Management Information Systems

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Nov 3, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Management Information Systems

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9

Cloud
technologies and
distributed
computing



CLARK UNIVERSITY

College of Professional and Continuing Education


(COPACE)


Plan


Cloud computing


Distributed computing


Personal virtual computing in SUSU


Cloud technology


It is called “cloud computing” abroad.


Cloud computing is
the
use of computing
resources (hardware and software) that are
delivered as a service over a network (typically
the Internet). Cloud computing entrusts
remote services with a user's data, software
and computation.

Model of cloud computing


What for?


«Cloud
» is a new business model for the
provision and
reception
of information
services
.


This model
helps
to reduce operational and
capital costs. It allows
IT
-
departments
to focus
on strategic projects, rather than on routine
management
of data
center.



Advantages


effective use of
areas
(there is no need to allocate separate
and specially equipped
areas for traditional computer
offices);


reduction
in the cost required for the creation and
maintenance of computer
offices;


opportunity to
reverse communication with
other
employees;


the
guarantee of license purity
of the software;


reduction
of costs of licensed
software;


minimize
the number of licenses due to their centralized
use
;


centralized
administration of software and information
resources.

Cloud computing


In fact, the transition to cloud computing
is
the outsourcing of traditional processes of
managing
by the infrastructure of external
professional providers, which provide the
opportunity
not
only
to use
existing cloud
platform, but also to create
your own
platform, according to the
technological and
legal requirements of the customers.

Cloud computing


Analysts
of Gartner Group call “cloud
computing” the
most promising strategic
technology of the future, predicting the
movement of the greater part of
IT
in

«clouds»
during next
5
-
7 years.


By
2015,
this
market will reach $ 200 billion
.

Cloud computing


In Russia in spite of the existing proposals
from the
largest international corporations
like Microsoft
, IBM, Intel,
NEC
and a number
of domestic
providers the
demand for cloud
services
is
still low.


But
according to the forecast of the analytical
company IDC, in the next 5 years the market
of cloud services in Russia will grow by more
than 500% and will
reach 113
million dollars
.

Principles
of cloud technologies


Example: your mailbox is
stored somewhere on the
Internet, "on the cloud". You don't know exactly where it is
located and how it is delivered to you.
If you disconnect
from the Internet, and
you won’t access
to
mailbox.


For
the end
user:
cloud
-

something like a black box. By
typing in the browser gmail.com you will connect with one
computer, and the next time
-

with
another one.


That is because
there is a whole system of servers, which
are engaged in the distribution of the
traffic.


That is because
the user requests can be extremely
unevenly! The
traffic of
a particular region may depend on
the time of day,
the
political
situation
or just having
committed an act of terrorism.

How does it work?


One of the basic principles
is the virtualization
.
In “cloud
"
virtual machines are running
on the real servers
which
process
your requests.


Such
technology allows
in
case of
problems
with your
computer physical quickly turn it off, and
then the
virtual
machine is moved to another
server.
In addition, a similar
distribution allows you to use
not
very powerful computers.


The
most actively developing
cloud
technology
is
developed by Google now.
The idea is to
transfer all
your
data
on
the
cloud
and
compute all requests there.


It increases
the requirements to the quality of the Internet
connection
.

Disadvantages


The
complete dependence of the user from
the
connection
to the Internet. Without the Internet
all your
mail, documents, contacts, games,
scheduled tasks, set alarms
etc

instantly
disappears.


The increase of the
price of the mistake. If the
manufacturer faults,
he
has the
risk of losing or
issue of the open access all the data.
For
example
, in 2009, the service
of storing
bookmarks
“Magnolia”
lost all their data.
The
scale of the catastrophe can be really big.


“Infrastructure as a Service” (“
IaaS
” )



Plaatform

as a Service” (“
PaaS
”)



Software

as

a
Service

(

SaaS
”)

Types of cloud computing

SaaS

has the largest percent of usage


IaaS

is

the

provision

of

computer

infrastructure

as

a

service

on

the

basis

of

the

concept

of

cloud

computing
.


IaaS

consists

of

three

main

components
:


Hardware

(servers,

data

storage

systems,

the

client

system,

network

equipment)


Operating

systems

and

system

software

(virtualization

tools,

automation,

plant

and

equipment

resource

management)


Connecting

software

(
for

example,

control

systems)

IaaS


PaaS

is
the provision of the integrated
platform for the development, testing,
deployment and support of web applications
as a
service.


To
deploy a web application developer
doesn’t
need to purchase equipment and software,
there is no need to arrange for their support.


Access
for the client can be organized
by
leasing.

PaaS


the application is optimized for
the remote use;


one
application can
be used

by
several
clients;


payment
for the service is charged as either a
monthly fee, or on the basis of the aggregate
volume of the
transactions;


application
support is
included to the payment;


modernization
of the application
is made
smoothly
and transparently to the client
.

SaaS


From the point of view of developers of
software,
SaaS

model will allow to deal
effectively with the unlicensed use of the
software, due to the fact that the client
can’t
store
, copy and install the software.


SaaS

Examples of
SaaS

Google

SaaS


Mail


Communications

(
VoIP
)


Antispam

and antivirus


Helpdesk


Project management


E
-
learning and distance learning


CRM


Back
-
ups and archiving information

Demand on the
SaaS


According

to

the

concept

of

SaaS

the

user

pays

not

when

he

buys

a

product,

but

lease

(or

rent)

it
.



And

he

use

only

those

functions

which

he

needs
.


For

example,

you

need

some

program

once

a

year
.

And

you

don’t

want

to

use

it

more

often
.

Then

why

should

you

buy

it

if

it

will

only

occupy

place

at

the

hard

disk?

SaaS


Competition

in

the

sphere

of

cloud

computing

led

to

the

appearance

of

free

services
.



Microsoft

and

Google

go

through

this

way
.

Both

companies

released

sets

of

services,

allowing

to

work

with

the

documents
:

Google

Docs

and

Microsoft

Office

Web

Apps
.


Both

services

are

closely

linked

with

the

mail

(Gmail

and

Hotmail)

and

file

storage
.



Both

Google

and

Microsoft

are

integrating

the

support

of

their

online

services

in

the

desktop

and

mobile

software

(Android

OS

and

Windows

Phone

7
)
.


SaaS


A

similar

concept

but

with

a

few

other

accents

Apple

promotes
.

It

is

a

service

MobileMe
.



The

service

includes

e
-
mail

client,

calendar,

address

book,

file

storage,

photo

album

and

a

tool

to

locate

the

lost

iPhone
.



Apple

takes

about

65

euros

(or

$

100
)

per

year
.



Simultaneously

you

use

this

set

of

Internet
-
services

and

applications

without

browser
.


SaaS


Private

cloud

is

used

for

the

provision

of

services

within

a

single

company
.



Since

the

«cloud»

is

limited

by

frameworks

of

the

company

itself,

the

question

of

protection

of

data

is

solved

by

standard

existing

methods
.

Types

of
clouds


Public

cloud

is

used

by

the

cloud

providers

for

provision

of

the

services

to

external

consumers
.


Hybrid

cloud

is

the

joint

use

of

two

previous

models
.

Types

of clouds

Distributed computing


Distributed
computing
means that you don’t use some
other resources but
vis
-
a versa you give your computer to
participate
in a
general project


Why do you need it? In general
, it is not necessary at all.
You can just try it, that is, "play", and you can actually
participate in some sort of useful project, for example in
finding a cure for cancer
.


How is it working?
Very simple and very difficult at the
same time. Very simply, because they are based on the
basic idea
-

most of the time the resources of your
computer is idle. So why not use
it for
something good?


But the main problem is the distribute the task through
many computers, it is not a trivial task.


Distributed computing

Examples are on the web
-
site:


distributed.ru

(you can read and maybe connect to different
projects)

Virtual machines


The virtual machine
is completely isolated
software container that works with its own
operating system and applications just like a
physical computer. The virtual machine also
acts as a physical computer, and contains
virtual RAM
, hard disk and network adapter
.

Visualization


The technology of virtual desktops of
employees on the basis of virtual PC is
caleed

Virtual

Desktop

Infrastructure

(VDI).


VDI
allows to split client software from the
physical part and realize the access to the
client applications through the terminal
devices
.


Personal Virtual Computer


In South Ural State University there is a
project “Personal Virtual Computer”.

Logical scheme of PVC


Cloud of PVC SUSU