Lec_2 (Process Models)

lumpysteerSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 2, 2013 (4 years and 10 months ago)


Software Engineering

Lecture # 2 :
Process Models

Layered View of SE

Layered approach:




Software Engineering

Software Engineering

a “quality” focus

process model



Software Process

The objective of software engineering is to get software with
high quality.

Process is a
framework for the tasks

that are required to
build high
quality software.

A software process is
a set of activities and associated
, which produces a software product. Software
engineers carry out the activities. The common activities ca
be categorized into:

Software specification


the functionality of the software and
constraints on its operation must be defined.

Software development

the software to meet the specification must
be produced.

Software validation

the software must be validated to ensure that it
does what the customer wants.

Software evolution

the software must be evolved to meet the
changing requirements of customers.

Software Process

Different processes organize these activities in different ways
and are described at different levels of detail.

Different organization may use different processes to
produce the same types of product. However, some
processes are suitable than the others for some types of

If inappropriate process is used, this will probably reduce the
quality or the usefulness of the software product to be

Process Model & Its Types

Process Models.

The process model is a description of a software process.

Model is an abstraction (summary) of the actual process.

Process model may include activities which are part of software
process, software product and role of people involved in software

General types of software process models:

A workflow model.

This shows the sequence of activities in the
process along with their inputs, outputs and dependencies. The
activities in this model represent human

A dataflow model/ Activity model.

This represents the process as a
set of activities each of which carries out some data transformation. It
shows how the input to the process is transformed to an output.

A role/action model.

This represents the role of the people involved in
the software process and the activities for which they are responsible.

General Process Models

Waterfall model.

Prototype model.

RAD model.

Evolutionary models:

Incremental model.

The spiral model.

Concurrent development model.

General Process Models

These generic models mentioned on the previous slide are
not definite descriptions of software processes. Rather they
are useful abstractions, which can be used to explain
different applications to software development.

For many large systems, of course, there is no single
software process that is used. Different approaches are used
to develop different parts of the system.

A process model for software engineering is chosen
based on the nature of the project and application, the
method and tools to be used and the controls and
deliverables that are required.

Waterfall Model

Known as software
life cycle, classical life cycle and
linear sequential model.

Derived from other engineering process.

The oldest and widely used model.

It suggests a systematic sequential approach from
requirement analysis up to support phase.

A product is delivered after the linear sequence is

Waterfall Model Stages



System &

Software design

Implementation &

Unit testing

Integration &

System testing

Operation &


Waterfall Model

Requirements analysis and definition
. The system services,
constraints and goals are established by consultation with system
users. They are then defined in detail and serve as a system

System and software design
. The system design process
partitions the requirements to either hardware or software
systems. It establishes an overall system architecture. Software
design involves identifying and describing the fundamental
software system abstractions and their relationships.

Implementation and unit testing
. During this stage, the software
design is realized as a set of programs or program unit. Unit
testing involves verifying that each unit meets its specification.

Waterfall Model

Integration and system testing
. The individual program units or
programs are integrated and tested as a complete system to
ensure that the software requirements have been met. After
testing, the software system is delivered to the customer.

Operation and maintenance
. Normally this is the longest life
cycle phase. The system is installed and put into practical use.
Maintenance involves correcting errors which were not discovered
in earlier stages of the life cycle, improving the implementation of
system units and enhancing the system’s services as new
requirements are discovered.

Waterfall Model Limitations

A phase should not start until the previous phase is signed off.

Iterations is costly and involve significant work.

Software is put into use during final phase of study.

Partitioning into the distinct stages of projects is inflexible.

Requirements should be well understood.

Prototype Model

It is an effective paradigm for software engineering.

Generally in this model developers listen to customer, design a

prototype and then the prototype is tested.

The procedure is repeated until all the requirements of the system

are identified and a complex system can be designed for the system.

Prototype Model


First of all developers meet the customers and consult
them. General objectives are define and known
requirements are identified.

Areas where further definition is mandatory are outlined.

A quick design occurs. The design focuses on a
representation of those aspects of the software that will be
visible to customers/users

Then a prototype is constructed.

The prototype is evaluated to refine the software

Iteration can occur to satisfy the customer’s needs.

Prototype Model

Suitable scenario:

General objectives of software are defined.

Detail requirements of input, processing and output are not

Efficiency of algorithms is not sure.

Adaptability can take place.

The model’s objective:

Defined rules are used in the prototype to identify the detail

Can be used as a tool for Requirement Gathering

RAD Model

RAD stands for Rapid Application Development.

Incremental development process.

A rapid development can be achieved with component

Short development cycles are emphasized.

function system can be developed in very short time

The model is more suitable for a system that can be
modularized in such a way that each major function is developed
in less than 3 months.

RAD Model

RAD Model Steps

Business modeling.

The information flow among business
functions is modeled in a way that answers the following questions:
What information drives the business process? What information is
generated? Who generate it? Where does the information go? Who
process it?

Data modeling.

The information flow defined as part of the business
modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to
support the business. The characteristics (called attributes) of each
object are identified and the relationship between these objects

Process modeling.

The data objects defined in the data modeling
phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to
implement a business function. Processing descriptions are created for
adding, modifying, deleting, or retrieving a data object.

RAD Model Steps

Application generation.

RAD assumes the use of fourth
generation techniques. Rather than creating software using
conventional third generation programming languages. The RAD
process works to reuse existing program components (when
possible) or create reusable components (when necessary). In all
the cases, automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the

Testing and turnover
Since the RAD process emphasize
reuse, many of the program components have already been tested.
This reduces overall testing time. However, new components must
be tested and all interfaces must be fully exercised.

Drawbacks of RAD Model

RAD requires sufficient human
resources to create the right number
of RAD teams in a large and scalable projects.

RAD developers and costumers should be committed to the rapid
fire activities.

Unsuitable cases:

A non
modularized system.

When technical risk is high.

Thank You

Thank you