ROBOT VISION SYSTEM

lynxherringAI and Robotics

Oct 18, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

79 views

ROBOT VISION SYSTEM

AND

SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY





Mepco Schlenk Engineering College



Sivakasi.







Presented by:



P.SAKTHI KUMARAN




M.RATHINA JAYARAM


persakthi@gmail.com






rathinajayaram@gmail.com




DEPT. OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

ARCHITECTURAL MODEL OF ROBOT VISION
SYSTEM

SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY








ABSTRACT:




Technological advancement is
widening up by the advent of new
inventi
ons. Robot is one such invention
to overcome the ever present challenges
of high cost of labor, third world
combination and consumer demand for
higher quality and greater variety at a
lower cost. It is an interdisciplinary field
that ranges in scope from t
he design of
mechanical and electrical components to
sensor technology, computer systems,
and artificial intelligence .It is the
science of designing and building robots
suitable for real life applications in
manufacturing and other non
manufacturing envir
onment .In non
manufacturing environment robots act as
computer controlled camera that allows
it to see its environment and respond
accordingly.


This is known as its vision.








In the current scenario, the
robot vision system is ba
sically used for
inspection purposes in industries such as
gauging, verification of presence of
components, diction of flaws, etc.

In
this paper, we have designed an
architectural model of robot vision
system, by integrating it with smart card
.Some of th
e advanced features of the
model are identifying the speeding
vehicle …, vehicles that are not in
proper lanes, reporting and sending the
details of the vehicle to nearby control
station along with the particulars of the
vehicle are the hall marks of the
d
esigned system. To avoid the
unauthorized use of National Highways,
we have introduced a simple chip
incorporated into the robot vision system
.The main aim of our paper is to protect
valuable "
human lives
". This advanced
smart card and robotic sensors sys
tem
helps to avert accidents and damage to
public property in future.










INTRODUCTION:



Machine vision system



Machine vision can be
defined as acquisition of image data
followed by processing and
interpretation of data by us
ing computer
for some useful applications. The
machine vision system is generally
classified as two and three dimensional
system. Generally, three dimensional is
more advantageous, but anyhow two
dimensional system is much preferred
for simple applications
. The general
applications of machine vision system
are dimension measuring, gauging,
verifying the presence of components
(flaws), checking flatness surface.





FUNCTIONING OF MACHINE
VISION SYSTEM





IMAGE ACQUISITION AND
DIGITIZATION:






Image acquisition and
digitization is accomplished using a
video camera and a digitizing system to
store the image data for subsequent
analysis. The camera is focused on the
object of interest or the subject of
interest and the image is obtain
ed by
dividing the viewing area into a matrix
of the discrete picture elements called
pixel, in which each element has a value
that is proportional to the light intensity
of that portion of the scene.



The intensity value for each pixel is
converted into
its equivalent digital
value by an ADC (Analog to Digital
Converter).



Two types of vision system
:

1
. Binary vision
:



In Binary Vision the
light intensity of each pixel is ultimately
reduced to either of two values,


black or
white, depending on whether the light
intensity exceeds a given threshold level.

2.
Gray Scale Vision system



Gray Scale Vision
System is a more sophisticated vision
system, which is capable of
distinguishing and sorting differen
t
shades of gray in the image depending
on the intensity level.


This type of
system can determine not only an objects
outline and area characteristics, but also
its surface characteristics such as texture
and color.


Gray Scale Vision System
typically use
s 4, 6, 8 bits of memory.



Each set of digitized pixel
value is referred to as a frame.


Each
frame is stored in a computer memory
device called as frame buffer.


The
process of reading all the pixel values in
a frame is performed with the fr
equency
of 30 times per second.


Types of camera




The two types of cameras that are
used in Machine applications are:



1.
Vidicon Camera:



Vidicon Cameras
are operated by focusing the image onto
a photoconductive

surface and Scanning
the surface with an electron beam to
obtain the relative pixel values.



2.


Solid State Camera:



Solid State Cameras
are operated by focusing the image onto
2
-

Dimensional arrays of very small,
finely s
paced photosensitive elements
which form the matrix of pixels.


An
electrical charge is generated by each
element according to the intensity of
light striking the element.


The charge is
accumulated in a storage device
consisting of an array of storage
ele
ments corresponding to one with a
photosensitive picture element.


These
charge values are read sequentially in the
data processing and analysis function of
Machine Vision.





ILLUMINATION


The scene viewed by the
vision camera must be well illuminated,
and the illumination must be constant
over the time.


This almost always
requires the special lighting to be
installed for Machine Vision
applications rather than rely on ambient
lighting in the surroundings.

Types of Illumination:

1. Front Lighting:

2. B
ack Lighting:

3. Side Lighting:

4. Structured Lighting
using a planar sheet of
light:

5. Strobe Lighting:



IMAGE PROCESSING AND
ANALYSIS:



The second function in the
operation of Machine Vision System is
Image Processing and Analysis.


The
data that must be processed is significant
and the data for each frame must be
analyzed within the time required to
complete one scan (1/30 second).


A
number of techniques have been
developed for analyzing the image data
in Machine Vision System.


T
he two
categories in Image Processing and
Analysis are:



Segmentation:




Segmentation techniques
are intended to define and separate
regions of interest within the image.


Two of the common segmentation
techniques are Thresholding and e
dge
detection.






Threshold involves the
conversion of each pixel intensity level
into a binary value, representing either
white or black.


This is done by
comparing the intensity value of each
pixel with defined threshold value.


If
the

pixel value is greater than the
threshold, it is given the binary bit value
of white, say1; if less than the defined
threshold, then it is given the bit value of
black, say 0.



Edge detection is concerned
with determining the location o
f
boundaries between an object and its
surroundings in an image.


This is
accomplished by identifying the contrast
in light intensity that exists between
adjacent pixels at the borders of the
object.


A number of software for
algorithms has been developed
for
following the border around the object.




Feature Extraction
:




Most of the Machine Vision
System characterizes an object in the
image by means of the object's features.


Some of the features of an object include
the object's area, l
ength, width, diameter,
perimeter and center of gravity.


Feature
Extraction method is designed to
determine these features based on a area
and boundaries of the object

INTERPRETATION:



The interpretation function
is usually concerned w
ith recognizing
the object, a task termed object
recognition or pattern recognition.


The
objective in these tasks is to identify the
object in the image by comparing it with
predefined modes.


Two commonly used
interpretation techniques are:


1
. Template

Matching:



Template Matching is the
name given to various methods that
attempt to compare one or more features
of an image with the corresponding
features of a model or templates stored
in computer memory.


The most basic

template match
ing

technique is one in
which the image compared, pixel
-
by
-
pixel, with the corresponding computer
model.



2.
Feature Weighing:



Feature Weighing is a
technique in which several features such
as area, length, perimeter, etc…. are
co
mbined into a single measure by
assigning a weight to each feature
according to its relative importance in
identifying the object.


The score the
object in the image is compared with the
score of an ideal object residing in
computer memory to achieve prope
r
identification.






SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY:






Smart Card is a
technological advancement, which has
the potential to make a significant
impact on the quality of human life.


It is
manufactured using Semi conducting
and Magnetic Ma
terials.





There are two types of
Smart Cards namely Contact Smart
Cards for which a Smart Card reader is
required, and the Contact
-
less Smart
Cards, which can be waved in front of
Sensors and used accordingly.


This type
of Smart Ca
rd is very useful for Mass
Transmit and applications where large
number of movement of people happen
very quickly and frequently. The main
application of the Smart Cards are data
carrier, identification and financial.






PR
OPOSED MODEL OF ROBOT
VISION USING SMART CARD
TECHNOLOGY



OVERVIEW





After a study regarding the
accidents in National Highways, it was
found the main cause behind these were
due to over speeding of vehicles and
change of lanes duri
ng the course of
travel.


In addition to this we have
introduced a chip card, which will
prevent the unauthorized usage of
National Highways.


In order to avert
these we have designed a paper, which
would be valuable.



















CONFIGURATION OF
PR
OPOSED MODEL







ACCM: AUTOMATED CARD
CHECKING MACHINE



REGN.CHECK: REGISTRATION
NUMBER CHECKUP



SPEED CHECK: DONE USING
OPTICAL ENCODERS





PROCESSES INVOLVED



SMART CARDS FOR TOLL
COLLECTION:


Sev
eral states in India have a system of
Tax called octroi which is tax collected
for goods or entry.


This introduces a
tremendous amount of paper work and
also lack of transparency.


By usage of
Automated Fare Collection
System(prepaid Smart Card)will assis
t


in reducing paper work and also will
ensure complete transparency at the toll.


A contact less Smart Card with
electronically preloaded money is used
to pay the exact fare by flashing the card
to contact less Smart Card reader.


The
Card communicates wi
th the reader
through Radio Frequency.


This method
gives a significant benefit to the
Highways Department.


The procedure is that highway user
should buy the Smart Card in advance to
his usage of the National Highways.


The highway user is expected to ins
ert
the Smart Card in the Automated Card
checking System and if the required
conditions were satisfied, the user would
be permitted to enter the National
Highways.





ROBOT VISION SYSTEM:






The Robotic Sensors
have the capabili
ty of identifying the
vehicle to a distance of 50 meters on
either side and accordingly the Robotic
Sensors are placed.

VIDEO

CAMERA

COMPUTER



IMAGE ACQUISITION AND
DIGITIZATION:




Video Camera: SOLID STATE
CAMERA



Vision System: GRAY SCAL
E
VISION SYSTSEM



The basic idea of using
Gray Scale Vision System is to exactly
get the image of the vehicle and the
Registration Number of the vehicle so as
to be compared with the images already
stored in the host computer.







If the Registration
Number of the vehicle that is traced is
not present in the sorted list of
Registration Numbers then this indicated
an unauthorized usage of the highway
for which the highway user is to be
fined.



Illumination: STROB
E LIGHTING




In Strobe Lighting, a short
pulse of high intensity illuminates the
scene light, which causes a moving
object to appear stationery.


The pulse
of light can last 5
-
500 microseconds.


This is sufficient time for camera to
c
apture the image although the camera
actuation must be synchronized with that
of the strobe light.

IMAGE PROCESSING AND
ANALYSIS:

Thresholding:




Thresholding is one of the
Segmentation techniques.


This
technique is very useful in gett
ing the
image of the approaching vehicle with
the Registration Number in white or
black.





INTERPRETATION

Technique used: TEMPLATE
MATCHING



The images of most
commonly used models of vehicles are
stored in the host computer.


The i
mage
of the approaching vehicle is compared
with the images in the host computer.


And if the images of the vehicle don't
match, then it indicates the improper
usage of lanes.


Then immediately the
particulars about the vehicle are stored
and informed imme
diately to nearby
Control Station.



SPEED CHECK



The speed of the vehicles is
calculated using the Velocity Sensors.


The velocity Sensor used in this system
is Encoders.



ENCODERS



Encoders are non contact
type p
osition sensors.


Unlike
potentiometers, which give analog
signals, encoders give digital signals
directly.


They basically consist of a
photo transmitter (light source), photo
receiver (photo cell).

Types of Encoders



1. Incremental Encoders
:



2. Absolute Encoders:



















ADVANTAGES OF OUR
PROPOSED SYSTEM:

ADVANTAGES OF VISION
SYSTEM:

1.

In current scenario, a system
exists in United States of
America, that identifies the over
speeding vehicles and
automatically spikes app
ears
within a certain distance both in
front and at back of the vehicle,
which may lead to traffic jam in
the Highway till officials from
the Control Station comes and
clears it, and it also causes
damage to the vehicle.





But in Robot Vision S
ystem, no
damage is caused to vehicle but it

identifies the vehicle uniquely
using the Registration Number and they
are ultimately fined.

2.

When accidents occur in
National Highways, the clear
picture of the Accident can be
got, and the culp
rit can be held
with the help of Registration
Number.



3.



Unauthorized use of National
Highways could be averted.





ADVANTAGES OF
AUTOMATED FARE
COLLECTION SYSTEM




(USING
SMART CARD)

1.


This improves the operation
al
efficiency.



2.


Minimization of Revenue
leakage.

3.


Increased Cash flow due to
advance collection.



4.


Highway user gets better service.



CONCLUSION



This system, if
implemented in National Highways
would be very helpful in

reducing the
number of accidents. In future this may
be very useful as the usage of vehicles is
on a constant increase.


So we
recommend this paper to the Highways
Department. The modified version of
system can also be introduced in the
Railways, as it wi
ll be useful in averting
the collisions between the trains due to
improper signaling.



REFERENCES

Robotics, by William P.Groover.

Robotics and Automation Engineering
by S. R. Deb