Ocean in Action End-of-Cycle Study Guide

lyricalwillingMechanics

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 5 months ago)

64 views


1

Name _____________________________________________


Period ______________


Ocean in Action

End
-
of
-
Cycle
Study Guide


Ocean Circulation




1.

Using
the map of ocean surface currents above, what would be the most likely
location for
plastic
s

and other
solid waste

pollution

to collect?

A


2.

What happens as warm water along the coast is blown away by wind and moved back
out to sea, as cold, nutrient rich water is pushed up from along the land.

upwelling



3.

Which of the following are the
2
main drivers of
global
deep ocean currents?

1)

Temperature


2)

Salinity


4.

What causes the wind and currents to curve/not travel in a straight line due to
the rotation of the earth? In the north it curves to the right, and in the south it
curves left.


The coriolis effect



2

5.

What is the temperature and d
irection of t
he California Current, which flows
along the w
est coast of North America?

Temperature

Cold



Direction

south





6.

How would a colder Scandanavia and Great Britain affect the thermohaline
circulation of currents? (increase it, decrease it,
cause it to shut down).



Shut it down


7.

During an El Niño
-
Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, which of the following
best descri
b
es conditions in the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Ocean (e.g.,
near Peru and Ecuador)?

What happens to the high and low

pressure areas in
the eastern and western Pacific?



The high ad low pressure areas are switched, so that the normal cold upwelling
along the coast of the South America (Eastern Pacific) is replaced with higher sea
surface temperatures and higher precipitation levels.






3






Fisheries and Aquaculture

8.

Giv
e four results of s
almon farming (aquaculture)
.

1.

Environmental stress to salmon after their release

2.

Resource competition between farmed and wild salmon

3.

Increased susceptibility to diseases due to genetic uniformity

4.

Pollution of surrounding ocean with waste
and excess feed

9.

How
is
bottom trawling is detrimental to benthic organisms?

A boat drags a large net across the bottom of the ocean floor, destroying habitats,
stirring up sedimentation, reducing spawning grounds, and catching unwanted
bycatch.


10.

Why has t
he maximum sustainable yield for ocean fisheries has been exceeded?

(what happens annually? Refer to your Tragedy of the commons activity)


Too many marine fish of reproductive age are harvested annually




11.

What

is an economic
approach to reduce overfishin
g/what could government
eliminate for fisherman?

Eliminating subsidies

12.

Which of the following laws was implemented in th
e US to govern the
conservation

and management of ocean fisheries?

Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act


13.

One of the world’s largest exporters of shrimp is Thailand, where coastal
mangrove
swamps

are often destroyed to make room for shrimp farms. Wh
at
are 4
ecological impact
s

of the destruction of mangrove forests for this type of
aquaculture?

1.

Exposes the
surrounding shorelines to coastal erosion

2.

Opens coastal areas to severe damage from storms and hurricanes

3.

Reduces biodiversity in important spawning and nursery areas

4.

May increase spread of diseases to wild populations of shrimp


Aquatic Biomes


14.

Which part of the ocean would a marine biologist studying areas of high
biodiversity be most likely
to conduct research i
n?



4


Coral reefs in the neritic zone, above the continental shelf

15.

Why are shar
ks are at the
top of the food chain and their removal wou
ld have
far
-
reaching conseq
uences for the entire ecosystem. What is the term to describe
an organism that would cause such a drastic change to the ecosystem, if it were
removed?


Keystone species



16.

Which of the following terms best describes an area where

salt and freshwater
mix that has a very high level of productivity?
(3% salt water or brackish water
exists here)


An estuary



17.

Put the following aquatic biomes into the following catagories of salinity: River,
Lake, Esturary, Coral Reefs (Coastal Marine
Ecosystem), Deep ocean Marine
Ecosystem.

Oligotrophic (0.5
-
5 psu)

Mesotrophic (5
-
18psu)

Polytrophic (18
-
30 psu)

River

Estuary

Coral Reefs

Lake


Deep Ocean Marine
Ecosystem





18.

Wetlands surrounding a river, provide what ecosystem services?

1)

Prevention of Flooding


2)

remediation of toxic chemicals and excess nutrients



19.

What does phytoplankton (the most abundant primary producer in the world)
produce through photosynthesis in the ocean?

1)

dissolved oxygen


2)

glucose



20.

The ecosystems with

the world’s highest net primary productivity (NPP) per
unit area are located in which part of the ocean?

Euphotic zone


5


Water

Pollution

21.

In a river ecos
ystem, dissolved oxygen concentrations drop quickly downstream
from a point
-
source input of organic ma
tter into the river. What is this

effect
most likely due to?

Increasing bacterial activity due to decay of organic matter





[Source:
http://mdk12.org/instruction/clg/
public_release/biology/G3_E5_I2.html
]


22.

Which organism in the food web above would
be most likely to
accumulate the
highest concentration of a
fat
-
soluble

pollutant?

The Killer whale because of biomagnification, in which toxic pollutants are not broken
down, and travel up the food chain, accumulating at the top.




23.

In what way does the Great Pacific
Garbage Patch

represent a

tragedy of the
commons

?

Pacific

Rim count
ries are polluting the water in a way that affects the quality
of the ocean for all, but no one is accountable for it.



24.

Which of the following is the most common cause of cultural eutrophication in
surface waters?


6

Runoff of nitrate into bodies of water

25.

Ho
w does logging/ deforestation lead to non
-
point source pollution?

Logging and deforestation leads to sedimentation, which lowers water quality. It is
not easily identifiable, and therefore is considered a non
-
point source of pollution.



26.

When we did our toxicity lab, we found that worm (we used black worms) tend
to be very tolerant of pollution, and resistant to high toxicity levels. Explain why
the presence of black worms or sludge worms and anaerobic bacteria are
indicators of polluted w
ater.

Sludge worms and anaerobic bacteria

27.

What is the number 1 source of oil pollution in the ocean? (surprisingly)


Storm water runoff from land



28.

What are three of the most common methods employed to clean up oil spills?

Large floating booms, skimmer
boats, and chemical dispersants

29.

Name 3 point sources of pollution.

1)

Factory effluent (emissions and discharge)

2)

A specific active or inactive mine

3)

Sewage Treatment plant



30.

A marine scientist suspects that runoff from nearby farms is creating a hypoxic
zone
(area of low oxygen content)
in a coastal area. Which of the following
water
quality tests would be best suited to determining whether the area is actually
hypoxic?

Dissolved oxygen





31.

Environmental conditions in coastal estuaries vary hourly and
seasonally.

What are
TWO important causes for the variation in the temperature and/or salinity of an
estuary. Be sure to include the connection between each cause and temperature and/or
salinity.


1)







7




2)










32.

What are 2 reasons that wetlands are ecologically important?

1)



2)



33.

What are 2 reasons that wetlands are economically important?

1)



2)



34.

E
xplain THREE ways in which humans have had a negative impact on or have degraded
coastal wetlands.

1)


2)


3)


35.

What are 2 pieces of legislation that could reduce the negative impacts that humans
have on the wetlands, and explain using the provisions of each act how they might
prevent
/reduce

wetland degradation.

1)



2)




8

36.

Excess carbon dioxide (
CO
2

)
dissolved in
the ocean (due to increased pollution) could
affect pH. pH is the amount of H
+

that can be donated. Write the chemical equation, that
explains why

excess

CO
2

may increase the acidity of the ocean?











37.

Coral reefs are produced when corals acquire
calcium ions (Ca
2+
) and carbonate ions
(CO
3
2
-
) from seawater and deposit solid CaCO
3

to form their exoskeletons
. How might
co
ral reefs be affected by excess CO
2
?































9




38. Look at the chart above. Explain 2 reasons
why the
movement of carbon into the
ocean

has been increasing since 1850, as a result of CO
2

production by humans.







In order to model the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs, some simplifying
assumptions can be made. Use the assumptions in the
table below to perform the
calculations that follow.


Assume that the total global area of co
rals growing in reefs is 2.5 x 10
11
m
2

Assume that corals grow only vertically and that the average vertical growth rate of
corals is 3 mm/year.

Assume that the ave
rage density of
CaCO
3

in corals is 2 x

10
3

kg/
m
3
.


(i)

Calculate the current annual global increase in volume, in m
3

per year
, of
CaCO
3

in coral reefs. Show all steps in your calculation.

Step 1: What is the total global area
(m
2
) of coral reefs?


Step 2:
convert mm to m, to
determine the vertical m/year.



Step 3: What is the volume (m
3
) per
year
CaCO
3
? (Volume= area times


10

vertical height)




(ii)

Calculate the current annual global increase in mass, in kg, of
CaCO
3

in
coral reefs. Show all steps in

your
calculation.


Step 1: What is the annual global
volume increase that you calculated
in part (i)?


Step 2: What is the density of
CaCO
3

in

kg/m
3
?


Step 3:
Using the formula for density
(D=m/v) what is the increase in
global mass in kg of
CaCO
3

in coral
reefs
?




(iii)

Because of ocean acidification, it is expected that in 2050 the mass of
CaCO
3

deposited annually in

coral reefs will be 20 percent less than is
deposited currently. Calculate how much less
CaCO
3
,

in kg,

is expected to
be deposited in 2050 than
would be deposited if ocean water pH were to
remain at its

current value.



Step 1: What is the annual global
increase in mass in kg of
CaCO
3

in
coral reefs
? (from part ii)


Step 2: find 20% of that mass using
multiplication.







39. Give 4 reasons
why destroying coral reefs would be harmful to the environment,
and why?


Impact

Why












11









40.

What are

3

environmental problem
s

(other than one due to ocean acidificati
on
or loss of coral reefs) that
humans cause and affect

mari
ne
ecosystems on a global
scale?


1)


2)


3)