of an Information system is only as good as the input data. When
the data are inaccurate and/or delayed, the decisions based
on the data are not
the best. This clearly was the case with P&G old system, which generated
high inventories, frequent out
-
of
-
stocks and low customer satisfaction.



The e
-
commerce system described in this case expedited the flow of
information from retaile
rs to corporate hq and to suppliers with dramatic
results.

TOTAL 25 Marks


Question 4:

a.
Define supply chain and supply chain management (SCM)





(8 Marks)



A supply chain refers to the flow of materials, information, money and
services from raw material

suppliers, through factories and warehouses, to
the end customers. A supply chain also includes the organisations and
processes that create and deliver products, information, and services to end
customers.



The function of supply chain management is to
plan, organise and optimise
the supply chain activities.



b. List the major components of supply chains






(7
Marks)



Three segments:
-

o

Upstream, where sourcing or procurement from external suppliers
occurs

o

Internal where packaging, assembly or manufacturin
g takes place

o

Downstream where distribution takes place



Tiers of suppliers

o

Tier 1 suppliers are the companies suppliers e.g. dashboard

o

Tier 2 suppliers are tier 1 suppliers suppliers e.g. tyres

o

Tier 3 e.g. rubber



Three flows in the supply chain

o

Material fl
ows

o

Information flows

o

Financial flows

c. What is the bullwhip effect?








(5
Marks)



The bullwhip effect refers to erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply
chain.

d. Describe solutions to supply chain problems






(5
Marks)



Descriptions of the fo
llowing required:
-

o

Using inventories to solve supply chain problems

o

Informa

tion sharing

TOTAL: 25 MARKS

Question 5:

In your practical classes this year, you used MS Access to develop a newsagents system. Explain the
following objects found in Access:
-

a.

Tables (Relations)

b.

Relationships

c.

Queries

d.

Forms

e.

Reports

f.

Wizards

TOTAL 25 Marks

Solution:

Table:

A table is used to store the data in a database. Tables store information in relation to entities.
Relationships are created between tables which contain related information to enable
querying and reporting across 2 or more tables. Tables are used to def
ine the type of data
which will be maintained in the database. Users identify the field names of the attributes, the
length of the field to be stored in the table and can restrict the inputting to the table by input
masks, validation rules and default valu
es.

Queries:

Queries permit users to retrieve information stored in tables. They also allow users to carry
out update and delete queries which make update and delete changes to the data in tables. Queries
permit users to carry out ad
-
hoc queries on databas
es.

Forms:

A form is used to input or view the information in a table one record at a time. It is a more user
friendly way to input information instead of in a datasheet view in a table.



Forms can be created using the Form Wizard which permits users to ide
ntify the table or query that the
form is to be linked to and the wizard produces a standard form without the user having to design the
create the form.

Reports:

Reports are used to retrieve and present data in a formal manner. The wizard assists the user
to design the report. The user identifies the tables or query to be used for the report and the
groupings/totals they require to appear on the report. Users can very easily construct sophisticated
reports using the wizard.

SQL:

Query by example:

Question 6
:

Explain the following terms in Artificial Intelligence

a.

Expert Systems

b.

DSS

c.

Neural Networks

d.

Fuzzy Logic

a)

A DSS is a computer based information system that combines models and data in
an attempt to solve semi structured and some unstructured problems with
ex
tensive user involvement. Companies are using DSSs to improve decision
making for many reasons.



They can examine numerous alternatives very quickly



They can provide a systematic risk analysis



They can be integrated with communications systems and databases



They can be used to support group work



They have the ability to do sensitivity analysis, What
-
if analysis and goal
-
seeking analysis

b)

When an organisation has a complex decision to make or a problem to solve, it
often turns to experts for advice. These expe
rts have specific knowledge and
experience in the problem area. They are aware of alternative solutions as well as
the chances that the solution will succeed. At the same time, they can calculate
the cost that the organisation will incur if it doesn’t solv
e the problem. Expert
Systems (ES) are an attempt to mimic human experts by applying expertise in a
specific domain. Expert systems can either support decision makers or
completely replace them. Expert systems are the most widely applied and
commercially
successful AI technology.

The transfer of expertise from an expert to a computer and then to a user involves four
activities

1.

Knowledge acquisition

2.

Knowledge representation

3.

Knowledge inferencing

4.

Knowledge transfer

c)

Natural Language Processing (NLP) refers to

communicating with a computer in
the user’s native language. To understand a natural language enquiry, a computer
must have the knowledge to analyse and then interpret the input. This knowledge
may include linguistic knowledge about words, domain knowledg
e,
commonsense knowledge and even knowledge about the users and their goals.

Examples of voice technology applications include:
-



Answering queries about reservations, schedules, lost baggage


Scandinavian airlines





Informing Credit Card holders about balan
ces and credits, providing bank
account balances and other information to customers


Citibank and
many other banks



Requesting pickups, ordering supplies


Federal Express



Notifying parents about cancellation of classes and about where students
are


New J
ersey Department of Education



Activating radios, heaters etc… by voice


car manufacturers

d)

Neural networks are systems of programs and data structures that approximates
the operation of the human brain. A neural network usually involves a large
number of p
rocessors operating in parallel, each with its own small sphere of
knowledge and access to data in its local memory. Typically, a neural network is
initially “trained” or fed large amounts of data and rules about data relationships.

Neural networks are par
ticularly good at recognising subtle, hidden and newly emerging
patterns within complex data as well as interpreting incomplete inputs. These systems
have become standard for combating fraud in the credit card industry. They analyse past
credit card purcha
ses and establish your spending patterns e.g. amounts, merchants,
locations etc… Future purchases are matched against your pattern to analyse whether
they are fraudulent.