Notes Chapter2 OSS.doc - pujamcsdwarka

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Nov 29, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Chapter
-
2




Open Source Terminologies


What is
OSS.
?

Open Source Software is the software which does not need much restrictions or condi
tions. These softwares
are
freely available

for the users
including source code

and

can be

used freely, modified witho
ut any prior
permission
.
The user

can redistribute

these copies freely.


What do you understand by the terms FLOSS?

Free/Libre/Open Source Software

is the software which is
both free software and open source software
.
That is, the freedom is given to every
body to utilize this software. Often both free software and open software
can refer to the same program or source code, but each term represents a different emphasis on the importance of
freedom (free software) or technical progress (open source software).


What is
Free Software
?

Free Software:
It means software is freely accessible, free to use, changed, improved, copied, and distributed without any
payments.



Freedom to run the program for any purpose



Freedom to redistribute copies.



Freedom to study how th
e program works



Freedom to improve the program and release your improvements to the public.


What is the role of FSF, OSI and W3C?

FSF
.

The
Free Software Foundation

(FSF) is a
non
-
profit organization

created by Richard Stallman in 1985
to support GNU proje
ct and GNU licenses. FSF remains the
primary sponsor of the GNU Project
. In addition
to the services provided by Savannah for GNU projects, FSF provides d.evelopment systems for GNU software
maintainers, including full email and shell services.


OSI
.

It st
ands for
Open Source Initiative
. This is an organization which is
dedicated to promote open source
software
. OSI is founded by Bruce Perens and Erics Raymond in Feb 1998. OSI defined the term and
specification of open source software.


W3C.

The
World Wide
Web Consortium

(W3C) is created in October 1994. It is
responsible for the
software standard for World Wide Web
. It is
responsible for developing protocols

for the
WWW.W3C.smission is:
"To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing

protoco
ls and
guidelines that ensure long
-
term growth for the Web"


What is the difference between

Freeware and Shareware?
Define Freeware and Shareware.

Freeware

softwares

o

free of charge

o

not necessarily free to be used, copied, studied, modified and redistribute
d.

o

Freeware is also different from shareware in that shareware requires a payment if the software is to be
used past a trial date.

o

The most common example of Freeware is Microsoft Internet Explorer.


Shareware

software

o

is made available free for limited

period of time and after that the user has to pay the license fees.

o

the software stops working or has limited functionality after a particular time period.

o

Right to redistribute copies

o

After a certain period of time license fee should be paid.

o

Source co
de is not available.

o

Modifications are not possible.



What is Proprietary software?

Proprietary standards are owned by a single company or a group of vendors.
The
source code

of the proprietary
software is
not available freely
.

It is
not an open source so
ftware
, but it is regulated and distributed with.the
special permission of the supplier or the yen dol' or proprietor.


SOME EXAMPLES OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE ARE
:

GNU.

The GNU Project, pronounced "guh
-
noo", was launched in 1984 to dev~lop a complete UNIX s
tyle
operating system which is comprised of free software: the GNU system. This is developed by Free Software
Foundation (FSF).


Linux.

It is a
popular operating system

and originally was used to refer to the kernel ofO/S. It

is the most
common example of
free software because it is freely available with source code.

So that anyone can use it,
modif
y it and redistribute and
can be downloaded from www.l
inux.org.

Linux is a
part of popular Web
server set of program
-
LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP).

Linux w
as originally developed for Intel
386 microprocessors and now supports all popular computer architectures.


Mozilla.

The Mozilla Application Suite (originally known as Mozilla, marketed as the Mozilla Suite, and
code named SeaMon key) is a free, cross
-
plat
form internet suite, whose components include a web
browser, an e
-
mail and news client, an HTML editor, and an IRC client.


Mozilla

is based on the source code of Netscape Communicator. The development was spearheaded by the
Mozilla Organization from 1998
to 2003, and by the Mozilla Foundation since 2003.


Mozilla
----
It is free, cross
-
platform, Internet software suite that include:

1. A web browser

2. An email client

3. AN HTML editor

4. IRC client. Netscape Communication Corporation initiated Mozilla’
s development


Apache server
.


o

The most common
web server (or HTTP server)

software on the Internet

an

online distribution of
website services.

o


Apache is designed as a set of modules, enabling administrators to choose which features they wish to use and
m
aking it easy to add features to meet specific needs including handling protocols other than the web
-
standard
HTTP.

o

Apache HTTP server is an open source web server.

o

It is component of LAMP.

o

It can freelydownloaded from the site
www.apache.org

o

The server is aimed at serving a great deal of widely popular modern web platforms/operating
systems such as Unix, Windows, Linux, Solaris, Novell NetWare, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, Microsoft
Windows, OS/2, etc..


Tomcat.

Tomcat is a web se
rver that supports servlets and JSPs.

Tomcat comes with the Jasper compiler
that compiles JSPs into servlets. Tomcat started off as a servlet specification implementation by James Duncan
Davidson who worked as a software architect at Sun.


PHP.

PHP stands

for
"PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor".

PHP is a
server
-
side scripting language for creating
dynamic Web pages
.

It is an open
-
source programming language which helps to
develop server
-
side application
and dynamic web content.


Python.

Python is a programming l
anguage. This language has syntactic simplicity, flexible typing and
interactive interpreter.

It is used in both industry and academic for a wide variety of purposes.
Python uses far
fewer symbols than languages like
Java
and C.



OpenOffice.

OpenOffice.or
g (abbreviated as 000) is a
free and open source office suite
. 000 was developed
to create a leading international office suite which
will run on all major platforms and provide access to all
functionality and data

through open
-
component based APIs and an
XML
-
based file format. It includes a word
processor, spreadsheet, presentation, vector drawing and database components.


Pango.

Pango is an
open source library to draw (render) texts in various languages/scripts.

It helps
programs to
handle worldwide writt
en languages
. Pango is used in various open source projects. The library
can avail in
www.pango.org




Apache Tomcat.

Apache Tomcat is a
web container

which is developed at Apache Software Foundation.


MySQL.

"MySQL" is o
fficially pronounced as "My Ess Queue Ell" not "My sequel". The "My" portion of the
name comes from the name of Monty's child, spelled "My" but pronounced in the local language as "Me".
MySQL is a multi
-
user database management system. MySQL is written in
a mixture of

C and C++.

MySQL databases are accessed in the languages like: C, C++, C#, Eiffel, Smalltalk, Java (with a native Java
driver implementation), Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, REALbasic and Tcl.


Postgres.

PostgreSQL is a free object
-
relational
database server (database management system),
released under a flexible BSD
-
style license.

It offers an alternative to other open
source database systems (such
as MySQL and Firebird), as well as to proprietary systems such as Oracle, Sybase, IBM's DB2 and
Microsoft
SQL Server.