Chapter 16 Outline


Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 1 month ago)



Chapter 16 Outline

The General Mining Law of 1872

established to encourage settlement in the western states.
Allowed individuals, foreign or citizens, to make claim to certain land areas and profit from
anything the land produced. US lost a lot of money due to this.

Minerals are elements or compounds o
f elements that occur naturally in the Earth’s crust.

Sulfides, Oxides, Rocks, High
grade and low
grade ores, metals and non

As magma cools and solidifies, it separates into layers and various concentrations of minerals are
und in each layer. Main deposits found= iron, copper, nickel, chromium and other metals. This is
magma concentration

Hydrothermal processes

involve water that was heated deep in the Earth’s crust; water seeps
through and dissolves certain minerals
. Responsible for gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc.

= when weathered particles are transported by water and deposited as sediment
on the sea floor, deltas and riverbanks. Certain minerals dissolve in the water on their passage of
life. Re
sponsible for iron, manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, copper, and other minerals.

Inland lakes produce many salts after

. Might be turned into rock layers.
Responsible for table salt, borax, potassium salts and gypsum.

In order to make
neral deposits available 1) Deposit must be located 2) Mining extracts mineral
3) The mineral is processed and refined 4) Mineral is used to make a product.


mining/Subsurface Mining/Overburden

Subsurface= below ground; surface= removing soil, subs
oil and overburden (overlying rock)
to mine

Open Pit surface Mining
Strip Mining
= trench is dug.
Shaft mine
= direct vertical shaft to ore

ore is melted at high temps to separate impurities; Smelting caused the disaster at
Copperbasin, Tennessee

The extraction and disposal

of minerals are harmful to the environment. Surface mining
particularly destroys large areas of land. Open pit mining uses a lot of water. Mining affects water
quality through
acid mine drainage
. Cost benefit analyses should be

made before mines are


impurities that become waste after mining. Smelting plants emit a large amount of air

Copperbasin, Tenn.
Destroyed due to open air smelting pits, acid precipitation from this caused
wildlife to cease, soil erosion was a huge problem, entire aquatic community killed due to runoff
from soil erosion and acid precip. It was trying to be turned into a
derelict lan
(land restored
from mining degradation)

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

1977 law that requires reclamation of areas that
were surface mined for coal. But there is no federal law to require restoration of land.

Wetlands are a good way to clean
up mining lands such as Butte, Montana. Bacteria consume the
contaminated water that seeps into the land clearing it of sulfur and making the water less acidic.
Not cost effective though because it is expensive and lime can be used in its place.


= the use of specific plants to absorb and accumulate toxins from the soil.

are an example.

Mineral Reserves
= deposits identified and profitable to extract.

Mineral Resources

undiscovered deposits that are currently unprofitable
to extract

Reserves+Resources= Total Resources or World Reserve Base

Reasons shortages of minerals never occurred


New discoveries have been discovered


Plastics and other synthesizers have replaced metals


Global economic slump resulted in lower consumption
of minerals

Antarctic Treaty

1961 stated that Antarctica can only be used for peaceful studies.

Madrid Protocol

1990 moratorium on exploration for minerals at a minimum of 50 years.

Manganese Nodules

small rocks that contain manganese and other minerals at the bottom of
the sea floor. Not commercially feasible to obtain them.


protects the ocean from being exploited.


microorganisms used to extract minerals from low grade ores. All
ows recovery of
certain minerals that could be scattered throughout the ocean blue.


Sustainable Manufacturing

manufacturing system based on industrial waste minimization.
Requires that companies provide info on their waste products.

Industrial economies/Industrial ecology

I. Ecology
= extension of s. manufacturing because
seeks to use resources efficiently and uses wastes as potential products.
I. Ecology

> I. Ecosystem.


a way of conservation/reduction because
as time goes on they are made
lighter. Compare an iPod in 2003 to an iPod in 2011. MUCH lighter.