Student Centred Learning, Effective Pedagogy and E-learning Planning ICTPD for 2012

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Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Student Centred Learning, Effective Pedagogy and E
-
learning

Planning ICTPD for 2012


In 2012 we would like the ICT PD contract to focus more directly on the relationship between Effective
Pedagogy and e
-
learning.
On the following pages

are tw
o diagrams
that show how we have approached the e
-
learning action planner (competed by PLGs) in 2011 followed by suggested changes for 2012.


The overarching structure will remain the same:

PLGs will be in Learning Areas

PLGs will be formed to meet the needs of each
Learning Area

Each PLG will complete an E
-
learning Action Plan based on the topic focus of their choice

Each learning Area will have an allocated e
-
mentor

All staff will be offered a number of ICT PD workshops based on their needs

All staff will have acces
s to a range of online ICTPD that can be accessed at anytime


The focus will change:

2011


Student Outcomes informed the ‘e
-
learning action plan’

2012


Effective Pedagogy/Key Competencies will inform the ‘e
-
learning action plan’


Suggested timeline for
2012

Term One

Weeks 1
-
7 PD focus on Effective Pedagogy/Student Competencies not IT

Weeks 8
-
10 PLGs formed and ‘E
-
learning Action Plans’ developed


Term Two

ICTPD Workshops and PLG time

Mid
-
year feedback gathered at end of Term 2


Term Four

ICTPD
Workshops and PLG time


Term Four

Sharing and final feedback


Learning Area Feedback Required

In order to make this manageable we would like choose three specific aspects of Effective Pedagogy and/or
Student Competencies to focus on.


Please consider the
following readings (plus any other readings you consider important) and bring back to
the next Leader’s Forum the three areas
(foci)
your Learning Area consider the most important.


E.g.

1.

Collaboration

2.

Critical Thinking

3.

Information Literacy


This feedback w
ill then be collated to inform the three areas the school will focus for the 2012 ICTPD
cont
r
act.


ICT PD 2011


Focus on Student Outcomes

Focusing
Inquiry


What is important (and therefore worth spending time on), given where my students are at?

This
focusing inquiry

establishes a baseline and a direction. The teacher uses all available
information to determine what their students have already learned and what they need to learn
next.



i.e. How we can improve student engagement through the integration of ICT strategies to
enhance:


Student centred learning


Strong learning relationships between teachers, students and caregivers

Teaching
Inquiry


What strategies (evidence
-
based) are most likely to help my students learn this?

In this
teaching inquiry
, the teacher uses evidence from research and from their own past
practice and that of colleagues to plan teaching and learning opportunities aimed at achieving
the outcomes prioritised in the focusing inquiry.



i.e. What are the specific ICT strategies that will best meet the needs of the students


student
centred learning and student engagement. E.g Moodle, google sites, Mahara, google docs,
blogger etc

Teaching and
Learning


Teaching and Learning takes place
-

ICT Strategies are implemented into the classroom



i.e Moodle course pages are used in and beyond the classroom to support a range of student
centred teaching and learning activities.

Learning
Inquiry


What happened as a result of the teaching, and what are the implications for future teaching?

In this
learning inquiry
, the teacher investigates the success of the teaching in terms of the

prioritised outcomes, using a range of assessment approaches. They do this both while learning
activities are in progress and also as longer
-
term sequences or units of work come to an end.
They then analyse and interpret the information to consider what they should do next.



i.e Have you increased/improved your practice around student centred learning? Have you
raised student engagement? How? Why? Why not?

ICT PD 2012


Greater focus on specific aspects of Effective Pedagogy


Focusing
Inquiry


What aspects of effective pedagogy do I want to focus on?


Which class/group of students do I want focus on?



i.e. How we can improve student centred learning and student engagement through the integration of ICT
strategies to:



create a supportive learning environment



encourage reflective thought and action



enhance the relevance of new learning



facilitate shared learning



make connections to prior learning and experience



provide sufficient opportunities to learn



inquire into the teaching

learning relationship.


Teaching
Inquiry


What strategies (evidence
-
based) are most likely to help my students learn this?

In this
teaching inquiry
, the teacher uses evidence from research and from their own past practice and that of
colleagues to plan teaching and learning opportunities aimed at achieving the outcomes prioritised in the focusing
inquiry.



i.e. What are the specific ICT tools (or combination of ICT tools) and/or strategies that will best support the aspect
of effective pedagogy I am focusing on:


Moodle
-

which specific resources and/or activities


Google Apps
-


MyPortfolio


Other tools and software

Teaching
and Learning


Teaching and Learning takes place
-

ICT Strategies are implemented into the classroom



i.e Moodle course pages are used in and beyond the classroom to support a range of student centred teaching and
learning activities and support specific aspects of effective pedagogy.

Learning
Inquiry


What happened as a result of the teaching, and what are the implications for future teaching?

In this
learning inquiry
, the teacher investigates the success of the teaching in terms of the

prioritised outcomes, using a range of assessment approaches. They do this both while learning
activities are in progress and also as longer
-
term sequences or units of work come to an end. They then
analyse and interpret the information to consider what they should do next.



i.e Have you increased/improved your pedagogy and developed strategies that support more student
centred learning through the use of specific ICT tools and strategies? Have you raised student
engagement? How? Why? Why not?


Possible readings to inform foci for 2012


Student Competencies

NZC
-

Key Competencies

The 21st Fluencies Project
-

http://www.21stcenturyfluency.com/fluencies.cfm

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (US)

http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120

Five Minds for the Future
-

Howard Gardner


Teacher Competencies

Student Centred learning
-

Learning Area Directors 2010

NZC


Effective Pedagogy

Ka Hikitia

Visible Learning


John Hattie


Competencies/areas that may be benefited by e
-
learning

Benefits of e
-
learning
-

Noeli
ne Wright

NZC
-

E
-
learning and pedagogy



1.

Student Competencies


a.

NZC
-

Ke
y Competencies

The New Zealand Curriculum identifies five key competencies:



thinking



using language, symbols, and texts



managing self



relating to others



participating and contributing

People use these competencies to live, learn, work, and contribute as
active members of their communities. More complex than
skills, the competencies draw also on knowledge, attitudes, and values in ways that lead to action. They are not separate or
stand
-
alone. They are the key to learning in every learning area.

The develo
pment of the competencies is both an end in itself (a goal) and the means by which other ends are achieved. Successful
learners make use of the competencies in combination with all the other resources available to them. These include personal g
oals,
other
people, community knowledge and values, cultural tools (language, symbols, and texts), and the knowledge and skills found in
different learning areas. As they develop the competencies, successful learners are also motivated to use them, recognising w
hen
an
d how to do so and why.

Opportunities to develop the competencies occur in social contexts. People adopt and adapt practices that they see used and v
alued
by those closest to them, and they make these practices part of their own identity and expertise.

The

competencies continue to develop over time, shaped by interactions with people, places, ideas, and things. Students need to b
e
challenged and supported to develop them in contexts that are increasingly wide
-
ranging and complex.


Thinking

Thinking is about

using creative, critical, and metacognitive processes to make sense of information, experiences, and ideas. These
processes can be applied to purposes such as developing understanding, making decisions, shaping actions, or constructing
knowledge. Intellec
tual curiosity is at the heart of this competency.

Students who are competent thinkers and problem
-
solvers actively seek, use, and create knowledge. They reflect on their own
learning, draw on personal knowledge and intuitions, ask questions, and challenge

the basis of assumptions and perceptions.


Using language, symbols, and texts

Using language, symbols, and texts is about working with and making meaning of the codes in which knowledge is expressed.
Languages and symbols are systems for representing and
communicating information, experiences, and ideas. People use languages
and symbols to produce texts of all kinds: written, oral/aural, and visual; informative and imaginative; informal and formal;

mathematical, scientific, and technological.

Students who
are competent users of language, symbols, and texts can interpret and use words, number, images, movement,
metaphor, and technologies in a range of contexts. They recognise how choices of language, symbol, or text affect people’s
understanding and the ways

in which they respond to communications. They confidently use ICT (including, where appropriate,
assistive technologies) to access and provide information and to communicate with others.


Managing self

This competency is associated with self
-
motivation, a

“can
-
do” attitude, and with students seeing themselves as capable learners. It
is integral to self
-
assessment.

Students who manage themselves are enterprising, resourceful, reliable, and resilient. They establish personal goals, make pl
ans,
manage project
s, and set high standards. They have strategies for meeting challenges. They know when to lead, when to follow, and
when and how to act independently.


Relating to others

Relating to others is about interacting effectively with a diverse range of people in

a variety of contexts. This competency includes
the ability to listen actively, recognise different points of view, negotiate, and share ideas.

Students who relate well to others are open to new learning and able to take different roles in different situa
tions. They are aware
of how their words and actions affect others. They know when it is appropriate to compete and when it is appropriate to co
-
operate.
By working effectively together, they can come up with new approaches, ideas, and ways of thinking.


P
articipating and contributing

This competency is about being actively involved in communities. Communities include family, whānau, and school and those bas
ed,
for example, on a common interest or culture. They may be drawn together for purposes such as lea
rning, work, celebration, or
recreation. They may be local, national, or global. This competency includes a capacity to contribute appropriately as a grou
p
member, to make connections with others, and to create opportunities for others in the group.

Studen
ts who participate and contribute in communities have a sense of belonging and the confidence to participate within new
contexts. They understand the importance of balancing rights, roles, and responsibilities and of contributing to the quality
and
sustain
ability of social, cultural, physical, and economic environments.


b.

The 21st Fluencies Project
-

http://www.21stcenturyfluency.com/fluencies.cfm

The Fluencies

The 21st Century Fluencies are not about technical prowess, they are critical thinking skills, and

they are essential to living in this
multimedia world. We call them fluencies for a reason. To be literate means to have knowledge or competence. To be fluent is
something a little more, it is to demonstrate mastery and to do so unconsciously and smoothly
.

A young learner who is literate in the use of a tool, say a pencil for example, can use it to write, but does so haltingly be
cause a great
deal of focus is on the use of the tool. As time goes on, this learner will develop fluency with the use of the pen

or pencil, or
keyboard. No longer will it be an impediment, instead their thoughts and ideas flow directly to the paper. The use of the too
l is
transparent. This is the level of proficiency we will need to thrive in this digital landscape and is what we s
trive to develop in today's
learners.


The Digital Citizen

All the 21st Century fluencies are learned within the context of the Digital Citizen, using the guiding principles of leaders
hip, ethics,
accountability, fiscal responsibility, environmental awaren
ess, global citizenship and personal responsibility.


Solution Fluency

Solution fluency is the ability to think creatively to solve problems in real time by clearly defining the problem, designing

an
appropriate solution, applying the solution then evaluat
ing the process and the outcome.

This is about whole
-
brain thinking
-

creativity and problem solving applied in real time.


There are 6 essential steps, which we call the Six D's:



Define

the problem, because you need to know exactly what you're doing before you start doing anything.



Discover

the history of the problem which provides context.



Dream

Envision a future with the problem solved.



Design

your solution in stages through gap analysis from Define to Dream.



Deliver

the goods. Complete and publish your solution.



Debrief

and foster ownership, by getting involved in the evaluation of the problem
-

solving process.


Information Fluency

Information

fluency is the ability to unconsciously and intuitively interpret information in all forms and formats in order to extract
the essential knowledge, authenticate it, and perceive its meaning and significance.


There are 5 steps in this process, which we ca
ll the 5 A's:



Ask

good questions, in order to get good answers.



Access and acquire

the material from the appropriate digital information sources, which are mostly graphical and audiovisual.



Analyze

and authenticate and arrange these materials, and distinguish between good and bad, fact and opinion. Understand
bias and determine what is incomplete to turn the raw data into usable knowledge.



Apply

the knowledge within a real world problem or simulatio
n using a VIP action (vision into practice).



Assess

both the product and the process, which is both a teacher and a student practice.


Collaboration Fluency

Collaboration fluency is team working proficiency that has reached the unconscious ability to work
cooperatively with virtual and
real partners in an online environment to create original digital products.

Virtual interaction through social networking sites and online gaming domains has become a part of the Digital Generation's a
nd our
daily lives. We a
re interacting with people all over the world with electronic and wireless communication technology. This has
literally meant the "death of distance", which has tremendous potential for education.

For example, students learning about civil war could be tal
king to kids in Kosovo or Iraq or Afghanistan. Students learning a foreign
language could work with native speakers of that language who are learning English. Students could work in virtual partnershi
ps on
projects with kids from across town or across the
world.


Creativity Fluency

Creative Fluency is the process by which artistic proficiency adds meaning through design, art and storytelling. It regards f
orm in
addition to function, and the principles of innovative design combined with a quality functioning

product.

Creative Fluency extends beyond visual creative skills, to using the imagination to create stories, a practice which is in de
mand in
many facets of today's economy. It is widely regarded by many successful industries that creative minds come up w
ith creative
solutions.

There is tremendous value in the artistic creation of items in order that they may transcend mere functionality.


Media Fluency

There are two components of Media Fluency. Firstly, the ability to look analytically at any communicatio
n media to interpret the real
message, how the chosen media is being used to shape thinking, and evaluate the efficacy of the message. Secondly, to create
and
publish original digital products, matching the media to the intended message by determining the
most appropriate and effective
media for that message.

We live in a multimedia world, and in this interactive visual world, our children must be able to create and publish original

digital
products that they can use to communicate with just as effectively
as they can with text.

The idea is to challenge learners to create digital products that reflects their understanding of the content, develops techn
ical skills
and provides them with the empowering principles of graphic design.


Creativity Fluency

Creative

Fluency is the process by which artistic proficiency adds meaning through design, art and storytelling. It regards form in
addition to function, and the principles of innovative design combined with a quality functioning product.

Creative Fluency extends
beyond visual creative skills, to using the imagination to create stories, a practice which is in demand in
many facets of today's economy. It is widely regarded by many successful industries that creative minds come up with creative

solutions.

There is tr
emendous value in the artistic creation of items in order that they may transcend mere functionality.


Media Fluency

There are two components of Media Fluency. Firstly, the ability to look analytically at any communication media to interpret
the real
messa
ge, how the chosen media is being used to shape thinking, and evaluate the efficacy of the message. Secondly, to create and
publish original digital products, matching the media to the intended message by determining the most appropriate and effecti
ve
medi
a for that message.

We live in a multimedia world, and in this interactive visual world, our children must be able to create and publish original

digital
products that they can use to communicate with just as effectively as they can with text.

The idea is
to challenge learners to create digital products that reflects their understanding of the content, develops technical skills
and provides them with the empowering principles of graphic design.


c.

The Partnership for 21
st

Century Skills (US)
http://www.p21.or
g/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120


Twenty
-
First Century Student Outcomes

The elements described in this section as “21st century student outcomes” (represented by the rainbow) are the skills, knowle
dge
and expertise students should

master to succeed in work and life in the 21
st

century.

1. Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes

2. Learning and Innovation Skills





Creativity and Innovation



Critical Thinking and Problem Solving



Communication and Collaboration

3. Information, Media and Technology Skills



Information Literacy



Media Literacy



ICT Literacy

4. Life and Career Skills




d.

Five Minds for the Future
-

Howard Gardner

We live in a time of relentless change. The only thing that’s certain is that new challenges and opportunities will emerge th
at are
virtually unimaginable today. How can we know which skills will be required to succeed? In Five Minds for the Future, bestse
lling
author


Howard Gardner shows how we will each need to master "five minds" that the fast
-
paced future will demand:



The disciplined mind, to learn at least one profession, as well as the major thinking (science, math, history, etc.) behind i
t



The sy
nthesizing mind, to organize the massive amounts of information and communicate effectively to others



The creating mind, to revel in unasked questions
-

and uncover new phenomena and insightful apt answers



The respectful mind, to appreciate the differenc
es between human beings
-

and understand and work with all persons



The ethical mind, to fulfill one's responsibilities as both a worker and a citizen Without these "minds," we risk being
overwhelmed by information, unable to succeed in the workplace, and
incapable of the judgment needed to thrive both
personally and professionally.



2.

Teacher Competencies


a.

Student Centred learning
-

Learning Area Directors 2010

Student centred learning builds confident learners by:



Putting students first



Engaging student
interest



Broadening student interests



Recognising different readiness levels



Providing different learning styles



Listening to student voice



Engaging students in reflection on their learning journey



Empowering students to evaluate their learning and set the
ir own goals for moving forward



Encouraging shared learning



Recognising the importance of relationships in learning



See teacher and student as active partners in the learning journey


b.

NZC


Effective Pedagogy

Teacher actions promoting student learning

While there is no formula that will guarantee learning for every student in every context, there is extensive, well
-
documented
evidence about the kinds of teaching approaches that consistently have a positive impact on student learning. This evidence t
ells

us
that students learn best when teachers:



create a supportive learning environment



encourage reflective thought and action



enhance the relevance of new learning



facilitate shared learning



make connections to prior learning and experience



provide
sufficient opportunities to learn



inquire into the teaching

learning relationship.


Creating a supportive learning environment

Learning is inseparable from its social and cultural context. Students learn best when they feel accepted, when they enjoy po
siti
ve
relationships with their fellow students and teachers, and when they are able to be active, visible members of the learning
community. Effective teachers foster positive relationships within environments that are caring, inclusive, non
-
discriminatory, a
nd
cohesive. They also build good relationships with the wider school community, working with parents and caregivers as key part
ners
who have unique knowledge of their children and countless opportunities to advance their children’s learning. Effective tea
chers
attend to the cultural and linguistic diversity of all their students. The classroom culture exists within and alongside many

other
cultures, including the cultures of the wider school and the local community, the students’ peer culture, and the teac
her’s
professional culture.


Encouraging reflective thought and action

Students learn most effectively when they develop the ability to stand back from the information or ideas that they have enga
ged
with and think about these objectively. Reflective learn
ers assimilate new learning, relate it to what they already know, adapt it for
their own purposes, and translate thought into action. Over time, they develop their creativity, their ability to think criti
cally about
information and ideas, and their metacog
nitive ability (that is, their ability to think about their own thinking). Teachers encourage
such thinking when they design tasks and opportunities that require students to critically evaluate the material they use and

consider the purposes for which it w
as originally created.


Enhancing the relevance of new learning

Students learn most effectively when they understand what they are learning, why they are learning it, and how they will be a
ble to
use their new learning. Effective teachers stimulate the cur
iosity of their students, require them to search for relevant information
and ideas, and challenge them to use or apply what they discover in new contexts or in new ways. They look for opportunities
to
involve students directly in decisions relating to the
ir own learning. This encourages them to see what they are doing as relevant and
to take greater ownership of their own learning.


Facilitating shared learning

Students learn as they engage in shared activities and conversations with other people, includin
g family members and people in the
wider community. Teachers encourage this process by cultivating the class as a learning community. In such a community, every
one,
including the teacher, is a learner; learning conversations and learning partnerships are e
ncouraged; and challenge, support, and
feedback are always available. As they engage in reflective discourse with others, students build the language that they need

to take
their learning further.


Making connections to prior learning and experience

Studen
ts learn best when they are able to integrate new learning with what they already understand. When teachers deliberately
build on what their students know and have experienced, they maximise the use of learning time, anticipate students’ learning

needs, an
d avoid unnecessary duplication of content. Teachers can help students to make connections across learning areas as well
as to home practices and the wider world.


Providing sufficient opportunities to learn

Students learn most effectively when they have t
ime and opportunity to engage with, practise, and transfer new learning. This
means that they need to encounter new learning a number of times and in a variety of different tasks or contexts. It also mea
ns that
when curriculum coverage and student understa
nding are in competition, the teacher may decide to cover less but cover it in
greater depth. Appropriate assessment helps the teacher to determine what “sufficient” opportunities mean for an individual
student and to sequence students’ learning experience
s over time.


c.

Ka Hikitia


Māori Potential Approach in education

Less focus on...

More focus on...

Remedying deficit

Realising potential

Problems of dysfunction

Identifying opportunity

Less focus on...

More focus on...

Government intervention

Investing in people and local solutions

Targeting deficit

Tailoring education to the learner

Maori as a minority

Indigeneity and distinctiveness

Instructing and informing

Collaborating and co
-
constructing

Ako

Ka Hikitia


Managing for Success: The Māori Education Strategy 2008
-

2012

emphasi
ses the importance of ako


effective and
reciprocal teaching and learning


for, and with, Māori learners and the conditions that support it.

Evidence shows that high
-
quality teaching is the most important influence the education system can have on high
-
q
uality outcomes
for students with diverse learning needs. Evidence also shows that effective teaching and learning depends on the relationshi
p
between teachers and students and students’ active engagement.

The concept of ‘ako’ describes a teaching and lear
ning relationship where the educator is also learning from the student and where
educators’ practices are informed by the latest research and are both deliberate and reflective. Ako is grounded in the princ
iple of
reciprocity and recognises that the learne
r and whānau cannot be separated.

The key aspects of ako are:




Language, identity and culture counts



knowing where students come from and building on what students bring with them





Productive Partnerships



Māori students, whānau and educators sharing k
nowledge and expertise with each other to produce
better outcomes.

Taking a ‘personalising learning’ approach that puts every student and their achievement at the heart of education and recogn
ises
that one size does not fit all.

Personalising learning is
about partnerships focused on learning and about a whole education system where everyone sees
themselves as having an important role to play and accepting the associated personal and professional responsibilities.



3.

Competencies/areas that may be benefited

by e
-
learning


a.

Benefits of e
-
learning
-

Noelene Wright

From ‘e
-
Learning and implications for New Zealand schools: a literature review’

To summarise, benefits to school learners with access to e
-
Learning affordances, include:


Motivation and engagement:

Stevenson’s (2008) thesis identified Web 2.0 affordances as being useful here. These same
affordances involve the social networking practices common among girls, and being harnessed by boys as well. Connecting in gr
oups
is also a feature often attributed
to Maori and Pasifika learners and so including social networking practices in classrooms may
support their learning (Ako Aotearoa, 2008; Franken et al., 2005). The tools which support motivation and engagement, as well

as
co
-
constructive pedagogies can al
so be factors in powerful learning that meet students’ needs in a range of contexts and at a range
of stages of learning, including ESL and physical disability.


Independence and personalised learning:

personalising learning can mean students are more moti
vated to continue engaging in
learning because they can more readily access support when it is needed. Some 2009 e
-
Learning fellows’ experiences through their
blogs demonstrates this well (see

http
://
elearningresearchnet
work
.
ning
.
com
/
page
/
efellows
-
1

). Claire Amos’s blog, documenting
using blogs for devel
oping student writing, is a case in point. She commented that students regularly read each other’s postings as a
means of developing their own work, and even when they lost notebooks, their online work was still available (
http
://
mye
-
learningfellowshipjournal
.
blogspot
.
com
/
). Web 2.0 applications (such as blogs), mobile devices, IWBs and other equipment

can be
useful in supporting personalised learning, as well as students’ existing knowledge of online socialisation protocols which c
an help
them successfully navigate online relationships (Lewin, Mavers & Somekh, 2003; Lewin, Somekh, & Steadman, 2008; Wan

et al.,
2008).


Critical thinking and multiliteracies:

these features point to the importance of student
-
centred pedagogies that allow students to
engage with multiple texts, collaborate with others and develop deep understanding. These pedagogies imply the development of

metacognitive strategies that support

students being able to access prior knowledge, interact with other people and various kinds of
texts, create meaning and produce evidence of this new knowledge. The kinds of learning processes, contexts, literacies and m
edia
predicted by the New London Gr
oup (Cazden et al., 1996) are particularly important for e
-
Learning classrooms because they closely
link to the kinds of co
-
constructive and socially mediated learning that technological tools appears to foster.


Access to information, resources and expert
s:

this is one of the strengths of e
-
Learning affordances, because they make information
and knowledge quickly and flexibly accessible. Students can manipulate and navigate such texts in various ways that suit how
they
might prefer to work. These texts (wh
ether electronic, written or human) can be interpreted, analysed and reformed by learners,
because the technologies exist which allow them to mash and mod the texts, creating new ones for real, but cyber audiences. I
n
these ways, students can become produc
ers and publishers of their own texts.


Collaboration in wide contexts, including international ones:

Stevenson’s (2008) thesis discusses such arrangements. The ongoing
production of student podcasts and integration of other e
-
Learning technologies at Pt E
ngland School, also point to the power of
international collaboration and audiences in motivating students to learn. It appears that this kind of learning centres on t
he
motivators of relevance, purpose, context, immediacy, audience, creativity, collaborat
ion and pliability for students. In turn, such
regular and integrated access to these technologies, enhance more traditional skill development such as literacy and numeracy

(Burt, 2007). In these kinds of contexts, students are learning about, with and thr
ough technology. This has positive impact on their
social, cognitive and affective domains (Falloon, 2004).


Some conditions which lead to positive outcomes include:

the role of the teacher, the types of pedagogy used in technologically
able classrooms,
and the ubiquity of access to technology for everyone concerned. These presuppose effective leadership at a
variety of levels within a school
-

teachers’ professional development and mentoring, technical support, provision of equipment, and
a drive to supp
ort e
-
Learning as fundamental aspect of classroom learning. It may also affect the way timetables are constructed,
especially in secondary schools.


4.

NZC
-

E
-
learning and pedagogy


Information and communication technology (ICT) has a major impact on the wor
ld in which young people live. Similarly, e
-
learning
(that is, learning supported by or facilitated by ICT) has considerable potential to support the teaching approaches outlined

in the
above section.

For instance, e
-
learning may:



assist the making of conn
ections by enabling students to enter and explore new learning environments, overcoming barriers of
distance and time



facilitate shared learning by enabling students to join or create communities of learners that extend well beyond the classro
om



assist in
the creation of supportive learning environments by offering resources that take account of individual, cultural, or
developmental differences



enhance opportunities to learn by offering students virtual experiences and tools that save them time, allowing t
hem to take
their learning further.



Schools should explore not only how ICT can supplement traditional ways of teaching but also how it can open up new and
different ways of learning.


5.

Other things to consider


Ken Robinson
-

The Importance of Creativity i
n the Classroom

But on the whole, despite all the money, initiatives and trendsetting, the concept of creativity is still not filtering down
into the
classroom, says Teresa Cremin, professor of education at the Open University and an expert on creativity i
n primary schools.

She believes many teachers still think being creative means they have to be flamboyant and extrovert. While many schools are
creative, many others pay lip service to the creativity agenda, she argues.

This might mean a day off the curric
ulum to do "the arts" after pupils have sat tests. It's a myth to call this creative learning, she
says. Creativity must be embedded into everyday teaching and learning. "Many schools haven't got a handle on the language of
creativity and are reticent abou
t teaching more creatively," she says. "They are worried they won't achieve standards in other
things."

She agrees with much of Robinson's argument. "If you have a school system which rewards conformity and avoids risk
-
taking, then
youngsters will be unabl
e to cope with the world unfolding before them."

Anna Craft, a professor of education at the University of Exeter and a government adviser on creativity, says: "There is an e
normous
willingness to embrace creativity in the classroom, but an increasing leth
argy in the system too." Robinson is right, she says; it's not
that we need to "tweak the recipe
-

we need a new recipe".

Bringing this about might take a mass protest of pupils walking out of school because it's just too irrelevant, she says. But

in the e
nd
change has got to happen and, she says, Robinson's book can "do nothing but good in getting the debate loud and clear".


Mark Treadwell
-

Post on the MLE talking about digitizing textbooks

This is as much a revolutionary decision as digitising chalk!
Look how far digitising blackboards got us


nowhere at great cost. It is
not the technology that will lead us out from where are


what matters is how we change the totally inefficient and largely
ineffective pedagogy/andragogy we presently use in classro
oms. Most learners that have poor genetically inherited episodic
memory learn very quickly they can’t learn


but they can
-

if only we taught concepts (semantic memory) and used sites like
YouTube et all to allow them to learn semantically. Remarkably alm
ost everyone can learn semantically at more or less the same
rate. This is why you would rather the apprentice take you for a drive (something the not very clever person learnt very qui
ckly)
rather than the university professor and don’t tell me this is
because he is good with his hands. Driving in an incredibly sophisticated
cognitive challenge. So how do not so bright people manage this?



Very briefly we have three learning systems



Episodic (rote/knowledge)



Semantic (ideas/concepts/concept frameworks)



The imagination

The first is very inefficient and get worse as we age. Episodic memory deteriorates because our semantic memory system gets b
etter
as we age and interferes with how we sequence thus slowing down episodic memory. The better and the more conc
epts we are able
to understand the more creative we can be because we have more ideas to be creative with. We have to shift our curriculum fro
m
topics that have a single context (heroes/space/electricity et all) with numerous but unspecified concepts to to
pics that have a
clearly defined and understood concept(s) and apply that/them to numerous contexts. This way we learn an ‘idea’ and then we a
re
able to apply the idea to other contexts immediately even if we have almost no experience of that context. This

is possible because
ideas allow us to predict what might happen with remarkable accuracy and ideas translate into concepts.



Understanding concepts allows us to predict (imagine having to learn to drive using episodic memory


learn every street and
inte
rsection via rote


good luck!). We can even combine different ideas and come up with completely new ideas


creativity


the
aha moment


great


real thinking.



Now we can apply the technology: An integrated SMS/LMS/ePortfolio environment where learner

can collaborate, increasingly
manage their own learning, reflect on that learning and have their peers/parents/caregivers and educators provide feedback.
Textbooks are fundamentally grounded on rote learning
-

they are centric to the previous education p
aradigm. Making them
electronic changes nothing
-

Zero


Visible Learning


John Hattie (a few potted highlights…)


15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta
-
analyses relating to the influences on achievement in school
-
aged students. Builds
a story about the power of teachers and of feedback, and constructs a model of learning and understanding.



Ch3: The Arg
ument Visible Teaching & Visible Learning

It is teachers seeing learning through the eyes of students; and students seeing teaching as the key to their ongoing learnin
g.


What Teachers do Matters


The act of teaching requires deliberate interventions to e
nsure that there is cognitive change in the student.


The key ingredients are:



Awareness of the learning intentions



Knowing when a student is successful



Having sufficient understanding of the student’s understanding



Know enough about the content to provide meaningful and challenging experiences


A safe environment is an environment where error is welcomed and fostered.


To facilitate such a learning environment, to command a range of learning strategies and to be aw
are of the pedagogical means to
enable the student to learn requires dedicated, passionate people.


Passion reflects the thrills as well as the frustrations of learning.

It requires more than content knowledge, acts of skilled teaching or engaged student
s to make the difference


it requires a love of
the discipline being taught.


Visible Teaching



Teaching and Learning are visible in the classrooms of the successful teachers and students.



Teaching and Learning are visible in the passion displayed by the

teacher and learner when successful learning and teaching
occurs.


The teacher must know when to experiment and learn from the experience, learn to monitor, seek and give feedback; and know to

try alternate learning strategies when others do not work.

T
he more the student becomes the teacher and the teacher becomes the learner, then the more successful are the outcomes.


Education is more than teaching people to think


it is also teaching people things that are worth learning.


Teachers



Clear learning

intentions



Challenging success criteria



Range of learning strategies



Know when students are not



progressing



Providing feedback



Visibly learns themselves


Students



Understand learning intentions



Are challenged by success criteria



Develop a range of learning strategies



Know when they are not progressing



Seek feedback



Visibly teach themselves


Hattie’s Questions



How do I know this is working?



How can I compare this with that?



What is the merit and worth of this influence on lea
rning?



What is the magnitude of the effect?



What evidence would convince you that you are wrong?


Where is the evidence that shows this is superior to other programs?

Where have you seen this practice installed so that it produces effective results?

D
o I share a common conception of progress?

The Six Factors



The child



The home



The school



The curricula



The teacher



The approaches to teaching