Knowledge Management Handout - VIVA University

lovemundaneManagement

Nov 6, 2013 (4 years and 1 day ago)

157 views

P
a
ge
1
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
K
n
o
w
l
e
dge
M
a
n
ag
e
m
e
nt
and
H
R
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
O
u
t
co
m
es
1.
W
h
a
t
i
s
K
no
w
l
e
d
ge
?
2.
W
h
e
r
e
i
s
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
s
?
3.
H
ow
do
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tions
l
e
a
r
n
?
4.
T
he
dom
i
n
a
nt
p
e
r
s
p
ec
ti
v
e
s
of
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
,
K
M
C
on
t
e
n
t
s
L
ea
r
ning
O
ut
c
o
m
e
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1
I
n
t
r
odu
c
t
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o
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2
K
N
OW
LED
GE
I
N
O
R
G
A
N
I
S
ATI
O
N
S
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3
W
h
a
t
is
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
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3
T
yp
e
s
a
nd
F
o
r
m
s
of
K
no
w
l
e
dg
e.
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5
T
a
c
it
and
E
x
pli
c
it
K
no
w
l
e
dge
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5
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
In
O
r
gani
s
ation
s
:
Indi
v
i
du
a
l
and
C
oll
ec
t
i
v
e
K
no
w
l
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d
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6
Le
a
r
ning
in
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ions
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8
I
ndividu
a
l
L
e
a
r
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8
O
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
a
l
L
ea
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n
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9
T
h
e
o
r
y
of
M
e
an
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
tu
re
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9
S
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16
K
N
OW
LED
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MA
N
A
G
EMEN
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19
P
e
r
s
p
ec
t
i
v
e
s
o
f
K
M
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19
K
no
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l
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C
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20
A
dding
K
M
t
o
HR
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20
He
n
c
e

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21
St
r
at
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g
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21
G
e
tt
i
ng
the
B
e
s
t
F
it
B
e
t
w
e
e
n
H
R
M
and
K
M
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22
O
t
h
e
r
R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
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24
L
e
c
t
u
r
e
r
:
D
r
R
i
c
ha
r
d
B
oa
t
e
n
g,
I
C
I
T
D
,
So
u
th
er
n
U
ni
ve
r
s
i
ty
E
m
ai
l
:
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
@
p
e
a
r
l
r
i
c
h
a
r
d
s.
o
r
g
P
a
ge
2
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
I
N
T
R
OD
U
C
T
I
O
N

I
f
y
o
u
r
m
ind
i
s
e
m
p
t
y
,
it
is
al
w
a
y
s
r
e
a
d
y
for
a
n
y
t
h
i
n
g;
i
t
i
s
op
e
n
t
o
e
v
er
y
t
h
i
n
g.
I
n
the
b
e
ginn
er

s
mi
n
d
th
er
e
a
r
e
m
a
n
y
po
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
;
in
t
h
e
e
x
p
er
t

s
mi
n
d
th
er
e
a
r
e
f
ew

.
-
Su
z
uki
R
o
s
hi
i
n
C
h
a
w
la
(
1995)
I
n
r
e
c
e
nt
y
ea
r
s
w
h
i
l
e
t
h
e
t
r
a
d
i
t
ion
a
l
th
r
e
e
f
ac
to
r
s
o
f
p
r
odu
c
tion;
l
a
n
d
,
l
a
bou
r
,
a
nd
c
a
pi
t
a
l
,
h
a
v
e
b
e
c
o
m
e
r
e
la
t
i
v
e
ly
e
a
s
i
e
r
t
o
han
d
l
e
,
a
f
o
u
r
t
h
,
k
no
w
l
e
dg
e
,
t
ho
u
gh
not
n
e
w
,
is
in
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
l
y
b
e
c
o
m
ing
p
r
o
m
i
n
e
n
t
a
n
d
ga
i
n
i
n
g
m
u
c
h
e
m
p
h
a
s
is
(C
as
t
e
ll
s
,
19
9
8;
K
lu
g
e
e
t
a
l
.
,
2001
:
4
)
.
K
no
w
l
ed
g
e
i
s
a
t
the
h
ea
r
t
o
f
to
d
a
y

s
g
lob
a
l
e
c
on
o
my
a
nd
h
e
n
c
e
a
n
impo
r
t
a
nt
c
o
m
p
e
t
i
t
i
v
e
a
d
v
a
nt
a
g
e
f
or
a
ny
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ion
(
G
unnl
a
u
g
s
dot
t
i
r
,
2003
)
.
T
hus
F
r
a
n
c
is
B
a
c
on

s
a
s
se
r
t
io
n
,
“kno
w
l
e
dge
is
p
o
w
e
r

,
t
e
nds
t
o
b
e
mo
r
e
of
a
r
e
a
l
ity
do
n
e
j
u
s
t
a
s
t
a
t
e
ment
(
L
i
a
o,
2003
)
.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
e
m
p
h
as
i
s
e
t
h
a
t,
thou
g
h
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
e
ss
e
n
t
i
a
l
,
w
h
a
t
i
s
c
r
iti
ca
l
to
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tions
i
s

m
a
k
i
n
g
s
e
n
s
e

out
o
f
i
t
;
t
he
a
b
i
li
t
y
t
o
c
h
ange
k
n
o
w
l
e
dg
e
;
t
he
abi
l
i
t
y
t
o
l
e
a
r
n
(
D
ixo
n
,
19
94
:
1
-
2
;
J
a
c
q
u
e
s
,
2000:
208
)
.

I
n
t
i
m
e
s
p
as
t
,
kno
w
ing
w
as
f
ar
m
o
r
e
i
m
po
r
t
ant
t
han
l
e
a
r
ning
,

n
o
w
,
t
he
qu
a
lity of
inqui
r
y
a
nd
qu
e
s
tions
a
r
e
v
a
lu
e
d
a
s
m
u
c
h
a
s
a
rr
i
v
ing
a
t
a
s
ound
th
e
o
r
y

(C
h
aw
l
a
,
1995
)
.

U
n
f
o
r
t
un
a
t
e
l
y
,
the
t
e
r
m

l
e
a
r
nin
g

f
or
mo
s
t
o
f
us
h
a
s
b
ee
n
b
a
s
e
d
on
the
p
r
e
m
i
s
e
s
t
h
a
t
,
th
e
r
e
is
a
r
i
g
ht
a
n
s
w
e
r
,
w
h
i
c
h
is
kno
w
n
by
a
not
h
e
r
;
u
s
u
a
l
l
y
a
n
e
xp
e
r
t,
t
h
a
t
w
e
w
a
nt
t
o
tho
r
ou
g
h
l
y
g
r
as
p
(
D
ixon,
1994:
1
-
2
)
.

N
e
v
e
r
th
e
l
e
ss
,
w
hile
t
h
is
i
s
not
f
a
l
s
e
,
it
is
l
i
m
i
t
e
d
e
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
ly
in
t
he
c
o
n
t
e
xt
of
f
inding
a
n
s
w
e
r
s
t
o
p
r
obl
e
m
s
in
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ions
w
hi
c
h
have
n
e
v
e
r
b
e
e
n
e
x
p
er
i
e
n
c
e
d
o
r
in
w
h
i
c
h
p
r
e
vious
an
s
wer
s
s
h
ow
n
o
p
r
o
m
i
se
.

T
hu
s
,
k
no
w
l
e
dg
e
;
t
h
e
s
ee
ming
r
i
g
h
t
a
n
sw
er
,
is
e
p
h
e
m
er
a
l
;
c
on
s
t
a
n
t
l
y
n
e
e
ding
t
o
b
e
re
vi
s
e
d
a
n
d
up
d
a
t
e
d
(
i
bid
)
.
T
h
e
f
o
c
u
s
,
c
on
s
e
qu
e
ntly,
m
o
v
e
s
f
r
om
t
h
e
p
r
odu
c
t
on
t
o
t
h
e
p
r
o
ces
s
,
h
e
n
c
e
,
w
e
a
s
k
that
how
c
an
w
e
l
e
a
r
n
e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y
?
T
o
t
his
q
u
e
s
tio
n
,
Su
z
uki
R
o
s
hi
g
i
v
e
s
a
s
a
n
s
w
e
r
in
the
quote
a
bo
ve
.
W
e
c
a
n on
l
y
l
e
a
r
n,

w
h
e
n
w
e
op
e
n
u
p,
s
h
a
r
e
w
hat
w
e
know
and
ali
e
nate
o
u
rs
e
l
ve
s
f
r
o
m
t
h
at
to
c
o
n
s
id
e
r
w
h
at
oth
er
s
k
n
ow
(
D
ixo
n
,
19
9
4
)
.
I
n
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
,
H
u
b
e
r
(
1989:3)
a
d
d
s
t
h
a
t,
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
n
s
l
ea
r
n
w
h
e
n
a
ny
o
f
i
t
s
c
o
m
pon
e
nts
h
a
v
e
ac
qui
r
e
d
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
nd
h
a
v
e
this
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
f
or
u
s
e
,
e
i
th
e
r
by
oth
e
r
c
o
m
pon
e
nts
or
by
it
s
e
l
f
,
o
n
b
e
h
a
lf
of
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
s
.
T
hus
in
bo
t
h
s
c
e
n
a
r
i
os
w
h
e
t
h
e
r
ind
i
v
idu
a
lly
or
c
ol
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
ly
a
s
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
n
,
w
h
a
t
i
s
s
t
r
esse
d
is
t
he
a
cces
s
i
b
i
l
i
ty
o
f
w
h
a
t
i
s
kno
w
n
to
o
t
h
e
r
s
f
or
u
s
a
ge
.
A
s
s
u
c
h
,
s
e
v
e
r
a
l
p
e
rs
p
ec
tiv
e
s
c
a
n
e
x
i
s
t
c
o
nc
e
r
n
i
ng
a
g
i
v
e
n
p
r
obl
e
m
b
a
s
e
d
on
t
h
e
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
s
a
nd/or
s
ubun
i
ts
m
a
y
h
a
v
e
,
e
mph
a
s
i
s
i
ng
t
h
a
t
the
p
o
s
s
ib
i
li
t
i
e
s
o
f
e
f
f
ec
t
i
v
e
l
ea
r
ning
li
e
s
in
b
r
in
g
ing
a
l
l
this
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
to
b
e
a
r
a
nd
t
o
c
ont
r
ibute
t
o
t
he
d
e
f
inition
o
f
s
ol
u
t
i
on
s
.
I
t
is
th
r
ou
g
h
t
h
i
s
a
c
c
e
s
s
i
bility
a
nd
a
c
t
ion
t
h
a
t
the
po
we
r
of
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
h
a
r
n
e
ss
e
d to
s
ol
v
e
p
r
obl
e
m
s
,
p
r
e
s
e
r
v
e
v
a
lu
a
ble
h
e
r
i
t
a
g
e
,
a
nd
i
n
i
t
i
a
t
e
n
e
w
s
i
tu
a
t
ions
f
or
t
h
e
p
r
e
s
e
nt
a
nd
f
utu
r
e
(
L
i
a
o,
2003
)
.
C
on
s
e
q
u
e
nt
l
y
,
i
t
t
hus
b
ec
o
m
e
s
c
r
i
t
i
ca
l
th
a
t
t
h
e
d
a
y
to
d
a
y
w
o
r
k
e
n
v
i
r
onm
e
n
t
w
i
thin
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
on
s
hou
l
d
f
a
v
our
l
e
a
r
ning
p
r
o
c
es
s
e
s
t
h
a
t
s
uppo
r
t
t
h
e
a
c
ces
s
ib
i
lity
a
nd
ut
i
li
s
a
t
i
on
of
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
o
r
d
e
r
to
m
a
ximi
s
e
r
e
tu
r
ns
(
K
e
s
se
l
s
,
2001
)
.
P
a
ge
3
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
K
NO
W
L
E
DG
E
I
N
O
R
G
A
N
I
S
A
T
I
O
N
S
W
hat
i
s
K
n
o
w
l
ed
g
e
?
I
n
s
ee
king
t
o
und
e
r
s
t
a
nd
t
h
e
c
on
c
e
pt
o
f
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
and
l
ea
r
ning
the
fi
rs
t
qu
es
tion
t
h
a
t
n
ee
d
s
to
b
e
a
n
s
w
e
r
e
d i
s
,
w
hat
i
s
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
?
S
e
v
e
r
a
l
de
f
in
i
t
i
ons
a
nd
t
a
xonom
i
e
s
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
h
a
v
e
b
ee
n
put
f
o
r
wa
r
d
th
r
ough
r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
s
tudi
e
s
a
nd
books
(
Pol
a
n
y
i,
19
6
2,
196
6
;
Z
a
nd
e
r
a
nd
K
o
g
ut
1995;
D
ixo
n
,
2000;
G
unnl
a
u
g
s
dot
t
i
r
,
200
3
)
.
E
v
id
e
nt
f
r
om
t
h
es
e
,
N
e
w
e
ll
e
t
a
l.
(
2002
)
,
r
i
g
ht
l
y
not
e
s
t
h
a
t
,
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
a
n
i
n
t
r
in
s
i
ca
l
l
y
a
m
b
i
g
uous
a
nd
e
qui
v
o
c
a
l
t
e
r
m
.
A
s
s
u
c
h
,
a
u
s
e
f
ul
s
t
a
r
t
i
ng
point
in
un
d
e
r
s
t
a
nd
i
ng
t
h
i
s
t
e
r
m
is
to
d
r
a
w
t
h
e
di
s
tin
c
tion
b
e
t
w
ee
n
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
a
nd
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
.
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
a
s
d
e
f
i
n
e
d
by
D
i
xon
(
2000:13)
is
d
a
ta
t
h
a
t
is
in
f
o
r
m
at
i
o
n
;
t
hat
has
b
e
e
n
s
o
r
t
e
d
,
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
d
,
and
di
s
play
e
d
and
c
ommuni
c
a
t
e
d
t
h
r
ough
s
pok
e
n
l
a
n
gu
a
g
e
,
g
r
a
p
hic
di
s
p
l
ay
s
,
o
r
n
u
m
e
r
ic
t
a
b
l
e
s
.
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
c
ont
r
a
s
t
is
the

m
e
a
n
i
n
g
f
ul
links
p
e
o
p
l
e
m
ake
in
t
h
e
ir
m
i
n
ds
b
e
t
wee
n
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
a
nd
i
t
s
a
p
pl
i
c
a
t
ion
in
a
c
t
i
on
i
n
a
s
p
e
c
if
i
c
s
e
tt
i
n
g

(
ib
i
d
)
.
I
n
r
e
l
a
t
i
on
,
G
unn
l
a
u
g
s
dott
i
r
(
2003)
e
xp
l
a
ins
t
h
a
t
,
f
a
c
t
s
w
i
tho
u
t
c
on
t
e
xt
a
r
e
c
a
l
l
e
d

d
a
t
a”
,
ho
we
v
e
r
,
w
h
e
n
t
h
e
s
e
d
a
ta
a
r
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
e
d
,
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
d
a
nd
i
nt
e
r
p
r
e
t
e
d
t
o
a
c
qui
r
e
a
me
a
nin
g
,
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
i
s
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.
O
n
t
h
e
oth
e
r
h
a
n
d
,
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
only
b
ec
o
m
e
s
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
w
h
e
n
it
is
pu
t
in
t
o
a
logi
c
al
a
n
d
u
n
d
ers
t
an
d
a
ble
c
on
t
e
xt
w
h
i
c
h
w
e
c
an
v
er
i
f
y
a
n
d
rec
all
f
r
om
our
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
(
ib
i
d
)
.
M
a
r
tz
a
nd
Sh
e
p
h
e
r
d
(
2003)
a
l
s
o
e
x
p
l
a
in
t
h
a
t
,
a
s
d
a
t
a
obt
a
ins
a

s
p
ec
i
fi
c
m
e
aning

or
t
a
k
e
s
on
a
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
(
Ma
n
s
o
n
,
1
9
78
)
,
it
b
e
c
o
m
e
s
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on,
ho
w
e
v
e
r
,
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
oc
c
u
r
s
a
s
a
p
r
od
u
c
t
o
f
inqui
r
y
c
on
ce
r
ning
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
(
Ac
k
o
f
f
a
nd
E
m
e
r
y
,
1972
)
.
I
n
e
f
f
e
c
t,
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
a
n
be
t
h
e
n
b
e
c
on
s
i
d
e
r
e
d
a
s
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
w
ith
d
e
f
i
n
e
d
ac
t
i
ons
in
a
s
p
e
c
i
f
ic
c
ont
e
x
t
;
it
i
s
g
o
a
l
o
r
i
e
n
t
e
d
,
not
ju
s
t
a
c
oll
ec
tion
of
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
(
ib
i
d
)
.
F
or
e
x
a
mpl
e
,
a
t
r
u
c
k
m
a
nu
f
a
c
tu
r
ing
t
ea
m
in
St.
L
ou
i
s
h
a
s
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
b
out
how
to
a
t
t
a
c
h
t
he
f
r
o
nt
bump
e
r
to
a
t
r
a
c
k
i
n
f
i
f
t
ee
n
s
e
c
ond
s
.
W
h
e
n
i
t
w
r
i
tes
t
h
a
t
k
n
o
w
l
e
dge
u
p
a
nd
se
n
d
s
i
t
to
a
s
i
s
t
e
r
f
a
c
t
o
r
y
in
D
ea
r
bo
r
n
,
it
b
e
c
o
m
e
s
i
nfo
r
m
ation
b
eca
u
s
e
t
h
e
t
e
a
m
in
D
e
a
r
b
o
r
n
m
a
y
or
m
a
y
not
m
a
k
e
the
c
on
n
e
c
t
ions
to
i
ts
s
p
e
c
i
f
ic
s
e
t
t
ing
(
D
ixo
n
,
2
0
00:13
)
.
A
s
s
u
c
h
,
in
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
t
he
d
i
st
i
n
c
t
ion
g
e
t
s
b
l
u
r
re
d
s
in
c
e
t
he
c
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
c
a
t
ion
t
h
e
n
d
e
p
e
n
ds
on
t
he
i
n
d
i
vid
u
a
l
.
E
mph
a
s
i
s
i
ng
on
t
h
i
s
,
N
on
a
ka
(
1994)
a
s
in
N
ew
e
l
l
e
t
a
l.
(
2002:
3)
s
t
a
t
e
s
th
a
t
,

it
is
t
h
e
s
e
m
a
n
t
i
c
as
p
e
c
t
s
o
f
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
t
h
a
t
c
r
e
a
te
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e

.
T
hus
t
h
e
w
a
y
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
is
c
on
v
e
y
e
d
a
nd
t
h
e
m
e
a
n
ing
in
f
e
rr
e
d
f
r
om
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
by
a
n
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
c
r
e
a
t
e
s
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
.
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
t
h
e
n
t
e
nds
to
b
e
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
w
ith
i
n
p
e
op
l
e

s
m
inds
(
Da
v
e
npo
r
t
a
n
d
M
a
r
c
h
a
n
d
,
2000:
165
-
169
)
.
C
on
s
e
qu
e
n
t
l
y
,
t
h
e
in
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
m
a
d
e
f
r
om
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
by
a
n
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
i
s
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
t
o
th
e
i
r
c
o
g
nit
i
v
e
c
a
p
ac
i
t
y
a
n
d
int
e
r
p
r
e
t
i
v
e
sc
h
e
m
a
,
h
e
n
c
e
t
h
e
s
a
me
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
m
a
y
h
a
v
e
di
f
f
e
r
e
nt
in
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
f
r
om
di
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
p
e
opl
e
,
w
hi
c
h
c
ould
l
e
a
d
to
t
h
e
c
r
e
a
t
ion
o
f
n
e
w
a
n
d
di
f
f
e
r
e
nt
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
(
Newe
l
l
e
t
a
l
.
,
2002:
3
)
.
T
hus
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
c
a
n
a
d
d
i
tion
a
l
ly
b
e
c
on
s
i
d
e
r
e
d
a
s
t
h
e
v
e
hi
c
l
e
u
se
d
t
o
e
x
p
r
es
s
a
n
d
c
ommuni
c
a
t
e
k
no
w
l
e
dge
(
D
a
v
e
npo
r
t
and
M
a
r
c
h
and,
2000:
165
-
169
)
,
and
k
no
w
l
e
dge
c
an
vi
e
w
e
d
as
t
h
e
p
r
o
ces
s
ing
o
f
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
n
d
as
a
s
kill
ba
s
e
d
on
p
r
e
vious
u
nd
ers
t
and
i
ng,
p
r
o
ce
du
re
s
and
e
xp
er
i
e
n
c
e
(
B
o
c
i
j
e
t
a
l
.
,
2003:
28
)
.
F
u
r
th
e
r
mo
r
e
,
if
p
r
e
v
ious
und
e
r
s
t
a
nd
i
n
g
,
p
r
o
c
e
du
r
e
s
a
n
d
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
a
l
s
o
c
on
s
t
i
tu
t
e
t
h
e
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
t
h
e
n
it
a
l
s
o
p
r
e
s
u
ppo
se
s
t
h
a
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
a
l
s
o n
ee
d
e
d
to
int
e
r
p
r
e
t
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
nd
d
a
ta
to
d
e
f
ine
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
.
P
a
ge
4
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
A
dop
t
ing
f
r
om
He
e
ks
(
2003:
2)
a
nd
S
c
h
u
e
b
e
r
(
2
0
02
)
,
t
h
e
‘I
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
P
y
r
a
mid

,
F
i
g
u
r
e
1
,
d
e
p
i
c
ts
the
o
v
e
r
a
ll
r
e
l
a
t
io
n
s
hip
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
d
a
t
a
,
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n,
a
nd
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
in
t
e
r
ms
o
f
:
(
1)
po
s
i
t
ion
on
a
c
ont
i
nuu
m
,
(
2)
v
olume
(
l
a
r
g
e
to
s
m
a
ll
)
,
(
3)
v
a
lue
(
lo
we
r
t
o
h
i
g
h
e
r
)
a
n
d
(
4)
r
e
g
a
r
ding
hu
m
a
n
in
v
o
l
v
e
m
e
nt.
F
i
gu
r
e
1
T
he
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
P
y
r
a
m
i
d
C
r
ea
t
e
d
a
n
d
r
e
s
i
d
i
n
g
i
n
t
h
e
h
u
m
a
n
m
i
n
d
,
m
o
s
t
l
y
t
a
c
i
t
,
h
a
r
d
t
o
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
,
h
a
r
d
t
o
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
Co
n
t
e
x
t
,
I
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
s
,
P
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
P
r
odu
c
t
o
f
i
nqu
i
r
y
c
on
ce
r
n
i
n
g
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
M
ea
n
i
ng
f
u
l
f
a
c
t
s
,
e
ndo
w
e
d
w
i
t
h
r
e
l
ev
a
n
c
e
a
n
d
pu
r
po
s
e
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
F
ac
t
s
w
i
t
hou
t
c
on
t
ex
t
D
a
t
a
M
od
i
f
i
e
d
F
r
o
m
(
H
e
e
ks
,
2003
:
2
;
S
c
h
u
e
b
e
r
,
2002
)
A
l
ong
t
he
t
r
a
n
s
it
i
on
f
r
o
m
d
a
ta
v
ia
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
t
o
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
v
a
l
u
e
is
a
d
d
e
d
th
r
ou
g
h
the
hu
m
a
n
in
v
o
l
v
e
m
e
nt.
T
he
in
c
r
e
a
se
d
hu
m
a
n
in
v
o
l
v
e
m
e
nt
m
a
k
e
s
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
nd
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
not
only
mo
r
e
of
c
o
n
t
e
xt
a
nd
p
e
r
s
on
s
p
e
c
i
f
ic
but
a
l
s
o
h
a
r
d
e
r
to
m
a
n
a
g
e
(
Da
v
e
npo
r
t
,
1
9
97)
a
nd
t
o
t
r
a
n
sf
e
r
.
T
his
b
ec
om
e
s
e
v
e
n
mo
r
e
e
v
i
d
e
nt
w
h
e
n
vi
e
w
e
d
f
r
om
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
a
l
p
e
rs
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
.
Fu
r
th
e
r
,
a
long
t
h
e
t
r
a
n
s
i
t
ion
f
r
om
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
v
ia
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
t
o
d
a
t
a
,
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
ly
n
e
e
d
e
d
t
o
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
nd
d
a
t
a
to
d
e
f
i
ne
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
.
P
a
ge
5
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
I
n
d
i
vidual
T
a
c
i
t
Kno
w
l
e
dge
I
n
div
i
dual
E
x
p
l
i
c
i
t
Kno
w
l
e
dge
C
ol
l
ec
t
i
v
e
T
a
c
it
Kno
w
l
e
dge
C
ol
l
ec
t
i
v
e
E
x
p
l
i
c
i
t
Kno
w
l
e
dge
T
y
p
es
a
n
d
Fo
rm
s
of
K
n
o
w
l
edge
2
T
yp
es
:
T
a
c
i
t
a
nd
E
xpl
i
c
it
(
Pol
y
a
n
i
,
1966
)
.
4
Fo
r
m
s
:
I
ndi
v
idu
a
l
(T
ac
it
a
nd
E
xpli
c
it)
a
nd
C
oll
e
ct
i
v
e
/
G
r
oup
(
C
ook
&
B
r
o
w
n
,
1999)
F
i
gu
r
e
2
T
he
F
o
u
r
F
o
r
m
s
of
O
r
gan
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
Kn
o
w
l
e
dge
I
n
d
i
vi
d
u
al
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
T
a
c
it
Ca
n
not
be
e
a
s
il
y
a
r
ti
c
u
l
a
t
ed
,
b
ut
i
s
a
cc
e
s
s
i
b
l
e
a
n
d
s
u
s
t
a
i
n
e
d
t
h
r
o
u
gh
i
n
te
r
a
c
t
i
on
E
x
p
l
i
c
i
t
E
a
s
i
l
y
t
a
u
g
h
t
,
w
r
i
t
t
e
n
o
r
c
od
if
i
e
d
A
d
a
p
te
d
F
r
o
m
S
p
e
n
ce
r
(1
9
9
6)
a
s
i
n
W
a
ng
A
nd
A
h
m
e
d
(
2
0
03)
T
a
c
i
t
a
n
d
E
x
p
licit
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
F
r
om
th
i
s
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l
p
e
rs
p
ec
ti
v
e
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
;
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
p
e
r
c
e
i
v
e
d
a
s
a
d
i
sc
r
e
t
e
,
o
b
j
e
c
t
i
ve
,
l
a
r
g
e
l
y
c
o
g
ni
t
i
v
e
e
ntity
(
New
e
l
l
e
t
a
l
.
,
2002:
3
)
,
t
w
o
t
y
pes
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
a
n
b
e
d
esc
r
i
b
e
d

e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
a
nd
t
ac
it
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
.
I
d
e
n
ti
f
i
a
b
l
e
f
r
om
t
h
e
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
o
n
t
h
e
t
r
u
c
k
m
a
n
u
f
ac
tu
r
i
n
g
t
ea
m
s
,
t
ac
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
r
e
s
kill
s
,
jud
g
e
m
e
nt
a
nd
in
t
u
i
t
i
on
t
h
a
t
p
e
ople
h
a
v
e
but
c
a
nnot
e
a
s
ily
d
e
s
c
r
i
b
e
,
a
nd
e
xpli
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
r
e
s
k
il
l
s
a
n
d
f
a
c
t
s
th
a
t
ca
n
be
w
r
i
t
t
e
n
do
w
n
a
nd
t
a
u
g
ht
t
o
oth
e
r
s
(
H
ope
a
nd
H
op
e
,
1997
)
.
A
s
Newe
ll
e
t
a
l
.
(
2002:
3
)
e
xp
l
a
i
n
,
t
a
c
it
k
no
w
l
e
dge
o
f
t
e
n
r
e
f
e
rre
d
t
o
as
“kno
w
-
ho
w
”,
res
id
e
s
i
n
o
u
r
h
e
ad
s
,
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
al
s
kil
l
s
and
a
c
t
i
o
n
s
.
I
t
i
s
kno
w
n
but
e
xt
r
e
m
e
ly
d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
or
in
s
o
m
e
c
a
s
e
s
impo
ss
ib
l
e
to
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
t
e
or
c
o
m
mu
n
i
ca
t
e
a
d
e
q
u
a
t
e
l
y
.
For
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,
though
m
a
ny
p
e
ople
know
h
o
w
to
r
i
d
e
a
b
ik
e
,
e
xp
l
a
i
ni
n
g
or
w
r
it
i
ng
do
w
n
e
x
a
c
t
l
y
f
or
o
th
e
r
s
t
o
f
ollow
w
ould
b
e
p
r
obl
e
m
a
t
i
c
.
I
t
i
s
the
ind
i
v
idu
a
l

s
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
o
f
l
e
a
r
n
i
ng
t
o
r
i
de
a
bike
t
h
a
t
l
e
a
d
s
to
t
h
a
t
i
ndi
v
i
du
a
l
p
r
o
c
e
ss
ing
t
h
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
of
how
t
o
r
i
de a
b
i
k
e
(
ib
i
d
)
.
L
e
on
a
r
d
-
Ba
r
ton
a
nd
S
e
n
s
ip
e
r
(
1998)
a
r
g
ue
t
h
a
t
, t
ac
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
u
s
u
a
lly
a
c
qu
i
r
e
d
u
n
c
on
s
c
iou
s
ly
or
se
m
i
-
c
on
s
c
i
ou
s
l
y
,
t
h
us
t
h
e
s
um
o
f
impli
c
i
t
,
s
ub
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
a
nd
un
c
on
s
c
i
ous
un
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
ng
a
nd
s
kil
l
s
c
o
n
s
t
i
tu
t
e
s
t
h
e
bi
k
e
r
iding
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
g
a
in
e
d
by
the
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
(
D
e
F
r
e
i
t
a
s
,
2002
)
.
C
on
se
q
u
e
ntl
y
,
i
t
t
e
nds
to
be
a
s
P
o
l
a
n
y
i
(
1962)
s
u
gg
e
s
t
s
,
f
or
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,
w
e
o
f
t
e
n
know
m
o
r
e
t
h
a
n
w
e
c
a
n
t
e
ll
or
a
rt
i
c
u
l
a
t
e
.
E
x
p
l
i
c
i
t
k
no
w
l
e
dg
e
,
on
the
o
t
h
e
r
h
a
nd,
c
an
be
c
odi
f
i
e
d
and
c
om
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
e
d
t
o
o
t
h
e
r
s
and
m
ay
e
xi
s
t
in
f
o
r
m
s
u
c
h
as
r
ul
e
s
,
p
r
o
ce
du
re
s
and
t
h
e
o
r
i
e
s
.
A
s
D
e
F
r
e
it
a
s
(
2
002)
c
o
m
m
e
n
t
s
,

a
utho
r
s
P
a
ge
6
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
s
a
y
th
a
t
e
xp
l
i
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
t
e
nds
t
o
b
e
a
n
a
tt
e
m
p
t
to
a
r
t
i
c
ul
a
t
e
t
a
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
i
n
w
r
i
tin
g
,
s
pe
e
c
h
or
i
n
a
ny
t
a
n
g
i
ble
m
ea
n
s

.
For
e
x
a
mpl
e
,
in
s
t
r
u
c
t
ions
o
f
b
i
ke
r
id
i
ng
ca
n
be
c
a
ptu
r
e
d
in
a
t
r
a
in
i
ng
book.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
o
n
e
m
a
y
t
h
e
n
w
ond
e
r
w
h
e
t
h
e
r
t
h
i
s
book
i
s
e
xpli
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
or
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
io
n
,
th
u
s

i
f
e
xpli
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
th
a
t
w
hi
c
h
i
s
c
od
i
f
i
e
d
,
w
h
er
e
do
e
s
the
bou
n
da
r
y
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
i
n
fo
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
n
d
e
xpli
c
it
kno
w
l
e
dge
li
e

(
ibid
)
?
I
n
this
v
i
e
w
,
N
o
n
a
ka
a
n
d
T
a
k
e
u
c
hi
(
1995)
a
r
g
ue
t
h
a
t
on
c
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
t
e
d
i
t
b
ec
om
e
s
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion;
t
r
a
ining
bo
o
k,
w
h
i
c
h
c
a
n
be
r
e
-
as
s
i
m
i
l
a
t
e
d
in
t
o
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
s
t
h
e
book
is
r
e
a
d
by
the
indi
v
i
du
a
l
.
I
n
r
e
l
a
ti
on,
D
e
F
r
e
i
t
a
s
(
2002)
a
dds
t
h
a
t
,
it
is
p
e
r
h
a
ps
mo
r
e
c
o
rr
e
c
t
to
s
t
a
t
e
t
h
a
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
not
e
x
p
l
i
c
it
but
t
h
a
t
t
h
is

e
xpli
c
it
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

ac
tu
a
lly
be
c
o
m
e
s
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
w
h
e
n
it
is
c
od
i
fi
e
d
a
nd
s
ub
s
e
qu
e
ntly
b
e
c
o
m
e
s
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
w
h
e
n
it
i
s
r
e
-
a
ss
i
mil
a
t
e
d
i
n
to
t
h
e
hu
m
a
n
m
in
d
.
I
t
t
e
nds
t
o
be
l
i
k
e
Pol
a
n
y
i
(
1966
:
7)
f
u
r
th
e
r
s
u
gg
es
t
s
,

a
l
l
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
is
e
i
t
h
e
r
t
a
c
it
or
r
oo
t
e
d
in
t
a
c
it
k
no
w
l
e
dg
e

.
M
o
r
e
o
v
e
r
,
d
r
a
w
i
ng
me
a
nin
g
f
ul
links
to
t
h
e
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
i
n
t
r
a
i
n
ing
book
or
v
id
e
o
w
ou
l
d
be
ba
s
e
d
on
p
r
ior
e
x
i
s
t
i
n
g
kno
w
l
e
dge
w
hi
c
h
t
he
n
ovi
c
e
p
o
sses
s
e
s
.
T
his
p
r
es
uppo
s
e
s
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
a
m
ount
o
f
p
r
i
o
r
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
app
l
i
c
ab
l
e
w
ill
th
e
n
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
ne
t
he
d
e
g
r
e
e
o
f
t
ac
i
t
kno
w
l
e
dge
c
r
ea
t
e
d
(
D
e
F
r
e
i
t
a
s
,
2002
)
,
a
s
s
u
c
h
,
r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
e
r
s
(B
oi
s
ot,
199
5
;
N
a
h
a
pi
e
t
a
nd
G
ho
s
h
a
l,
1998)
s
u
gg
es
t
t
h
a
t
,
t
a
c
i
t
n
e
s
s
c
a
n
th
e
r
e
f
o
r
e
b
e
c
o
n
s
id
e
r
e
d
a
s
a
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
wh
e
r
e
t
h
e
d
e
g
r
e
e
of
t
a
c
it
n
e
s
s
is
a
f
un
c
tion
of
the
e
x
t
e
nt
t
o
w
h
i
c
h
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
a
n
b
e
c
om
m
un
i
c
a
t
e
d
.
B
y
c
om
b
i
ning
exp
l
i
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
or
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
w
i
t
h
the
t
ac
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
or

kn
ow
-
ho
w

the
no
v
i
c
e
po
s
s
es
s
e
s
;
w
i
t
h
r
e
g
a
r
d
to
ba
l
a
n
c
e
a
nd
h
a
nd
-
e
y
e
c
o
-
o
r
din
a
t
io
n
,
t
he
no
v
i
c
e
d
e
v
e
lops
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
(
c
r
e
a
t
e
s
n
e
w
t
a
c
i
t
a
nd
e
xpli
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
)
of
how
to
r
ide
a
bik
e
.
H
e
n
c
e
,
E
dm
ond
s
on
e
t
a
l
.
(
2003)
s
t
a
t
e
t
h
a
t
,
t
ac
it
a
nd
e
xpli
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
e
xi
s
t
a
long
a
s
p
e
c
t
r
um
or
c
ontinuum
o
f
t
ac
i
t
n
es
s
,
not
a
s
mu
t
u
a
l
l
y
e
x
c
lu
s
i
v
e
c
a
t
eg
o
r
i
e
s
;
a
t
one
e
xt
r
e
me
,
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
p
r
e
dom
i
na
n
t
ly
c
odi
f
i
e
d
or
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t;
a
t
t
he
o
t
h
e
r
e
x
t
r
e
m
e
,
kn
ow
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
p
r
e
dom
i
n
a
nt
l
y
t
ac
it
(
Pol
a
n
y
i
,
1966
)
.
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
In
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
s:
I
n
d
i
vi
d
u
al
a
n
d
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
ve
K
n
o
w
le
d
g
e
W
i
t
hin
a
n
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
io
n
,
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
a
n
be
c
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
e
d
a
long
t
h
e
d
i
m
e
n
s
i
ons
o
f
in
d
i
v
idu
a
l
a
nd
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
i
n
r
es
pe
c
t
to
t
he
c
o
nc
e
pt
o
f
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
ns
b
e
i
ng
m
a
d
e
up
w
e
bs
o
f
p
a
r
t
i
c
i
p
a
t
i
on
or
s
m
a
l
l
g
r
oup
s
,
t
ea
ms
or
n
e
t
w
o
r
ks
of
w
h
i
c
h
the
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
i
s
the
c
o
r
n
e
rs
t
one
(
C
h
u
a
,
2002;
H
o
p
e
a
nd
H
ope
,
1997:80;
D
e
F
r
e
i
t
a
s
,
20
0
2
)
.

C
hua
(
2002)
e
xpl
a
ins
i
n
div
i
dual
kno
w
l
e
dge
as
t
he
kno
w
l
e
dge
h
a
r
bo
u
r
e
d
by
an
in
d
i
vi
d
u
al in
an
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ion
.
F
or
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,
i
n
the
c
ou
r
s
e
of
w
o
r
k,
a
n
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
m
a
y
und
e
r
t
a
k
e
a
n
e
w
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
a
l
t
as
k
or
e
v
e
n
c
o
m
m
on
t
as
k
but
in
a
n
e
w
w
a
y
w
h
i
c
h
m
a
y
y
i
e
l
d
the
s
a
me
or
b
e
t
t
e
r
th
u
s
i
f
t
h
is
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
not
s
h
a
r
e
d
w
i
th
ot
h
e
r
e
mp
l
o
y
ee
s
,
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
ca
n
n
e
it
h
e
r
mu
l
tip
l
y
nor
l
e
v
e
r
a
g
e
on
t
h
e
v
a
l
u
e
of
this
e
xp
e
r
t
i
s
e
(
D
a
v
e
npo
r
t
a
n
d
P
r
u
sa
k,
1998
)
.
T
h
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
t
h
e
n
l
o
s
t
p
e
r
m
a
n
e
n
t
l
y
w
h
e
n
the
indi
v
idu
a
l
l
e
a
v
e
s
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
if
t
h
e
in
d
i
v
idu
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
s
h
a
r
e
d
w
i
t
h
o
t
h
e
r
e
m
p
lo
y
e
e
s
,
i
t
b
ec
om
e
s
c
ol
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
.

C
oll
ec
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
t
h
e
r
e
f
o
r
e
t
he
k
no
w
l
e
dge
h
e
ld
c
om
m
o
n
l
y
by
a
g
r
o
u
p
of
m
e
mb
e
r
s
of
an
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ion
(
C
h
ua
,
2002)
a
nd
i
n
c
lu
d
e
s
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
ing
p
r
in
c
ip
l
e
s
,
r
o
u
t
i
n
e
s
,
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
,
a
nd
r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ion
a
l
c
on
s
e
n
s
us
on
p
as
t
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
nc
e
s
,
g
o
a
l
s
a
nd
mi
s
s
i
ons
(Z
a
nd
e
r
a
nd
K
o
g
u
t
,
1995)
r
es
ul
t
s
(
ibid
)
.
A
s
a
r
es
u
lt
,
the
kn
o
wl
e
d
g
e
g
a
i
n
e
d
by
t
h
e
i
n
d
i
v
idu
a
l
b
ec
o
m
e
s
i
ndi
v
i
du
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
;

C
o
m
m
uniti
e
s
of
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
:

C
om
m
u
niti
e
s
of
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
a
r
e
g
r
ou
p
s
o
f
p
e
ople
w
ho
s
h
a
r
e
a
c
on
ce
r
n,
a
se
t
of
p
r
ob
l
e
m
s
,
or
a
pa
ss
ion
about
a
t
opi
c
,
and
w
ho
d
ee
p
e
n
t
h
e
i
r
k
no
w
l
e
dge
a
n
d
e
xp
er
t
i
s
e
i
n
t
his
a
r
e
a
by
i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
n
g
on
a
n
ongo
i
ng
ba
s
i
s

(
W
e
n
g
e
r
2
002
)
.
A
s
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
s
,
w
e
a
r
e
a
ll
P
a
ge
7
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
of
mul
t
i
p
le
c
om
m
uniti
e
s
,
in
our
w
o
r
kpl
a
c
e
a
nd
s
o
c
i
a
l
l
i
f
e
(
W
a
l
s
h
a
m,
2001
)
.
H
e
n
ce
,
w
i
t
hin
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
s
,
t
h
e
r
e
e
xi
s
t
s
ub
c
ultu
r
e
s
,
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
i
e
s
o
f
p
r
a
c
t
i
ce
,
c
on
s
i
s
ting
o
f
s
m
a
ll
s
ub
g
r
oups
o
f
p
e
o
ple
w
ho
h
a
v
e
mut
u
a
l
r
es
p
e
c
t
,
s
h
a
r
e
s
ome
c
o
m
mon
v
a
lu
e
s
a
nd
g
e
n
e
r
a
lly
g
e
t
i
m
po
r
t
a
n
t
w
o
r
k
do
n
e
(
H
ope
a
nd
H
op
e
,
1997
)
.
A
t
C
i
ti
b
a
nk
f
or
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,
e
mp
l
o
y
ee
s
i
n
v
ol
v
e
d
in
c
omm
e
r
c
i
a
l
l
e
nding
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s
in
t
h
e
S
ou
t
h
e
as
t
A
s
i
a
n
r
e
g
i
o
n
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
e
th
e
m
s
e
l
v
e
s
i
nto
a
g
r
oup to
pool
e
x
p
e
r
t
i
s
e
a
nd
s
o
l
v
e
p
r
ob
l
e
ms
to
g
e
t
h
e
r
(
D
a
v
e
npo
r
t
a
nd
P
r
u
sa
k,
2000:39
)
.
T
hus
c
omm
u
ni
t
i
e
s
of
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
a
nd
t
e
a
m
s
b
r
ing
t
o
g
e
th
e
r
a
r
i
g
ht
m
i
x
o
f
int
e
l
l
i
g
e
nt
a
g
e
nts
w
ho
h
a
v
e
the
a
pp
r
op
r
i
a
t
e
s
e
t
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
,
s
kill
s
,
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
nd
a
bi
l
i
t
i
e
s
t
o
s
u
gg
es
t
s
olu
t
i
ons
i
n
d
i
f
f
i
c
ult
a
nd
unp
r
e
di
c
t
a
ble
p
r
ob
l
e
ms
(
A
l
b
e
r
to,
2001
)
.
C
on
s
e
q
u
e
nt
l
y
,
t
he
e
s
se
n
c
e
o
f
c
ol
l
ec
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
s
y
n
e
r
g
y
;
t
w
o
p
l
us
t
w
o
c
a
n
e
qu
a
l
f
i
v
e
or
e
v
e
n
s
i
x.
I
f
t
w
o
p
e
ople
e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
w
i
th
e
a
c
h
ot
h
e
r
both
g
a
i
n
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
nd
r
e
l
a
t
i
ve
l
y
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
l
i
n
e
a
r
g
r
o
w
th
(
D
a
v
e
npo
r
t
a
nd
P
r
ob
s
t,
2001
)
.
B
ut
i
f
b
o
th
s
h
a
r
e
th
e
i
r
kno
w
l
e
dge
w
i
th
oth
e
r
s
a
nd
f
e
e
ds
b
a
c
k
t
he
n
e
w
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
g
a
i
n
e
d
,
t
he
b
e
n
e
f
its
r
e
lati
v
e
l
y
b
ec
ome
e
xpon
e
n
t
i
a
l
(
H
o
p
e
a
nd
H
op
e
,
1997
)
.
A
s
S
p
e
nd
e
r
(
1996)
a
r
g
u
e
s
th
a
t
c
oll
ec
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
is
t
hus
m
o
r
e
s
ec
u
r
e
a
nd
h
a
s
mo
r
e
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
ic
s
i
g
ni
f
i
c
a
n
c
e
t
h
a
n
i
n
d
i
v
idu
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
nd
by
c
om
p
a
r
i
s
o
n
,
it
is
l
e
s
s
v
ol
a
t
i
le
a
nd
l
e
s
s
ea
s
i
l
y
a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d
by
s
t
a
f
f
t
u
r
no
v
e
r
(
C
hu
a
,
2002
)
.
O
n
t
he
o
t
h
e
r
h
a
n
d
,
one
m
a
y
qu
es
t
i
on
w
h
e
th
e
r
t
h
e
r
e
i
s
a
ny
r
ea
l
di
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
c
o
ll
ec
t
i
v
e
k
no
w
l
e
dge
and
t
he
agg
re
ga
t
i
on
o
f
in
d
i
vid
u
al
kno
w
l
e
dge
(
G
o
w
l
e
r
a
nd
L
e
gg
e
,
1982
)
.
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
s
c
hools
o
f
t
hou
g
ht
t
e
nd
t
o
e
xi
s
t
on
t
h
is
v
i
ew
.
I
n
S
i
mon
(
1991)
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
th
a
t
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
p
e
r
s
e
d
o
e
s
not
hold
a
ny
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
;
only
i
ts
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
d
o
.
H
e
n
ce
,
the
c
oll
ec
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
ac
t
u
a
l
l
y
the
a
gg
r
e
g
a
te
o
f
t
h
e
indi
v
i
du
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
a
n
o
rg
a
ni
sa
t
ion
(
ibid
)
.
I
n
c
ont
r
a
s
t,
Ne
l
s
on
a
nd
W
i
nt
e
r
(
1982)
as
s
e
r
t
s
th
a
t
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
i
s
a
n
a
t
t
r
ibute
o
f
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
j
u
s
t
like
its
modus
o
p
e
r
a
n
d
i
a
nd
c
u
l
tu
r
e
;
c
o
l
l
ec
t
i
v
e
kn
ow
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
t
h
e
r
e
f
o
r
e
not
r
e
du
c
i
b
l
e
to
w
h
a
t
a
ny
s
in
g
le
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
kno
w
s
,
o
r
e
v
e
n
to
a
ny
s
im
p
l
e
,
a
gg
r
e
g
a
tion
o
f
t
h
e
v
a
r
ious
c
omp
e
t
e
n
c
i
e
s
a
nd
c
a
p
a
b
i
l
it
i
e
s
of
a
ll
the
indi
v
i
du
a
l
s
(
C
h
ua
,
2002
)
.
I
n
s
up
p
o
r
t
,
B
r
o
w
n
a
nd
D
u
g
u
i
d
(
1991)
e
mph
a
s
i
se
,
t
h
a
t
s
h
a
r
e
d
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
l
o
c
a
t
e
d
in
c
ompl
e
x
,
c
o
l
l
a
bo
r
a
t
i
v
e
s
o
c
i
a
l
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
.
I
n
my
p
e
rs
p
ec
t
i
ve
,
I
a
g
r
e
e
w
i
t
h
the
l
a
tt
e
r
,
b
e
ca
u
s
e
c
o
l
l
a
b
o
r
a
t
ive
s
o
c
ial
p
r
a
c
t
i
ce
s
w
i
t
hin
a
n
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ion
t
e
nd
t
o
f
a
c
il
i
t
a
t
e
in
t
e
r
a
c
t
ion
of
i
n
dividual
kno
w
l
e
dge
t
h
r
ough
w
hi
c
h
it
is
t
e
st
e
d
,
e
n
r
i
c
h
e
d and
r
e
d
e
f
i
n
e
d
t
o
c
r
e
a
t
e
m
o
r
e
c
o
ll
ec
t
i
v
e
k
n
o
w
l
e
dg
e
.
T
hus
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
,
a
s
C
h
u
a
(
2002)
c
on
c
l
ud
e
s
,
i
s
s
o
c
i
a
l
l
y
a
nd
c
on
t
e
xtu
a
l
ly
e
mb
e
d
d
e
d
in
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
,
h
e
ld
in
t
he
o
r
gani
s
at
i
onal
mem
o
r
y
(
s
to
r
a
g
e
o
f
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
kn
ow
l
e
d
g
e
)
a
nd
not
a
s
i
mp
l
e
a
g
g
r
e
g
a
tion
o
f
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
h
e
l
d
by
a
se
t
o
f
i
nd
i
v
idua
l
s
.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
i
n
a
tt
e
mp
t
ing
t
o
di
s
s
e
c
t
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
m
e
m
o
r
y
,
w
e
a
l
s
o
r
ea
l
i
s
e
th
a
t
u
l
tim
a
t
e
ly
t
he
m
a
jor
p
a
r
t
of
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
m
e
m
o
r
y
is
p
r
ese
r
v
e
d
th
r
ou
g
h
i
t
s
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
,
t
hus
eac
h
i
n
di
v
i
du
a
l
f
o
r
ms
p
a
r
t
o
f
the
s
to
r
a
g
e
o
f
c
oll
e
c
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
(
l
a
r
g
e
ly
t
a
c
it
)
,
t
hou
g
h
s
o
m
e
po
ss
es
s
a
l
a
r
g
e
r
po
r
tion
(
D
e
F
r
e
it
a
s
,
2002;
W
a
l
s
h
a
nd
U
n
g
s
on,
1991
)
.
O
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
n
a
l
m
e
mo
r
y
a
l
s
o
c
o
n
s
i
s
ts
of
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
c
o
ll
ec
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
od
i
f
i
e
d
i
n
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s
,
p
r
o
ce
du
r
e
s
,
d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
s
,
e
t
c
e
t
e
r
a
,
w
h
i
c
h
is
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d
a
nd
r
e
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d
by
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
th
r
ou
g
h
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tio
n
a
l
i
n
t
e
rf
a
c
e
s
of
int
e
r
a
c
tio
n
.
T
h
us
i
n
a
ll
c
a
se
s
,
t
h
e
v
a
l
u
e
of
the
hum
a
n
m
ind;
c
ont
r
i
buting
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
a
nd
p
a
r
tly
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
t
ing
a
nd
s
to
r
i
ng
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
is
unqu
es
t
i
o
n
a
b
l
e
(
i
bid
)
.
D
r
a
w
i
ng
f
r
om
the
a
bov
e
,
S
p
e
n
d
e
r
(
1996)
s
u
gg
es
ts
a
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
hip
w
h
i
c
h
c
a
n
b
e
e
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
e
d
b
e
t
w
ee
n
the
individu
a
l
-
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
dim
e
n
s
i
on
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
n
d
its
e
xpli
c
it
-
t
ac
it
di
m
e
n
s
i
on
to
c
r
ea
t
e
a
m
a
t
r
ix
c
omp
r
i
s
i
ng
f
our
t
y
p
e
s
of
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
as
s
ho
w
n
in
Fi
g
u
r
e
2
.
P
a
ge
8
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
L
E
A
R
N
I
NG
I
N
O
R
G
A
N
I
S
A
T
I
ON
S
O
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
ons
a
r
e
e
ss
e
nti
a
l
ly
a
c
oll
ec
t
ion
o
f
individuals
w
ho
i
f
l
e
f
t
u
na
tt
e
n
d
e
d
w
i
ll
pu
rs
u
e
la
r
g
e
ly
in
d
i
vid
u
al
goals
(
C
hou
r
id
e
s
e
t
a
l
.
2003
)
.
T
hus

w
i
thin
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
on
th
e
r
e
s
hould
e
xi
s
t
m
ec
h
a
ni
sm
s
w
h
i
c
h
c
r
e
a
te
a
nd
c
on
n
e
c
t
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
hips
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
in
d
i
v
idu
a
l
s
to
w
o
r
k
c
o
l
l
ec
ti
v
e
ly
f
or
c
o
m
mon
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
on
g
o
a
l
s
.

C
r
it
i
c
a
l
to
t
h
e
s
e
m
ec
h
a
n
i
s
ms
a
r
e
t
ho
s
e
w
h
i
c
h
r
e
s
ult
in
s
h
a
r
ing
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
a
nd
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
f
or
t
he
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
g
ood;
thus
c
r
e
a
ting
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
.
A
s
w
i
t
h
c
o
ll
e
c
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
,
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
l
e
a
r
ning
i
s
not
s
i
m
ply
the
s
um
o
f
a
ll
t
h
a
t
i
t
s
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
know
(
D
ixon,
1994
:
36
)
.
E
a
c
h
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
of
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
on
h
a
s
d
e
v
e
l
o
p
e
d
a
nd
s
to
r
e
d
m
e
a
n
ing
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
a
nd
is
ca
p
a
b
l
e
o
f
c
r
e
a
ting
n
e
w
m
e
a
n
ing
or
r
e
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
ng
e
x
i
s
t
ing
m
e
a
n
i
ng
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
th
r
ou
g
h
t
h
e
in
t
e
r
a
c
t
ions
w
i
t
h
ot
h
e
r
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
s
in
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
n;
e
a
c
h
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
h
a
s
t
h
e
ca
p
a
bility
to
l
e
a
r
n
(
ibi
d
)
.
T
h
e
f
o
c
u
s
o
f
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
ive
l
e
a
r
ning,
in
t
h
i
s
c
on
t
e
x
t
,
o
r
ga
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
al
l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
(
O
L
)
,
is
t
h
e
c
oll
ec
t
ive
u
s
e
of
t
his
c
a
p
abi
l
i
t
y
of
l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
.
H
ow
e
v
e
r
,
W
a
ng
a
nd
A
h
m
e
d
(
2003)
point
out
th
a
t,
i
n
d
i
v
idu
a
l
l
e
a
r
ning
is
not
n
e
c
es
s
a
r
i
l
y
b
e
n
e
f
i
c
i
a
l
to
t
he
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tio
n
,
b
ec
a
u
s
e
e
mp
l
o
y
ee
s
m
a
y
l
e
a
r
n
s
o
m
e
t
hing
n
e
g
a
t
i
v
e
to
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
sa
t
i
o
n
,
or
m
a
y
l
e
a
r
n
t
o
imp
r
ove
t
h
e
m
s
e
l
v
e
s
,
r
a
th
e
r
t
h
a
n
b
e
n
e
f
i
t
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ions
(
Fi
e
l
d
,
199
7
)
.
T
h
e
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
u
s
e
o
f
th
i
s
ca
p
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
h
a
s
to
b
e
f
o
c
u
s
e
d
on
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
on
a
l
o
b
j
e
c
ti
v
e
s
or
its
s
t
a
k
e
h
old
e
rs

e
x
p
ec
t
a
t
i
on
s
.
I
t
t
e
nds
t
o
b
e
a
s
A
r
g
y
r
i
s
a
n
d
S
c
hon
(
1978:20)
e
xpl
a
i
n
s
,


t
h
er
e
i
s
no
OL
w
i
t
h
o
u
t
i
n
div
i
d
ual
l
e
a
r
ning,
and
t
hat
in
d
i
vidual
l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
i
s
a
n
ec
e
s
s
a
r
y
b
u
t
i
n
s
u
f
f
i
c
i
e
nt
c
o
n
di
t
i
on
f
o
r
O
L

.
I
ndi
v
idu
a
l
l
e
a
r
ning
i
s
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
nt
o
n
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
l
ea
r
ning
a
nd
t
h
e
c
on
v
e
r
s
e
i
s
a
l
s
o
t
r
u
e
.
I
n
a
f
u
r
t
h
e
r
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
ve
,
Ma
t
l
a
y
(
2000)
not
e
s
t
h
a
t
if
a
di
s
tin
c
tion
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
he
O
L
a
nd
t
h
e
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
l
e
a
r
ning
is
not
m
a
d
e
e
x
pli
c
i
t
,
a
m
o
d
e
l
of
O
L
w
ill
eith
e
r
ob
sc
u
r
e
the
ac
tu
a
l
l
ea
r
n
i
ng
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
by
i
g
no
r
i
n
g
the
r
o
l
e
o
f
t
h
e
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
,
a
n
t
h
r
opo
m
o
r
ph
i
s
i
ng
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
ons
or
b
ec
ome
a
s
i
mp
l
i
s
ti
c
e
xt
e
n
s
i
on of
indi
v
i
du
a
l
l
ea
r
ning
by
g
l
o
s
s
ing
o
v
e
r
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
c
o
m
p
l
e
xiti
e
s
(
K
im,
1993:
42
-
43
)
.
I
n
d
i
v
i
dual
Le
a
r
n
i
n
g
A
c
ko
f
f
a
nd
E
m
e
r
y
(
1972)
e
xp
l
a
in
th
a
t
,

t
he
ba
s
i
s
o
f
l
e
a
r
ning
is
inq
u
i
r
y;
q
u
es
t
ions
a
r
e
po
s
e
d
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
e
xp
r
e
s
s
goal
o
f
ob
t
aining
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
n
d
a
ccr
uing
it
u
n
t
il
i
n
q
u
i
r
y
is
s
a
t
i
s
f
i
e
d

.
T
his
p
r
es
u
ppo
s
e
s
t
h
at
l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
is
t
h
e
n
t
he
p
r
oc
es
s
o
f
a
c
q
ui
r
ing
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
(
C
ook
a
nd
Ya
no
w
,
19
93
)
.
F
u
r
t
h
e
r
,
it
ca
n
be
i
n
f
e
rr
e
d
t
h
a
t
f
or
l
e
a
r
ning
to
oc
c
ur
or
w
h
e
n
l
ea
r
n
i
ng
o
cc
u
r
s
;
t
h
e
r
e
is
a
l
e
a
r
ni
n
g
p
r
odu
c
t
or
w
h
a
t
h
a
s
b
ee
n
l
e
a
r
n
t
,
b
e
i
ng
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
;
a
l
e
a
r
ni
n
g
p
r
o
c
es
s
w
h
i
c
h
c
on
s
i
s
t
s
of
ac
qu
i
r
in
g
,
p
r
o
cess
ing
a
nd
s
to
r
ing
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion;
a
nd
a
l
e
a
r
n
e
r
t
o
w
hom
the
l
e
a
r
n
i
ng
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
is
a
t
t
r
ibu
t
e
d
(
A
r
g
y
r
i
s
a
nd
S
c
ho
n
,
19
9
6:3
)
.
A
c
c
o
r
ding
t
o
D
ixon
(
1994
:
12
)
,
w
e
c
a
n
i
d
e
n
t
if
y
th
r
e
e
wa
y
s
individu
a
ls
c
o
m
e
t
o
know
s
o
m
e
th
i
n
g
:

f
i
r
s
tl
y
,
t
h
r
o
u
gh
the
v
e
r
bal
t
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
on
of
i
n
fo
r
m
ation
-
i
d
e
a
s
v
oi
c
e
d
by
oth
e
r
s
,
book
s
,
r
e
po
r
t
s
,
e
t
c
e
t
e
r
a
,

s
e
c
on
d
l
y
,
d
i
r
ec
t
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
;
t
h
e
r
e
c
e
i
p
t
of
s
e
n
s
o
r
y
d
a
ta
s
u
c
h
a
s
c
o
lou
r
,
s
o
u
nd
a
nd
p
a
i
n
,
a
nd

l
as
t
l
y
,
by
r
e
o
r
gani
s
i
n
g
w
hat
w
e
al
re
a
d
y
know
i
nto
a
n
e
w
c
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
at
i
on
th
e
r
e
by
c
r
ea
t
i
ng
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
.
For
e
xa
m
pl
e
,
a
s
a
novi
c
e
li
s
t
e
ns
t
o
a
n
e
xp
e
r
t
b
i
k
e
r
i
d
e
r
,
t
he
no
v
i
c
e
m
a
k
e
s
in
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
b
a
s
e
d
on
the
i
n
t
e
n
s
ity
w
ith
w
hi
c
h
t
h
e
e
xp
e
r
t
s
p
e
a
ks
a
s
w
e
ll
a
s
t
he
a
c
c
o
mp
a
n
y
i
ng
body
g
e
s
t
u
r
es
.
T
hus
the
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
o
f
l
ea
r
n
i
ng
is
n
ot
a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d
t
o
eac
h
o
f
th
e
s
e
i
n
se
p
a
r
a
t
e
ti
m
e
a
nd
s
p
ac
e
,
in
f
a
c
t
,
mo
s
t
l
e
a
r
ning
do
e
s
in
v
o
l
v
e
the
th
r
e
e
s
i
m
ul
t
a
n
e
ou
s
ly
(
i
bid
)
.
P
a
ge
9
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
F
u
r
t
h
e
r
,
He
rr
iot
a
nd
P
e
mb
e
r
t
on
(
1995)
e
xpl
a
in
t
h
a
t
,
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
s
o
b
se
r
v
e
t
h
e
i
r
b
e
h
a
v
iour
a
nd
its
out
c
om
e
s
a
nd
c
om
p
a
r
e
th
e
m
w
ith
a
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d,
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
thus
is
c
r
ea
t
e
d
f
r
om
hu
m
a
n
ob
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n
a
nd
a
n
a
l
y
s
is
o
f
c
a
u
s
e
a
n
d
e
ff
e
c
t
(
D
e
F
r
e
i
t
a
s
,
20
0
2
)
.
T
hus
l
ea
r
ning
d
e
f
in
e
s

the
p
r
o
c
es
s
by
w
hi
c
h
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
c
r
e
a
t
e
d
th
r
ou
g
h
t
he
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
tion
of
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
nc
e

(
K
olb,
1
9
84
)
.
O
r
gan
i
sa
t
i
onal
L
ea
r
n
i
n
g
T
h
e
o
r
i
e
s
o
f
l
e
a
r
ning

T
h
e
o
r
y
of
M
e
a
ning
St
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
(
D
i
xon,
1994)

S
E
C
I
M
od
e
l
(
N
on
a
k
a
&
T
a
k
e
u
c
hi
(
1995)
Th
e
o
r
y
o
f
M
ea
n
i
n
g
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
es
e
xplain
e
d
b
y
B
oa
t
e
n
g
(
2
004
)
D
i
xon
(
1994
:
14)
t
h
e
n
a
r
g
u
e
s
th
a
t
t
h
r
ou
g
h
hu
m
a
n
ob
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
on
a
nd
a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
,
a
n
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
c
r
e
a
t
e
s

m
e
aning
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
res

fr
om
t
he
d
a
ta
e
n
c
ount
e
r
e
d
or
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
f
r
om
int
e
r
a
c
ting
w
i
th
t
he
w
o
r
ld.
M
e
a
n
ing
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
r
e
f
e
r
s
t
o
t
h
e
m
e
aning
f
ul
l
i
n
ks
o
r
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
w
e
d
r
aw
f
r
om
our
se
n
s
o
r
y
imp
ress
ion
s
,
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
in
f
lu
e
n
c
e
d
by
nu
m
e
r
o
u
s
f
a
c
t
o
r
s
,
in
c
luding
t
he
c
o
n
t
e
xt
in
w
hi
c
h
it
is
s
e
e
n
a
n
d
t
h
e
m
e
aning
st
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
w
e
have
cre
a
t
e
d
f
r
om
t
he
pa
s
t
a
n
d
t
h
e
g
e
n
e
t
i
c
f
a
c
t
o
r
s
(
i
bid
)
.
A
s
r
e
a
l
i
s
e
d
,
c
ol
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
o
cc
u
r
s
wh
e
n
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
s
h
a
r
e
w
h
a
t
th
e
y
know
w
i
th
e
a
c
h
o
th
e
r
,
ho
we
v
e
r
,
not
e
v
e
r
y
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
me
m
be
r’
s
e
n
t
i
r
e
c
o
g
nit
i
v
e
m
a
p
is
a
v
a
il
a
ble
to
o
t
h
e
r
s
in
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
(
D
i
xon,
1994:
36
)
.
T
h
e
r
e
a
r
e
t
h
r
e
e
t
y
p
e
s
o
f
m
ea
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
:
F
i
gu
r
e
3
T
h
r
e
e
T
yp
e
s
of
M
e
an
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
in
O
r
gan
i
s
a
t
i
o
ns
P
ri
v
a
t
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
A
cc
e
ss
i
b
l
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
C
o
ll
e
c
t
i
v
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
A
d
a
p
te
d
F
r
om
M
c
C
l
e
l
l
a
n
(
1
9
8
3)
a
s
i
n
D
i
x
o
n
(
1
9
9
4
:
3
7
)

T
ho
s
e
p
a
r
t
s
w
h
i
c
h
ind
i
v
i
du
a
ls
c
hoo
s
e
t
o
w
i
th
h
o
ld
f
r
om
ot
h
e
r
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
i
s
w
h
a
t
D
i
xon
(
1994:36)
r
e
f
e
r
s
t
o
a
s
p
r
i
v
ate
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
;

a
nd
t
ho
s
e
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
y
a
r
e
w
i
l
ling
to
m
a
k
e
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
t
o
ot
h
e
r
s
in
t
he
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
tion
a
r
e
r
e
f
e
rr
e
d
t
o
a
s
a
c
c
es
s
i
b
l
e
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
.

F
u
r
t
h
e
r
,
t
h
e
r
e
a
l
s
o
e
xi
s
t
tho
s
e
w
hi
c
h
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
onal
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
ho
l
d
j
o
i
nt
l
y
w
i
t
h
ot
h
e
r
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
o
f
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
r
e
f
e
rr
e
d
to
a
s
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
.
P
a
ge
10
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
C
on
s
i
d
e
r
ing
p
r
i
v
a
t
e
m
e
a
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
,
s
e
v
e
r
a
l
r
e
a
s
ons
do
e
xi
s
t
f
or
in
d
i
v
i
du
a
ls
to
r
e
t
a
in
a
s
p
r
i
v
a
te
w
h
a
t
th
e
y
kno
w
.
T
h
e
s
e
mi
g
ht
in
c
l
u
d
e
a
w
i
s
h
t
o
r
e
s
p
e
c
t
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
t
h
a
t
h
a
s
b
e
e
n
g
i
v
e
n
in
c
on
f
id
e
n
c
e
,
as
s
u
m
p
tion
th
a
t
ot
h
e
r
s
a
r
e
u
n
int
e
r
es
t
e
d
in
t
h
e
ir
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
ve
on
a
n
i
ss
u
e
,
a
nd
t
h
e
r
ec
o
g
n
i
tion
t
h
a
t
ce
r
t
a
in
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
c
ou
l
d
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
or
th
r
e
a
t
e
n
th
e
ir
s
o
c
i
a
l
s
t
a
tus
(
i
b
id
)
.
For
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,
C
h
e
p
a
itis
(
1994)
m
a
k
e
s
a
po
i
nt
th
a
t
,
in
R
u
ss
i
a
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
is
o
f
t
e
n
ho
a
r
d
e
d
f
or
p
e
r
s
on
a
l
g
a
in
r
a
t
h
e
r
t
h
a
n
s
h
a
r
e
d
f
r
e
e
l
y
or
in
v
e
s
t
e
d
.
T
h
e
s
e
r
e
as
ons
t
e
nd
to
o
r
i
g
i
n
a
te
f
r
om
t
he
m
e
a
n
i
ng
a
n
indi
v
i
du
a
l
m
a
k
e
s
of
the
w
o
r
ld
a
r
ound
him
or
m
a
y
be
impo
se
d
by
t
h
e
s
o
c
i
e
t
y
a
r
ound
him;
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
e
n
v
i
r
onm
e
nt.
T
h
e
y
t
h
e
r
e
f
o
r
e
do
i
n
fl
u
e
n
c
e
w
h
a
t
,
w
h
i
c
h
a
nd
the
e
xt
e
nt
o
f
m
ea
ning
a
n
indi
v
i
du
a
l
m
a
y
r
e
t
a
i
n
.
O
n
o
t
h
e
r
h
a
n
d
,
t
he
f
a
c
t
th
a
t
a
n
in
d
ividu
a
l
is
w
i
ll
i
ng
to
m
a
ke
m
e
a
n
i
ng
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
d
o
e
s
not
in
s
u
r
e
t
h
a
t
e
v
e
r
y
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
m
e
mb
e
r
w
i
l
l
c
hoo
s
e
or
b
e
a
b
l
e
t
o
,
ac
c
es
s
t
h
e
m;
tim
e
,
s
p
ac
e
,
poli
t
i
c
a
l
,
int
e
ll
e
c
t
u
a
l
a
nd
c
ul
t
u
r
a
l
f
ac
t
o
r
s
limit
a
cc
e
s
s
t
o
ot
h
e
r
s
m
ea
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
(
D
ixo
n
,
199
4
:37
)
.
U
nd
e
r
c
e
r
t
a
in
c
i
r
c
u
m
s
t
a
n
c
e
s
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
s
m
a
y
be
w
i
l
l
ing
to
m
a
ke
t
h
e
ir
m
ea
n
i
ng
a
c
c
e
ss
i
ble
but
n
o
t
und
e
r
ot
h
e
rs
,
a
nd
f
u
r
t
h
e
r
o
n
,
m
a
y
b
e
s
e
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
to
who
h
a
s
ac
c
es
s
to
i
t
a
n
d
w
h
e
n;
f
or
e
x
a
mp
l
e
t
h
e
s
a
m
e
p
e
rs
on
w
ho
m
a
y
w
i
thhold
s
o
m
e
me
a
ning
f
r
om
h
i
s
s
u
p
e
r
i
o
r
s
m
a
y
b
e
w
i
l
ling
to
s
h
a
r
e
i
t
w
i
t
h
his
f
e
l
low
c
o
l
l
e
a
g
u
e
s
.
T
h
us
t
h
e
s
a
m
e
m
ea
ning
m
a
y
be
s
om
e
t
i
m
e
s
p
r
i
v
a
te
a
nd
s
om
e
tim
e
s
a
cces
s
i
b
l
e
,
w
h
i
c
h
m
a
k
e
s
t
h
e
bound
a
r
y
b
e
t
wee
n
ac
c
e
s
s
ible
a
n
d
p
ri
v
a
t
e
m
ea
ning
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
g
r
a
du
a
l
a
nd
f
l
e
x
ible
(
ibid
)
.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
a
c
c
e
ss
ib
l
e
m
e
a
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
r
e
s
i
d
e in
h
u
m
a
n b
e
in
g
s
not
a
s
f
i
x
e
d
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
but
a
s
c
on
s
t
a
n
t
ly
c
h
a
n
g
ing
r
e
l
a
t
i
on
s
h
i
ps
a
s
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
na
l
m
e
mb
e
r
s
i
n
t
e
r
ac
t
w
i
t
h
e
a
c
h
o
th
e
r
a
nd
w
i
th
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
e
n
v
i
r
on
m
e
n
t
.
T
h
e
y
o
ff
e
r
t
h
e
m
ea
ns
f
or
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ions
to
l
e
a
r
n
a
s
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
m
a
k
e
w
h
a
t
th
e
y
know
a
c
c
ess
i
b
le
t
o
o
t
h
e
rs
,
e
n
a
bling
the
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
t
ion
o
f
m
e
a
n
ing
f
r
om
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on.
L
ea
r
n
i
n
g
,
w
h
e
t
h
e
r
,
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ion
a
l
or
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
is
thus
a
bout
t
h
e
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
tion
of
m
ea
ning
(
ib
i
d
)
.
C
oll
ec
t
i
v
e
m
e
a
n
i
ng
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
do
e
n
v
e
lope
t
h
e
se
t
o
f
no
r
m
s
,
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
e
s
,
a
nd
as
s
u
m
ptions
w
hi
c
h
s
p
e
c
i
f
y
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
p
r
o
c
e
ss
e
s
a
nd
t
a
s
k
s
,
how
t
h
e
y
a
r
e
di
v
id
e
d
a
nd
p
e
r
f
o
r
m
e
d
.
T
h
e
y
m
a
y
b
e
c
od
i
fi
e
d
i
n
poli
c
i
e
s
a
nd
p
r
o
ce
du
r
e
s
,
but
to
be
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
t
h
e
y
mu
s
t
a
l
s
o
r
e
s
i
d
e
i
n
the
m
i
nds
o
f
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l m
e
m
b
e
r
s
a
s
p
a
r
t
o
f
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
a
l
m
e
m
o
r
y
a
nd
f
o
s
t
e
r
e
d
by
c
o
l
l
a
bo
r
a
ti
v
e
s
o
c
i
a
l
p
r
ac
t
i
c
e
s
(
ibid
)
.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
D
ixon
(
1994:
39)
e
x
p
l
a
i
ns
th
a
t
,
m
o
s
t
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
m
e
an
i
ng
st
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
ar
e
t
a
c
i
t
,
a
l
l
o
w
ing
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ions
t
o
a
c
t
au
t
o
m
a
t
i
c
a
l
l
y
,
s
w
i
f
t
ly
and
i
n
c
o
n
ce
r
t
.
A
s
s
u
c
h,
t
h
e
r
e
ar
e
n
o
n
e
e
d
l
e
ng
t
h
y
di
sc
u
s
s
i
o
n
s
on
w
hy
c
e
r
t
ain
t
h
i
n
gs
a
r
e
d
one
c
e
r
t
a
i
n
w
ay
s
;
a
l
l
o
w
ing
s
p
e
nding
t
i
m
e
m
o
r
e
p
r
od
u
c
t
iv
e
l
y
on
cr
i
t
i
c
a
l
i
s
s
u
e
s
.
O
n
t
h
e
o
t
h
e
r
h
a
n
d
,
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
m
e
ani
ng
st
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
c
an
a
l
s
o
have
n
e
ga
t
ive
i
m
pa
c
t
on
t
h
e
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ion.
C
on
s
i
d
e
r
ing
tod
a
y

s
r
a
pid
c
h
a
ng
i
ng
w
o
r
l
d,
m
e
a
n
i
ng
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
c
ould
b
ec
o
m
e
ob
s
o
l
e
t
e
or
lo
s
e
t
h
e
ir
v
a
lue
w
i
t
h
t
i
m
e
.
H
o
w
e
v
e
r
,
a
c
o
l
l
ec
t
i
v
e
m
e
a
n
i
ng
m
a
y
be
v
i
ewe
d
a
s
t
h
e
t
r
uth
by
tho
s
e
w
ho
hold
i
t;
unq
ue
s
t
i
on
a
b
l
e
,
r
ea
ffi
r
m
e
d
a
nd
v
a
l
i
d
a
t
e
d
o
v
e
r
t
i
m
e
(
D
i
x
on,
1994:39
)
.
T
his
m
a
k
e
s
the
in
t
r
odu
c
t
i
on
o
f
n
e
w
i
d
e
a
s
t
h
a
t
c
o
n
fl
i
c
t
w
i
t
h
the
e
xi
s
ting
m
ea
n
ing
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
d
i
f
f
i
c
u
lt
t
o
imp
l
e
m
e
n
t
.
T
h
e
y
th
e
n
b
ec
ome
c
o
l
l
ec
tiv
e
ly
t
ac
it
a
nd
h
a
r
dly
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
f
or
di
a
lo
g
u
e
.
T
h
e
y
ca
n
only
be
a
v
a
i
l
a
ble
t
o
c
h
a
nge
in
no
v
e
l
s
i
tu
a
tion
s
;
m
e
r
g
e
rs
,
or
w
h
e
n
di
sc
r
e
p
a
n
c
i
e
s
o
c
c
ur
to
p
r
odu
c
e
a
d
e
q
u
a
te
di
s
s
on
a
n
c
e
t
o
c
h
a
l
l
e
n
g
e
e
x
i
s
t
i
n
g
m
e
a
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
(
i
b
id
)
.
D
i
s
c
r
e
p
a
n
c
i
e
s
mi
g
ht
in
c
l
u
d
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
d
ec
l
i
n
e
or
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
f
a
i
lu
r
e
s
,
a
s
w
ou
l
d
b
e
s
ee
n
in
our
ca
s
e
s
t
ud
y
.
E
v
e
n
in
s
u
c
h
s
i
tu
a
tion
s
,
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
na
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
h
a
v
e
to
c
r
e
a
t
e
con
sc
ious
awa
r
e
n
e
s
s
f
or
c
h
a
n
g
e
in
t
h
e
t
ac
it
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
m
ea
nin
g
,
m
a
k
i
ng
it
a
c
c
ess
ib
l
e
to
b
e
qu
e
stion
e
d
(
ib
i
d
)
.
I
n
v
i
e
w
o
f
t
h
i
s
,
our
f
o
c
u
s
on
O
L
s
hou
l
d
b
e
a
b
le
to
a
dd
r
es
s
the
i
m
po
r
t
a
n
c
e
a
nd
l
i
mit
a
t
i
ons
of
t
h
e
p
r
i
v
a
t
e
a
nd
c
ol
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
m
e
a
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
a
nd
p
r
o
m
o
te
t
h
e
g
r
o
w
th
of
ac
c
e
s
s
ible
m
e
a
n
i
ng
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
.
P
a
ge
11
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
F
r
om
the
und
e
rs
t
a
nding
of
the
t
h
r
e
e
m
e
a
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
in
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
on
s
,
w
h
a
t
w
e
s
ee
k
t
o
ac
hi
e
v
e
i
n
O
L
is
f
i
rs
t
l
y
,
m
a
king
t
h
e
p
r
i
v
a
t
e
m
ea
ning
o
f
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
n
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
mo
r
e
a
cces
s
i
b
le
s
o
th
a
t
th
e
y
ca
n
i
n
fl
u
e
n
c
e
ot
h
e
r
m
e
mb
e
r
s
,
a
nd
m
a
king
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
m
ea
ning
s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
s
mo
r
e
ac
c
e
s
s
i
b
l
e
s
o
t
ha
t
th
e
y
c
a
n
b
e
t
e
s
t
e
d
a
nd
a
l
t
e
r
e
d
.
A
s
D
i
xon
(
1994:42)
pu
t
s
i
t
,
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
ons
in
w
hi
c
h
a
cces
s
i
b
l
e
m
ea
ning
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
a
r
e
p
r
o
m
i
n
e
nt
h
a
v
e
the
g
r
e
a
t
e
s
t
ca
p
ac
ity
f
or
l
ea
r
n
i
n
g
.
F
or
t
r
a
d
i
t
i
on
-
bound
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
tion
s
,
l
i
t
tle
l
e
a
r
ning
oc
c
u
r
s
.
T
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
m
a
y
f
un
c
ti
o
n
s
uc
c
es
s
f
u
l
l
y
,
p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r
l
y
if
it
i
s
in
a
s
t
a
b
l
e
e
n
v
i
r
onm
e
n
t
,
but
w
i
ll
h
a
v
e
li
t
t
l
e
ca
p
ac
ity
f
or
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
,
Fi
g
u
r
e
4
.
F
i
gu
r
e
4
Me
an
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
i
n
T
r
a
di
t
i
on
-
bound
O
r
gan
i
s
a
t
i
o
ns
A
cc
e
ssi
b
l
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
P
ri
v
a
t
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
M
or
e
Co
ll
e
c
t
i
v
e
M
e
a
n
i
n
g
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
A
d
a
p
t
e
d
F
r
om
M
c
C
l
e
l
la
n
,
1
9
83
a
s
i
n
D
i
x
o
n
(
1994
:
4
2
-
43)
L
ik
e
w
i
s
e
f
or
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
o
ns
in
w
h
i
c
h
mo
r
e
m
ea
n
i
ng
i
s
h
e
ld
p
r
i
v
a
t
e
l
y
,
li
t
tl
e
l
e
a
r
ning
o
cc
u
r
s
.
T
hou
g
h
indi
v
i
du
a
l
l
e
a
r
n
i
ng
m
a
y
o
c
c
ur
in
s
u
c
h
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ion
s
,
l
ea
r
ning
ca
nnot
t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ion
a
l
f
un
c
t
i
ons
s
i
n
c
e
it
is
not
av
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
t
o
o
t
h
e
r
s
(
ib
i
d
)
,
i
l
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
e
d
in
Fi
g
u
r
e
5
.
F
i
gu
r
e
5
Me
an
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
i
n
O
r
gan
i
s
a
t
i
o
ns
of
I
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
nt
W
o
r
k
e
r
s
M
o
r
e
P
r
i
v
a
t
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
A
cc
e
s
si
b
l
e
M
ea
n
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
C
o
ll
e
c
t
i
v
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
A
d
a
p
t
e
d
F
r
om
M
c
C
l
e
l
l
a
n
,
1
9
83
a
s
i
n
D
i
x
o
n
(
1994
:
4
2
-
43)
P
a
ge
12
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
our
o
b
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
is
t
o
m
a
ke
both
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
and
c
oll
e
c
ti
v
e
m
e
a
ning
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
a
c
c
e
ss
i
b
l
e
t
o
oth
e
r
s
s
o
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
y
c
a
n
be
e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
d
a
nd
e
x
a
m
i
n
e
d
t
o
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
t
a
nd
r
e
c
on
s
t
r
u
c
t
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
,
F
i
g
u
r
e
6.
F
i
gu
r
e
6
Me
an
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
i
n
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
O
r
gan
i
s
a
t
ions
W
hat
w
e
int
e
nd
to
a
c
h
i
e
v
e
th
r
o
u
g
h
o
r
gani
s
ational
l
e
a
r
ni
n
g
M
o
r
e
A
c
c
e
ss
i
b
l
e
M
ea
n
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
P
r
i
v
a
t
e
M
e
a
n
i
n
g
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
Co
l
le
c
ti
v
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
C
on
t
e
x
t
M
od
i
f
ie
d
F
r
om
M
c
C
l
e
l
l
a
n,
1983
a
s
i
n
D
i
x
o
n
(
1
9
94
:
42
-
4
3)
I
n
this
v
i
e
w
,
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
o
ns
h
a
v
e
to
m
a
ke
i
t
a
pu
r
po
s
e
or
int
e
nt
i
o
n
a
l
l
y
c
r
e
a
te
p
r
o
c
es
s
e
s
t
o
f
a
c
i
l
i
t
a
t
e
l
e
a
r
nin
g
.
T
he
f
ac
t
is
t
h
a
t
a
ll
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ions
l
e
a
r
n
to
a
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
or
e
x
t
e
nt;
th
e
y
a
d
a
pt
to
th
e
ir
e
n
v
i
r
on
m
e
nt
a
l
c
on
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
s
,
r
e
s
pond
t
o
c
o
mp
e
tit
i
o
n,
p
r
e
v
e
nt
r
e
p
e
a
t
o
f
t
h
e
i
r
m
i
s
t
a
k
e
s
a
nd
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
inno
v
a
t
i
v
e
,
n
e
w
i
de
a
s
(
D
ixon,
1994:
5
)
.
H
o
w
e
v
e
r
,
i
t
is
e
a
s
y
f
or
t
h
e
l
e
a
r
ning
to
be
lo
s
t
w
h
e
n
i
t
i
s
a
c
c
i
d
e
n
t
a
l
t
h
a
n
w
h
e
n
it
i
s
i
n
t
e
n
t
i
on
a
l
.
Si
n
c
e
i
t
i
s
o
ur
a
im
to
m
a
k
e
m
e
a
ning
mo
r
e
a
c
c
ess
i
b
l
e
;
l
e
a
r
n
i
ng
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
,
t
h
e
n
it
i
s
c
r
i
t
i
ca
l
t
o
m
a
k
e
s
u
r
e
th
a
t
l
e
a
r
ning
p
r
o
c
es
s
e
s
a
r
e
int
e
nt
i
on
a
l
l
y
or
c
on
s
c
i
ou
s
l
y
und
e
r
t
a
k
e
n
s
o
th
a
t
t
h
e
y
ca
n
e
xi
s
t
in
the
m
u
c
h
mo
r
e
i
n
t
h
e
e
xpli
c
it
f
o
r
m
.
I
n
t
his
wa
y
,
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
ca
n
a
p
p
ly
r
e
a
s
on
to
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
t
as
k
s
m
u
c
h
m
o
r
e
m
ea
nin
g
f
ully
a
nd
b
e
a
ble
t
o
a
n
a
l
y
s
e
ca
u
s
e
a
nd
e
f
f
e
c
t
to
d
e
f
ine
n
e
w
o
u
t
c
o
m
e
s
.
O
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
n
a
l
l
e
a
r
ning
c
a
n
be
d
e
f
in
e
d
a
s
t
h
e
i
n
t
e
ntional
us
e
of
l
e
a
r
ni
n
g
p
r
o
c
e
ss
e
s
at
t
h
e
indi
v
i
d
u
a
l
,
g
r
o
u
p/
t
e
a
m
and
o
r
gani
s
at
i
o
n
al
l
ev
e
l
to
c
ont
i
n
uo
us
l
y
t
r
a
ns
fo
r
m
t
he
o
r
ga
n
i
s
a
t
ion
in
a
di
r
e
c
t
ion
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
l
y
c
o
n
g
r
u
e
n
t
t
o
o
r
gani
s
atio
n
al
ob
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
and
s
t
a
k
e
hold
ers

e
x
p
ec
t
a
tio
n
s
(
D
i
xon,
1994:7
)
.
T
he
u
s
e
o
f
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
,
g
r
oup/
t
e
a
m
a
nd
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
l
e
v
e
l,
i
s
to
e
m
p
h
as
i
s
e
t
h
a
t
t
h
e
O
L
p
r
o
ces
s
s
hould
b
e
r
e
c
o
g
ni
se
d
a
nd
b
ec
ome
p
a
r
t
of
t
h
e
i
n
d
i
v
idu
a
l
a
s
a
n
e
mp
l
o
ye
e
of
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion;
a
g
r
oup/
t
e
a
m
r
e
f
e
rr
ing
a
d
e
p
a
r
t
m
e
n
t
o
r
g
r
oup
of
e
m
p
l
o
y
ee
s
ca
rr
y
i
ng
out
a
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
p
r
oj
e
c
t
,
a
nd
a
t
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ion
l
e
v
e
l,
a
s
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
m
e
mb
e
r
s
c
ol
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
ly
c
om
m
i
t
t
e
d
t
o
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
g
ood.
P
a
ge
13
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
T
h
e
Le
a
r
ning
C
y
c
l
e
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
i
n
v
i
e
w
of
o
ur
d
e
f
initio
n
,
w
e
s
e
e
k
a
d
y
n
a
mic
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
w
h
i
c
h
c
a
n
c
a
p
t
u
r
e
a
nd
c
r
e
a
t
e
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
t
a
ll
l
e
v
e
ls
of
the
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ion.
I
n
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
,
D
i
xon
(
1994
:
44)
d
e
s
c
r
i
b
e
s
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
l
e
a
r
ning
c
y
c
le
(
O
L
C
)
w
hi
c
h
i
n
v
ol
v
e
s
f
our
s
t
e
ps
s
t
a
r
t
i
n
g
w
ith
(
1)
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
;
t
h
e
w
i
d
es
p
r
e
a
d
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
on
of
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
io
n
,
(
2)
in
t
eg
r
a
t
e;
in
t
e
g
r
a
t
e
s
t
h
e
n
e
w
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
into
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
c
ont
e
x
t,
(
3)
in
t
e
r
p
r
e
t;
c
o
l
l
ec
ti
v
e
ly
i
nt
e
r
p
r
e
t
ing
the
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
nd
(
4)
a
c
t;
a
utho
r
i
s
i
ng
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
to
t
a
k
e
r
es
p
on
s
i
ble
ac
t
i
on
b
a
s
e
d
on
the
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
e
d
m
ea
nin
g
,
F
i
g
u
r
e
7
.
T
h
e
f
ou
r
th
s
t
e
p
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
s
mo
r
e
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
a
nd
f
e
e
ds
into
t
he
f
i
r
s
t
to
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
n
e
w
in
f
o
r
m
a
tio
n
.
T
he
c
y
c
le
g
o
e
s
b
e
yond
t
h
e
a
c
c
u
m
ul
a
tion
of
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
nd
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e to
e
n
s
u
r
e
s
h
a
r
e
d
,
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
is
a
c
t
e
d
upo
n
,
a
ppl
i
e
d and
u
s
e
d
.
F
i
gu
r
e
7
T
he
O
r
g
ani
s
a
t
ional
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
C
y
c
l
e
A
cc
e
ssi
b
l
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
G
e
n
er
a
t
e
P
ri
v
a
t
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
A
c
t
C
o
ll
e
c
t
i
v
e
M
e
a
n
i
ng
S
tr
u
c
t
u
r
e
s
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
e
I
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
A
d
a
p
te
d
F
r
om
D
i
xon
(
1
99
4
:
45)
T
he
f
i
r
s
t
s
t
e
p
f
o
c
u
se
s
o
n
the
p
r
o
c
e
ss
e
s
t
h
r
ou
g
h
w
h
i
c
h
a
n
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
a
c
qui
r
e
s
it
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
,
in
c
l
uding
t
ho
s
e
r
es
pon
s
i
bl
e
,
a
nd
the
div
e
r
s
e
s
ou
r
c
es
fr
om
w
h
i
c
h
i
t
is
g
a
i
n
e
d
.
P
r
o
ces
s
e
s
o
f
a
c
q
u
i
r
i
ng
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
h
a
v
e
t
o
be
bu
i
lt
in
t
o
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
on
a
l
e
v
e
nts
a
nd
ac
t
i
ons
s
o
t
h
a
t
l
e
a
r
ning
c
a
n
o
cc
ur
a
s
w
h
i
l
e
s
t
h
e
y
a
r
e
und
e
r
t
a
k
e
n
.
A
s
L
indblom
(
1959)
a
nd
S
t
e
inb
r
un
e
r
(
1974)
e
m
ph
as
i
s
e
,
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
ac
tions
a
r
e
h
i
s
t
o
r
y
-
d
e
p
e
nd
e
n
t
,
a
s
s
u
c
h
w
i
t
hin
s
u
c
h
a
f
r
a
m
ew
o
r
k
,
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
ons
c
a
n
v
i
e
w
e
d
a
s
l
e
a
r
ning
by
e
n
c
oding
i
n
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
f
r
om
t
h
e
i
r
h
i
s
to
r
y
a
nd
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
,
a
nd
f
r
om
t
h
a
t
o
f
o
th
e
rs
,
into
r
outin
e
s
t
h
a
t
g
u
i
de
b
e
h
a
v
i
our
(
L
e
v
itt
a
nd
M
a
r
c
h
,
1
988;
G
a
r
v
i
n,
1993
)
.

Re
v
a
ns
(
1983)
i
n
D
ix
o
n
(
1994
:
73)
r
i
g
h
t
ly
not
e
s
:
“A
ny
s
y
s
t
e
m
t
h
a
t
is
t
o
l
ea
r
n

m
u
s
t
r
e
g
ul
a
r
ly
r
e
c
e
i
v
e
a
nd
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
inputs
a
bout
its
own
ou
t
put
s

;
t
hus
t
h
e
inq
u
i
r
y
p
r
o
ces
s
b
ec
om
e
s
b
a
s
e
d
on
not
o
n
l
y
w
hat
c
an
w
e
d
o
,
but
w
hat
c
an
w
e
l
e
a
r
n
f
r
o
m
w
h
at
w
e
d
o
?

H
o
we
v
e
r
,
a
s
L
e
vitt
a
nd
M
a
r
c
h
(
1988)
e
x
p
l
a
in
s
,
w
hat
has
hap
p
e
n
e
d
is
n
ot
al
w
ays
obvious
a
n
d
t
he
c
au
s
a
l
i
t
y
of
e
v
e
n
t
s
i
s
d
i
f
f
i
c
ult
t
o
un
t
ang
l
e
,
a
nd
mo
r
e
o
v
e
r
,
a
s
it
h
a
s
b
e
e
n
f
r
e
qu
e
n
t
ly
ob
s
e
r
v
e
d,
indi
v
i
du
a
l
h
u
m
a
n b
e
in
g
s
a
r
e
n
o
t
p
e
r
f
ec
t
s
t
a
ti
s
ti
c
i
a
ns
(
T
ho
m
p
s
on, 1967
)
,
th
e
y
m
a
ke
s
y
s
t
e
m
a
tic
e
rr
o
r
s
in
r
e
c
o
r
ding
t
h
e
e
v
e
nts
o
f
hi
s
to
r
y
a
nd
in
m
a
k
i
ng
i
n
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
f
r
om
th
e
m
a
nd
the
o
v
e
r
e
s
tim
a
t
e
the
p
r
o
b
a
bility
of
e
v
e
n
t
s
t
h
a
t
a
c
t
u
a
l
l
y
o
c
c
u
r
.

T
hu
s
,
if
l
ea
r
n
i
ng
is
t
o
be
ac
hi
e
v
e
d
f
r
om
t
his
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
,
it
is
a
l
s
o
c
r
i
t
i
ca
l
th
a
t
in
f
o
r
m
a
tion
is
c
oll
ec
t
e
d
by
t
he
p
r
im
a
r
y
ac
to
r
s
;
tho
s
e
w
ho
ac
t
u
a
l
ly
t
a
k
e
p
a
r
t,
a
nd
c
ontin
u
ou
s
ly
t
o
m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
its
a
cc
u
r
ac
y
.
P
a
ge
14
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
F
i
gu
r
e
8
S
t
e
ps
in
t
he
O
r
g
ani
s
a
t
io
n
al
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
C
y
c
l
e
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
ng
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
/
Kno
wl
e
d
g
e
1
.
Co
l
l
e
c
ti
o
n
of d
a
t
a
f
r
om
e
x
t
e
r
n
a
l
s
ou
r
c
e
s
.
2
.
Co
l
l
e
c
ti
o
n
of d
a
t
a
f
r
om
d
i
v
e
r
s
e
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
s
ou
r
c
e
s
i
n
c
l
ud
i
ng
e
nd
u
s
e
rs
.
3
.
D
a
t
a
c
o
l
le
c
t
i
on
d
e
si
gn
e
d
i
n
t
o
ac
t
i
o
n.
4
.
Co
n
ti
n
u
o
us
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
on
of
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n.
5
.
A
n
a
l
y
si
s
of
a
c
ti
o
ns
a
nd
o
u
t
co
m
e
s
.
Ac
t
ing
on
I
n
t
er
p
re
t
e
d
M
e
aning
1.
L
es
s
ons
a
pp
l
i
e
d
r
el
a
t
i
v
e
t
o
n
e
w
c
o
n
t
e
x
t
.
2.
C
o
n
tr
ol
a
t
l
o
ca
l
le
v
e
l
t
h
r
ough p
r
i
m
a
r
y
a
ct
o
rs
.
3.
L
e
t
t
i
ng
p
eo
p
l
e
k
now
wh
a
t
,
w
h
y
,
how
a
n
d wh
e
n
.
C
o
l
lab
o
r
a
t
ive
Te
a
m
w
o
r
k
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
ing
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
i
n
t
o
O
r
ga
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
al
C
o
n
t
e
xt
1.
U
s
e
o
f
bound
a
r
y
-
s
p
a
nn
i
ng
i
n
d
i
v
i
du
a
ls
.
2.
T
i
m
e
l
y
d
is
s
e
m
i
n
a
t
i
on
o
f
a
c
c
u
r
a
t
e
c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on.
3.
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
u
s
e
of
t
e
c
h
n
i
q
u
e
s
a
n
d
t
o
o
l
s
t
o
t
r
a
n
s
l
a
t
e
a
nd
/
o
r
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
f
o
r
u
s
e
.
4.
M
u
lti
-
s
k
il
l
i
ng
a
n
d
m
u
lti
-
f
un
c
t
i
on
i
n
g.
C
ol
l
ec
t
i
v
e
ly
I
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
ing
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
1.
A
v
a
il
a
b
il
i
t
y
of
m
u
lti
p
l
e
p
ers
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
i
n
i
n
t
er
f
a
c
e
s
of
i
n
te
r
a
c
t
i
on.
2.
K
now
l
e
d
g
e
ab
l
e
p
eo
p
l
e
i
n
v
o
l
v
e
d
i
n
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
et
a
ti
o
n
.
M
od
i
f
i
e
d
f
r
om
D
i
xon
(
1
994
:
70)
P
a
ge
15
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
T
he
s
ec
ond
s
t
e
p
is
f
oc
u
se
d
on
d
r
aw
ing
lin
ks
fr
om
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ion
c
o
nt
e
xt
t
o
d
e
v
e
lop
a
w
id
e
r
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
o
f
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
r
e
c
e
i
v
e
d
a
nd
d
e
p
e
n
ds
on
the
e
x
t
e
nt
o
f
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
di
s
s
e
m
in
a
t
io
n
.
T
h
r
ou
g
h
m
e
s
sa
g
e
r
ou
t
in
g
,
s
um
m
a
r
i
s
in
g
,
d
e
l
a
y
a
nd
modi
f
i
ca
tion
(
D
a
f
t
a
n
d
H
ub
e
r
,
1987)
g
a
ps
t
e
n
d
to
e
x
i
s
t
b
e
t
w
ee
n
t
h
e
m
e
a
nin
g
s
of
tho
s
e
w
ho
d
e
f
i
n
e
t
h
e
e
nds
a
nd
tho
s
e
w
ho
d
e
f
i
n
e
a
nd
ca
rr
y
out
the
m
e
a
n
s
t
o
t
h
e
e
nd
s
.
I
t
is
t
hus
c
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
f
or
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
to
be
tim
e
l
y
,
ac
c
u
r
a
t
e
ly
a
nd
c
omp
l
e
t
e
l
y
a
v
a
i
l
a
ble
re
l
a
ti
ve
l
y
t
o
a
l
l
l
e
v
e
ls
o
f
the
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
.
W
ith
m
o
r
e
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tio
n
,
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
n
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
w
ou
l
d
d
e
v
e
lop
a
w
i
d
e
r
p
e
rs
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
o
f
t
h
e
ir
t
as
k
s
;
und
e
rs
t
a
nd
t
h
e
i
n
t
e
rr
e
l
a
t
i
on
s
hips
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
di
f
f
e
r
e
nt
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
io
n
a
l
u
ni
t
s
a
nd
d
r
a
w
m
e
a
n
i
n
g
f
ul
l
in
k
s
t
o
t
h
e
ir
t
as
k
s
.
T
he
t
hi
r
d
s
t
e
p
de
f
i
n
e
s
p
r
o
ces
s
e
s
t
h
a
t
a
r
e
in
p
l
ac
e
to
f
ac
il
i
t
a
te
t
h
e
int
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
t
ion
o
f
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tio
n
.
O
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
on
l
e
a
r
ning
ca
n
on
l
y
o
cc
ur
th
r
ou
g
h
c
o
ll
e
ct
i
v
e
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
tion,
a
s
s
u
c
h
,
it
is
es
s
e
nt
i
a
l
th
a
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
nd
e
xp
e
r
ti
s
e
i
s
di
s
t
r
ibu
t
e
d
a
mong
ind
i
v
i
du
a
ls
e
n
g
a
g
e
d
in
c
oll
ec
t
i
v
e
in
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
tion
r
a
t
h
e
r
th
a
n
r
es
iding
in
on
l
y
one
or
t
w
o
i
ndi
v
idu
a
l
s
,
ot
h
e
r
w
i
s
e
c
oll
e
c
t
i
v
e
in
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
tion
w
ou
l
d
not
be
u
s
e
f
u
l
(
D
i
xon,
1994
:
77
)
.
I
ndividu
a
ls
s
ho
u
ld
t
hus
b
e
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
b
l
e
on
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
tion
t
o
b
e
int
e
r
p
r
e
t
e
d.
C
oll
ec
t
i
v
e
i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
a
t
ion
in
v
o
l
v
e
s
c
o
mp
a
r
ing
a
nd
t
e
s
t
ing
a
s
s
u
mp
t
ion
s
,
a
c
t
i
o
ns
a
nd
t
h
e
ir
impli
c
a
t
io
n
s
in
t
he
c
on
t
e
xt
of
a
ppli
c
a
t
ion.
T
h
is
s
hou
l
d
a
l
s
o
be
c
oupl
e
d
w
i
th
e
g
a
l
i
t
a
r
i
a
n
v
a
lu
es
;
fr
ee
dom
to
s
p
e
a
k
w
i
thout
c
o
e
r
c
ion,
r
es
p
e
c
t
o
f
o
p
in
i
ons
a
nd
e
qu
a
l
i
t
y
,
a
nd
mo
s
t
i
mpo
r
t
a
n
t
l
y
p
r
o
c
e
ss
e
s
w
h
i
c
h
f
a
c
i
l
i
t
a
te
di
a
l
o
g
ue
a
nd
i
n
t
e
r
a
c
t
i
on
(
i
bid
)
.
F
i
n
a
l
l
y
,
w
i
t
hout
au
t
h
o
r
i
s
a
t
ion
t
o
a
c
t
on
c
ol
l
e
c
t
i
ve
m
e
aning
,
v
a
lue
c
a
n
b
e
lo
s
t
or
l
e
a
r
ning
m
a
y
be
s
t
a
ll
e
d
a
nd
w
as
t
e
d
.
A
c
t
i
o
n
g
i
v
e
s
oppo
r
tun
i
t
i
e
s
to
t
es
t
a
nd
e
xp
e
r
im
e
nt
n
e
w
m
e
a
n
ing
or
t
h
e
c
oll
e
c
ti
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
g
a
in
e
d
t
o
g
e
n
e
r
a
te
mo
r
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
t
o
b
e
s
h
a
r
e
d
.
D
ixon
(
1994:92)
a
r
g
u
e
s
t
h
a
t
,
p
r
e
v
e
n
t
ing
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
o
na
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
t
o
ac
t
on
w
h
a
t
t
h
e
y
und
e
r
s
t
a
nd
a
nd
know
l
e
a
d
s
to
a
n
g
e
r
o
r
d
es
p
a
i
r
,
or
in
s
o
me
s
i
t
u
a
t
ions
s
ub
v
e
r
s
ion.
O
n
t
h
e
o
th
e
r
h
a
n
d
,
one
m
a
y
a
r
g
ue
th
a
t
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s
do
not
a
l
w
a
y
s
do
w
h
a
t
h
a
s
to
be
do
ne
,
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
t
r
u
e
;
ho
w
e
v
e
r
,
g
i
v
i
n
g
t
h
e
m
t
h
e
a
utho
r
ity
a
nd
m
a
king
th
e
m
r
es
p
o
n
s
ible
f
or
t
h
e
ir
a
c
t
ions
t
e
nds
to
r
e
d
u
c
e
the
r
i
s
k
in
v
o
l
v
e
d
(
i
bid
)
.
T
a
k
i
ng
r
es
pon
s
i
ble
ac
t
i
ons
h
e
lps
to
r
e
a
f
f
i
r
m
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tio
n
a
l
m
e
m
b
e
r
s

c
o
m
mitm
e
nt
to
t
he
o
b
j
ec
t
i
v
e
s
of
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion;
t
h
e
y
r
ea
li
s
e
t
h
e
i
mpo
r
t
a
n
c
e
of
th
e
ir
i
nd
i
v
idu
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
m
ea
n
i
n
g
,
a
nd
s
k
i
lls
t
o
t
h
a
t
of
the
c
o
l
l
ec
t
i
v
e
a
nd
t
hus
s
ee
k
to
m
a
k
e
it
ac
c
e
s
s
ibl
e
.
C
on
s
e
q
u
e
nt
l
y
,
the
c
y
c
l
e
e
n
a
bl
e
s
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
n
t
o
c
r
ea
t
e
,
ac
q
u
i
r
e
a
nd
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
,
a
n
d
mo
s
t
esse
n
t
i
a
l
l
y
mo
d
i
f
y
i
ts
b
e
h
a
v
i
our
to
r
e
f
l
e
c
t
new
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
nd
m
e
a
n
ing
(
Ga
r
v
i
n,
1993
)
.
H
o
we
v
e
r
,
c
ol
l
ec
t
i
v
e
l
ea
r
ning
i
s
l
o
s
t
wh
e
n
a
ll
th
e
s
e
s
t
e
p
s
a
r
e
di
s
c
on
n
e
c
t
e
d;
w
h
e
n
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
nt
p
a
r
ts
o
f
t
he
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
c
ond
u
c
t
e
a
c
h
s
t
e
p
.
A
ddit
i
o
n
a
l
l
y
,
i
t
is
a
l
s
o
not
s
u
f
f
i
c
i
e
nt
to
c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
e
on
on
l
y
s
o
m
e
s
t
e
ps
o
f
t
h
e
c
y
c
l
e
,
b
e
ca
u
s
e
a
ny
o
n
e
w
ithout
the
o
t
h
e
r
s
is
in
e
ff
e
c
t
i
v
e
;
w
ithout
a
c
c
u
r
a
te
in
f
o
r
m
a
tio
n
,
t
h
e
l
e
a
r
ning
w
ould
b
e
in
e
f
f
ec
t
i
ve
.
P
a
ge
16
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
SE
C
I
M
o
d
e
l
S
EC
I
M
o
d
e
l
as
e
xpla
i
n
e
d
b
y
M
alik
(
2008)
N
on
a
ka
a
nd
T
a
k
e
u
c
h
i

s
(
1995)
ass
ump
t
i
on
is
th
a
t
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
ion
i
s
n
ot
t
h
e
s
um
o
f
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
l
e
a
r
nin
g
;
it
c
a
n
l
e
a
r
n
a
nd
c
r
e
a
t
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
th
r
ou
g
h
dyn
a
mic
i
nt
e
r
a
c
t
i
ons
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
e
m
plo
y
ee
s
.
T
h
e
y
a
r
g
u
e
d
t
h
a
t


hu
m
an
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
c
r
e
at
e
d
and
ex
pand
e
d
th
r
ough
s
o
c
ial
i
n
t
e
r
a
c
tion
b
e
t
wee
n
t
a
c
i
t
and
e
x
p
l
i
c
i
t
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

(
ibid:
61
)
,
this
int
e
r
ac
tion
is

c
r
e
a
t
ion
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e

.
T
he
a
utho
r
s
e
mph
a
s
i
se
d
th
a
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
on
v
e
r
s
ion
i
s
a
c
on
t
i
nuous
p
r
o
ces
s
th
r
ou
g
h
w
hi
c
h
o
n
e
t
r
a
n
s
c
e
nds
t
h
e
boun
d
a
r
y
of
t
h
e

old
s
e
l
f

i
n
to
a

n
e
w
s
e
l
f

by
ac
qu
i
r
ing
a
n
e
w
c
on
t
e
xt,
a
n
e
w
v
i
s
io
n
,
a
nd
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
dge
(
N
on
a
ka
e
t
a
l
.
,
2000
)
.
Su
c
h
i
nt
e
r
ac
t
i
v
ity
a
l
l
o
w
s
e
m
p
l
o
y
e
e
s
t
o
a
l
a
r
g
e
r
pool
o
f
m
e
a
n
ing
(
B
ohm
e
t
a
l
.
,
2
004)
w
hi
c
h
c
a
nnot
be
acces
s
ed
by
th
e
m
a
s
indi
v
i
du
a
l
s
.
T
h
e
s
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
r
e
a
ting
p
r
o
ces
s
e
s
(
K
C
P
)
c
a
n
b
e
id
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d
in
f
o
u
r
c
on
v
e
r
s
ion
mod
es
;
s
o
c
i
a
l
i
s
ation

t
a
c
i
t
to
t
a
c
i
t
,
ex
t
er
na
l
i
s
at
i
on

t
a
c
i
t
to
e
xpli
c
it,
c
o
m
binat
i
on

e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
t
o
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
a
nd
int
er
nali
s
a
t
i
on

e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
t
o
t
ac
i
t
,
o
t
h
e
r
w
i
s
e
a
l
s
o
kn
o
w
n
a
s
the
S
E
C
I
mod
e
l
(
Fi
g
u
r
e
9)
(
N
on
a
ka
a
nd
T
a
k
e
u
c
h
i
,
1995
)
.
F
i
gu
r
e
9
T
he
S
E
C
I
M
od
e
l
S
o
u
r
c
e
:
N
o
n
a
k
a
&
T
a
k
e
u
c
hi
(1
9
9
5
)
S
o
c
ial
i
s
a
t
ion

is
a
p
r
oc
e
s
s
o
f
s
ha
r
ing
e
xp
er
i
e
n
c
e
s
or
t
h
r
o
u
gh
f
a
c
e
-
t
o
-
f
a
c
e
c
o
m
muni
c
a
t
ion
a
n
d
cr
e
a
t
ing
t
a
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
s
u
c
h
as
s
ha
r
e
d
m
e
n
t
al
m
od
e
ls
a
n
d
t
e
c
hni
c
al
s
ki
l
l
s
.
A
n
indi
v
i
du
a
l
c
a
n
di
r
e
c
t
ly
ac
qu
i
r
e
s
t
a
c
i
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
f
r
om
o
th
e
r
s
w
i
t
ho
u
t
u
s
ing
l
a
n
g
u
a
g
e
(
N
on
a
k
a
e
t
a
l
.
,
2001
a
)
.
I
n
a
n
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
o
n
,
s
o
c
i
a
l
i
s
a
t
i
on
e
n
a
b
l
e
s
e
m
p
lo
y
e
e
s
to
f
o
c
us
o
n
e
xt
e
n
d
ing
th
e
i
r
i
d
ea
s
a
nd
c
on
ce
pts
r
a
t
h
e
r
th
a
n
be
d
e
f
e
n
s
i
ve
,
or
c
r
i
t
i
c
i
s
e
ot
h
e
r
e
mp
l
o
y
e
e
s

i
d
e
a
s
.
So
c
i
a
l
i
s
a
tion
o
cc
u
r
s
b
e
t
w
e
e
n ind
i
v
idu
a
l
s
a
nd
i
t
s
k
e
y
p
r
o
c
es
s
e
s
i
n
c
lu
d
e
(
N
on
a
ka
a
nd
T
a
k
e
u
c
h
i
,
1
995
)
:
i.
Ca
ptu
r
i
ng
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
ii.
S
h
a
r
ing
indi
v
i
du
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
i
i
.
I
nt
e
r
a
c
t
i
on
a
mon
g
s
t
Sh
a
r
e
d
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
nc
e
s
(
s
i
m
i
l
a
r
c
ont
e
x
t
)
i
v
.
F
e
e
db
a
c
k
w
ithout
c
r
iti
c
i
s
m
E
xt
er
nali
s
a
t
i
on

is
a
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
of
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
ting
t
a
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
t
o
e
xp
l
i
c
it
t
h
r
ou
g
h
t
he
u
s
e
o
f
a
b
s
t
r
a
c
tion
s
,
m
e
t
a
pho
rs
,
a
n
a
l
o
g
i
e
s
,
or
mo
d
e
l
s
.
T
h
e
e
x
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
a
tion
of
t
a
c
i
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e is
t
h
e
quint
e
ss
e
n
t
i
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
-
c
r
ea
t
i
on
a
c
t
i
v
ity
a
nd
i
s
m
o
s
t
o
f
t
e
n
s
e
e
n
du
r
i
n
g
t
he
c
on
c
e
pt
-
c
r
e
a
t
i
on
ph
as
e
o
f
n
e
w
p
r
odu
c
t
d
e
v
e
lop
m
e
n
t
.
E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
a
tion
i
s
t
y
pi
c
a
l
ly
se
e
n
in
t
h
e
p
r
o
ces
s
o
f
c
on
c
e
pt
c
r
e
a
tion
a
nd
i
s
t
r
i
g
g
e
r
e
d
by
d
i
a
lo
g
ue
a
nd
c
oll
ec
ti
v
e
r
e
f
l
e
c
t
ion
(
i
b
id:
64
)
.
E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
a
t
ion
p
r
o
ces
s
e
nabl
e
s
di
f
f
u
s
ion
of
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
f
r
om
t
he
e
m
ploy
e
e
t
o
t
he
g
r
o
u
p
of
e
m
ploy
e
e
s
.
O
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
on
s
,
es
pe
c
i
a
l
l
y
t
h
e
o
n
e
s
i
n
t
e
c
hni
c
a
l
e
n
g
in
e
e
r
ing
indu
s
t
r
i
e
s
,
a
ll
p
r
o
c
es
s
e
s
a
nd
s
ki
l
ls
P
a
ge
17
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
a
r
e
k
e
p
t
i
n
m
a
n
u
a
ls
a
n
d
f
i
e
l
d
book
s
.
T
h
es
e
m
a
nu
a
ls
a
r
e
c
od
i
f
i
e
d
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
c
r
e
a
t
e
d
f
r
o
m
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
s
,
a
c
qui
r
e
d
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
nd
s
kil
l
s
o
f
e
m
plo
y
e
e
s
.
Sum
m
a
r
i
s
i
n
g
t
he
k
e
y
un
d
e
r
lyi
n
g
p
r
o
ces
s
e
s
und
e
r
e
x
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
sa
t
i
on
w
ould
b
e
(
ibid
)
:
i.
C
ommuni
ca
tion
(
d
i
a
logu
e
)
ii.
Ca
ptu
r
i
ng
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
i
i
.
E
xpl
i
c
it
kno
w
l
e
dge
c
r
e
a
tion
i
v
.
D
iff
u
s
i
on
of
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
t
t
h
e
c
o
l
l
ec
t
i
v
e
l
e
v
e
l
v
.
I
n
s
t
a
nt
a
n
e
ous
f
ee
d
b
ac
ks
a
nd
e
x
c
h
a
nge
C
o
m
b
inat
i
on

is
a
p
r
o
ces
s
o
f


sys
t
e
m
i
s
i
ng
c
o
n
c
e
p
t
s
i
n
t
o
a
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
s
y
s
t
em

(
ibid
:
67
)
,
or
c
r
e
a
ting
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
by
b
r
in
g
ing
to
g
e
th
e
r
o
t
h
e
r
e
xpl
i
c
it
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
f
r
om
a
nu
m
b
e
r
of
s
ou
r
c
e
s
.
T
hu
s
,
i
ndi
v
idu
a
ls
e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
a
nd
c
o
m
bine
t
h
e
ir
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
t
h
r
ou
g
h
c
on
v
e
r
sa
t
ion
s
,
m
e
e
tin
g
s
,
m
e
m
o
s
,
a
nd
s
o
on.
C
o
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
on
is
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
g
r
oups
of
p
e
opl
e
,
thus
i
t
s
uppo
r
ts
a
n
e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
p
l
a
t
f
o
r
m
f
or
c
o
l
l
ec
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
.
C
o
m
b
i
na
t
ion
allo
w
s
d
iff
u
s
ion
and
di
s
t
r
ib
u
t
ion
of
i
n
t
er
nal
and
e
x
t
e
r
nal
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
a
m
o
n
g
s
t
g
r
oups
of
p
e
op
l
e
.
A
s
a
n
e
x
a
mp
l
e
,
e
xi
s
t
ing
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
in
c
o
mput
e
r
i
se
d
d
a
t
a
b
a
s
e
s
m
a
y
b
e
c
a
t
e
g
o
r
i
se
d
,
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
e
d
,
a
nd
s
o
r
t
e
d
in
a
nu
m
b
e
r
o
f
wa
y
s
to
p
r
odu
c
e
n
e
w
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
.
C
om
b
i
n
a
t
i
on
k
e
y
p
r
o
ce
s
se
s
in
c
l
u
d
e
:
i.
O
r
g
a
ni
s
ing
a
nd
c
a
t
e
g
o
r
i
s
ing
of
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
ii.
I
nt
e
g
r
a
tion
o
f
s
ou
r
c
e
s
o
f
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
i
i
.
P
l
a
t
f
o
r
m
f
or
C
ol
l
e
c
t
i
v
e
/
c
oll
a
bo
r
a
t
i
v
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
r
e
a
tion
(E
dit/p
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
)
i
v
.
S
e
a
r
c
h
a
bl
e
/
a
cces
s
i
b
le
v
.
D
i
s
t
r
ibut
i
on
v
i.
C
oll
ec
t
i
ng
i
nt
e
r
n
a
l
a
nd
e
xt
e
r
n
a
l
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
I
nt
e
r
nal
i
s
a
t
ion

is
a
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
of
e
mbod
y
ing
e
xpl
i
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
t
o
t
a
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
,
it
is
c
lo
s
e
l
y
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
to


l
e
a
r
ning
b
y
d
o
ing”
(
i
bi
d
:
69
)
.
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
ing
the
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
s
g
a
i
n
e
d
t
h
r
ou
g
h
the
ot
h
e
r
mo
d
e
s
o
f
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
r
ea
tion
i
nto
i
n
di
v
idu
a
l
s

t
a
c
it
kno
w
l
e
dg
e
,
a
s
s
h
a
r
e
d
m
e
n
t
a
l
mod
e
l
s
or
w
o
r
k
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
.
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
a
t
ion
is
f
a
c
i
l
i
t
a
t
e
d
i
f
t
he
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
is
c
ap
t
u
r
e
d
in
d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
s
or
c
o
n
v
e
ye
d
i
n
t
he
f
o
r
m
o
f
s
t
o
r
i
e
s
,
ba
s
i
c
a
l
ly
in
t
er
m
s
of
e
xpli
c
it
k
no
w
l
e
dg
e
.
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
a
t
ion
all
o
w
s
e
mploy
e
e
s
t
o
re
-
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
in
d
i
r
e
c
t
ly
t
he
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
o
f
o
t
h
e
r
s
.
T
h
e
f
i
e
l
d
book
s
,
m
a
n
u
a
ls
a
nd
p
e
rs
on
a
l
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
s
a
l
l
ow
t
h
is
c
on
v
e
r
s
ion
t
o
t
a
k
e
p
l
ac
e
a
m
ong
indi
v
i
du
a
l
s
.
I
nt
e
r
n
a
l
i
s
a
ti
o
n
c
a
n
b
e
c
a
t
e
g
o
r
i
s
e
d
as
:
i.
A
c
c
es
s
to
e
xp
l
i
c
i
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
ii.
Re
-
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
oth
e
r
s
e
x
p
li
c
it
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
i
i
.
A
s
y
n
c
h
r
onous
l
e
a
r
ning
(
a
ny
pl
a
c
e
a
ny
t
i
m
e
)
i
v
.
E
xp
e
r
i
e
nti
a
l
(
ac
t
u
a
li
s
ing
c
on
c
e
p
t
s
a
nd
m
e
t
hod
s
)
P
a
ge
18
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
F
i
gu
r
e
10
Kno
w
l
e
dge
C
o
n
v
e
r
s
ion
P
r
o
ce
s
s
S
o
u
r
c
e
:
A
d
a
p
t
e
d
fr
o
m
N
o
n
a
ka
a
nd
T
a
k
e
u
c
hi
(
1
995);
N
o
n
a
k
a
e
t
al
.
(
2
000
;
20
0
1
a
)
B
a:
Sha
re
d
C
on
t
e
xt
i
n
m
o
t
ion
P
a
ge
19
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
K
NO
W
L
E
DG
E
M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
A
N
D
H
R
V
id
e
o
C
a
s
e
Stud
y
:
W
o
r
k
i
n
g
in
G
oog
l
e
F
r
om
Fo
r
tune
100:
h
ttp
:
//uk
.
y
outub
e.c
o
m
/
wa
t
c
h
?
v
=
j
6h
-
g
m
01
F
b0
F
r
om
e
m
plo
y
ees
:
h
t
tp
:
/
/
u
k
.
y
outub
e
.
c
o
m
/
w
a
t
c
h
?
v=
JcX
F1
Y
i
r
P
r
Q
P
e
r
spec
t
i
v
es
o
f
K
M
T
ab
l
e
1
P
e
r
s
p
ec
t
iv
e
s
o
f
KM
A
s
e
xplain
e
d
b
y
S
ve
t
l
ik
a
n
d
S
t
a
vr
o
u
-
C
o
s
t
e
a
(
20
0
7:
199
-
201)

C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
v
i
s
t
app
r
o
a
c
h
:
kno
w
l
e
dge
a
s
a
s
u
b
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
t
a
t
e
in
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
s

m
inds
e
m
b
e
d
d
e
d
i
n
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ions
a
nd
c
o
m
m
uni
t
i
e
s

T
h
e
p
r
op
o
n
e
nts
of
t
he
f
i
r
s
t
v
i
e
w
r
e
l
y
o
n
t
he
d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
c
e
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
nd
k
n
o
w
l
e
dg
e
.
K
n
o
w
l
e
dge is
m
ea
ni
n
g
f
ul
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion.
R
o
on
e
y
a
nd
S
c
hn
e
i
d
e
r
(
2
0
05)
e
x
p
l
a
i
n
t
h
a
t
k
no
w
l
e
dge
i
s b
o
und
t
o
hum
a
n
c
o
n
s
c
i
ou
s
n
e
s
s
w
hi
l
e
d
a
t
a
,
t
e
x
t
s
a
nd
im
a
g
e
s
a
r
e
c
on
t
a
in
e
d
i
n
s
t
o
r
a
ge
m
e
di
a
.
I
n
a
s
i
mil
a
r
f
a
s
h
i
on,
K
a
k
a
b
a
d
s
e
e
t
a
l
.
(
2003)
a
r
g
ue
th
a
t
:
KM
is
n
ot
a
b
out
m
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
k
no
w
l
e
dge
b
u
t
a
b
o
u
t
c
ha
n
g
i
n
g
e
n
t
i
r
e
bu
s
i
n
es
s
c
u
l
t
u
r
e
s
and
s
t
r
a
t
e
gi
e
s
of
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ions
t
o
on
e
s
t
h
at
value
l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
a
n
d
s
ha
r
i
n
g.
A
l
t
hough
s
ome
a
s
p
ec
t
s
of
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
s
u
c
h
as
c
ul
t
u
re
,
o
r
ga
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
al
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
re
,
c
ommu
n
i
c
a
t
ion
p
r
o
ces
s
and
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
c
an
be
ma
n
ag
e
d
,
kno
w
l
e
dge
i
ts
e
l
f
,
a
r
guably,
c
annot
.
.
.
H
e
n
c
e
,
one
c
an
m
a
nage
or
s
u
p
po
r
t
p
r
o
c
e
ss
e
s
o
f
l
e
a
r
ning
r
a
t
h
e
r
t
han
m
a
naging
k
no
w
l
e
dg
e
.
T
h
e
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
v
i
s
t
a
pp
r
o
a
c
h
acce
pts
not
on
l
y
i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l
k
no
w
l
e
dge
but
a
l
s
o
f
or
k
no
w
l
e
dge
th
a
t
e
x
i
s
ts
i
n
t
h
e
s
o
c
i
a
l
c
on
t
e
xt
of
g
r
o
up
s
,
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
io
n
s
a
n
d
s
o
c
i
e
t
i
e
s
.
W
h
i
le
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
i
s
c
r
e
a
t
e
d
by
a
n
d
r
e
s
ts
i
n
i
nd
i
v
id
u
a
l
e
mp
l
oy
ees
,
it
i
s
a
l
s
o
c
r
ea
t
e
d
t
h
r
ough
s
o
c
i
a
l
i
n
t
e
r
ac
ti
o
n
a
nd
i
s
e
mb
e
d
d
e
d
in
t
h
e
s
o
c
i
a
l
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
o
f
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ion
a
l
m
e
mb
e
r
s
.

O
b
j
ec
ti
v
i
s
t
app
r
oa
c
h
:
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
s
a
n
o
b
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
t
a
t
e
of
thin
g
s
.
T
he
p
r
opon
e
n
t
s
o
f
the
s
ec
ond
v
i
e
w
w
ould
a
r
g
ue
t
h
a
t
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
i
s
a
c
on
sc
ious
st
r
a
t
e
gy
o
f
g
e
tt
ing
t
he
r
ight
k
n
o
w
l
e
dge
t
o
t
he
r
i
g
h
t
p
e
ople
at
t
he
r
i
g
h
t
t
i
me
a
n
d
h
e
lping
p
e
o
p
l
e
s
ha
r
e
a
n
d
put
in
f
o
r
ma
t
ion
in
t
o
a
c
t
ion
in
w
a
y
s
t
hat
s
t
r
i
v
e
t
o
i
m
p
r
ove
o
r
ga
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
al
p
e
r
f
o
r
m
an
c
e
.
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
is
a
c
ommodi
t
y
to
b
e
t
r
a
d
e
d
a
nd
n
e
e
ds
t
o
b
e
ma
n
a
g
e
d.
B
o
t
h
p
e
r
s
p
e
c
t
iv
e
s
t
e
n
d
t
o
c
o
m
pl
e
m
e
nt
e
a
c
h
o
t
h
e
r
P
a
ge
20
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
C
ycle
(
S
v
et
l
i
k
and
S
t
a
v
r
o
u
-
Co
st
e
a,
2
0
0
7
:
1
99
-
2
0
1)
:

T
he
f
i
r
s
t
is
k
n
o
w
l
e
dge
a
c
qui
s
i
t
ion
,
w
h
i
c
h
f
o
c
u
s
e
s
p
r
im
a
r
i
l
y
on
s
ea
r
c
h
i
ng
a
m
ong
v
a
r
ious
s
ou
r
c
e
s
of
in
f
o
r
m
a
t
ion
a
nd
kno
w
l
e
d
ge
,
on
t
h
e
ir
s
e
l
e
c
tio
n
,
a
nd
on
w
a
y
s
to
b
r
i
ng
the
e
xi
s
t
i
ng
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
in
t
he
po
ss
es
s
ion
o
f
ind
i
v
idu
a
l
s
a
nd
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
s
;

T
he
s
ec
ond
i
n
v
ol
v
e
s
kn
o
w
l
e
dge
c
r
ea
t
i
o
n
,
w
hi
c
h
f
o
c
u
se
s
on
t
h
e
d
e
v
e
l
opm
e
nt
a
nd
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
ng
bulk
of
n
e
w
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
;

T
he
t
h
i
r
d
is
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
t
r
an
s
f
er
, di
s
t
r
ibu
t
ion,
di
sse
m
ina
t
ion
and
s
h
a
r
i
n
g
,
a
i
ming
f
or
r
e
l
e
v
a
nt
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
to
r
e
a
c
h
r
e
l
e
v
a
nt
indi
v
i
du
a
l
s
,
g
r
oups
a
nd
o
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
ons
a
s
s
oon
a
s
po
s
s
ib
l
e
;
a
nd

T
he
f
ou
r
th
e
n
t
a
ils
kno
w
l
e
dge
u
t
i
li
s
a
t
ion
and
ap
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
on
in
v
a
r
ious
e
n
v
i
r
onm
e
nt
s
,
w
h
i
c
h
i
s
the
ult
i
m
a
te
g
o
a
l
o
f
t
he
ec
onomic
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
ons
a
nd
s
y
s
t
e
ms
a
s
w
e
ll
a
s
i
ndi
v
idu
a
ls
w
ho
w
o
r
k
f
or
t
h
e
m
.
F
i
gu
r
e
11
M
od
e
l
of
t
he
k
n
o
w
l
e
dge
c
r
e
a
t
ion
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
Sou
r
c
e:
W
ang
et
al.
(
200
6
)
F
a
ct
o
r
s
i
n
f
luen
c
ing
k
n
o
w
led
g
e
pr
o
du
ct
i
v
i
t
y
in
Ge
r
m
an
r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
gr
o
up
s
:
l
e
s
s
o
ns
f
or
d
e
v
elo
p
ing
c
o
u
n
t
rie
s
,
J
our
n
al
o
f
Kno
w
le
d
ge
M
a
nag
e
m
en
t
,
V
o
l.
10,
N
o
.
4
2
0
06,
pp
.
11
3
-
12
6
.
C
r
e
a
t
ion
o
f
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
d
e
p
e
nds
on
m
a
ny
o
r
gani
z
a
t
ional
f
a
c
t
o
r
s
s
u
c
h
a
s
fi
n
an
c
i
al
r
es
ou
r
c
e
s
,
h
u
man
r
e
s
ou
r
c
e
s
and
o
r
gani
z
a
t
ional
i
n
f
r
a
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
.


A
dd
i
ng
K
M
t
o
HR
M
T
h
e
r
e
a
r
e
t
h
r
e
e
points
to
r
e
m
e
m
b
e
r
:

f
i
r
s
t
,
HR
M
d
o
e
s
not
ma
n
a
g
e
p
e
ople
a
s
s
u
c
h
,
but
t
h
e
i
r
p
e
r
s
onal
and
in
t
e
r
p
ers
o
n
al
(
in
t
e
r
-
g
r
oup,
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
io
n
a
l
)
c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
,
w
h
i
c
h
c
o
uld
be
c
on
s
i
d
e
r
e
d
r
es
o
u
r
c
e
s
a
nd
c
r
ea
t
e
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
ion
a
l
a
dv
a
nt
a
g
e
s
;
a
nd

s
e
c
on
d
,
hu
m
a
n
r
es
ou
r
c
e
s
a
r
e
not
on
l
y
b
r
ou
g
ht
in
t
o
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
by
m
ea
ns
of
r
ec
r
ui
t
m
e
nt
a
nd
s
e
l
e
c
tion
but
a
l
s
o
d
e
v
e
lop
e
d
w
i
t
hin
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
tion
by
i
n
v
es
tm
e
n
t
in
th
e
i
r
p
e
r
s
on
a
l
ca
p
a
c
i
t
i
e
s
a
nd
d
e
plo
y
e
d
by
nu
r
t
u
r
ing
of
int
e
r
p
e
rs
on
a
l
a
nd in
t
e
r
-
g
r
oup
r
e
l
a
t
ion
s
.

T
hi
r
d,
how
hu
m
a
n
r
e
s
ou
r
ce
s
a
r
e
c
o
m
po
se
d
;
w
h
a
t
i
s
t
h
e
i
r
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
a
nd
h
o
w
i
t
is
c
h
a
n
g
i
ng
?
P
e
ople
a
r
e
e
v
a
lu
a
t
e
d
t
h
r
ou
g
h
th
e
i
r
c
o
m
p
e
t
e
nc
i
e
s
,
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
,
kno
w
-
ho
w
,
a
d
a
p
t
a
b
i
l
it
y
,
n
e
t
w
o
r
k
c
onn
e
c
tions
a
nd
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
s
(
O

D
onn
e
ll
e
t
a
l
.
,
2003
)
.
P
a
ge
21
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
H
ence
:

M
a
n
a
g
e
t
h
e
K
M
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
:
o
r
gani
s
a
t
ional
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
,
p
e
opl
e
,
c
ul
t
u
r
e
,
p
r
o
ces
s
,
c
on
t
e
n
t
,
a
n
d
I
T

M
a
n
a
g
e
t
h
e
r
e
t
e
n
t
ion
and
a
tt
r
a
c
t
ion
o
f
k
no
w
l
e
d
ge
(
w
o
r
k
e
r
s
)

I
n
c
e
n
t
i
v
es
:
oppo
r
t
unity
f
or
se
l
f
-
r
e
a
li
s
a
t
io
n
,
p
a
y
m
e
nt
r
ewa
r
d
s
,
c
a
r
ee
r
imp
r
ov
e
m
e
nt

M
o
t
iva
t
i
o
n
:
a
n
a
tt
r
a
c
ti
v
e
w
o
r
k
e
n
v
i
r
onm
e
nt
a
nd
f
u
lf
i
l
m
e
nt
(
w
h
a
t
e
v
e
r
th
a
t
m
i
g
ht
b
e
)
H
R
p
l
ays
a
r
o
l
e
i
n
e
a
c
h
of
t
h
e
s
e

I
nt
e
g
r
a
tion,
c
on
s
u
l
t
a
n
c
y
a
nd
e
v
a
l
u
a
t
ion

T
h
e
y
a
r
e
e
n
g
a
g
e
d
i
n
ac
ts
of
p
e
r
s
u
as
io
n
,
e
xpl
i
c
it
l
y
in
c
ul
ca
ting
v
a
l
u
e
s
in
t
o
e
mplo
y
e
e
s
by
a
v
a
r
i
e
ty
of
m
e
a
n
s
.
R
ea
d
T
y
s
o
n
(
1
9
99)
a
nd
(
S
v
e
t
l
i
k
a
n
d
S
ta
v
r
o
u
-
Co
s
t
ea
,
2007:
1
9
9
-
2
0
1
)
S
tr
a
t
e
g
y

E
xploi
t
atio
n
:
K
M
i
s
a
b
o
ut
ex
p
l
o
it
i
ng
t
h
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
th
a
t
a
l
r
e
a
dy
e
x
i
s
ts
i
n
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ion
-
s
h
a
r
in
g
,
t
r
a
n
s
f
e
rr
ing
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
.

E
xplo
r
ation
:
th
r
ou
g
h
e
x
p
l
o
r
i
ng
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
t
o
c
r
e
a
t
e
n
e
w
oppo
r
tuniti
e
s
f
or
the
c
om
p
a
n
y
.

A
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
e
xp
l
o
r
a
tion
a
nd
e
xplo
r
a
t
i
on:
e
xplo
i
t
a
t
ion
alone
a
f
f
e
c
t
s
t
he
c
o
mp
a
ny

s
c
o
m
p
e
t
i
t
i
v
e
n
es
s
in
t
im
e
,
w
h
i
l
e
e
xplo
r
a
t
i
on
h
e
lps
t
h
e
c
o
m
p
a
ny
t
o
c
r
e
a
t
e
n
e
w
o
p
po
r
t
uni
t
i
e
s
.
H
a
n
s
e
n
e
t
a
l
.
(1999)
P
a
ge
22
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
Ge
tt
i
n
g
t
h
e
B
e
s
t
F
it
B
e
t
w
e
en
H
R
M
a
n
d
K
M
1.
S
t
r
a
t
e
gy

F
ind
the
r
ight
f
it
b
e
t
wee
n
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
a
nd
t
h
e
c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
o
f
the
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
p
r
o
ces
s

F
o
c
u
s
on
t
he
w
a
y
th
a
t
k
n
o
w
l
e
dge
is
a
p
p
l
i
e
d
to
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
ic
o
bj
e
c
t
iv
e
s
2.
Job
De
s
i
g
n
and
E
n
vi
r
o
n
m
e
nt

C
r
e
a
t
e
a
n
a
t
m
o
s
ph
e
r
e
w
h
e
r
e
m
i
s
t
a
k
e
s
t
o
l
e
r
a
t
e
d,
w
h
e
re
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
t
o
be
s
h
a
r
e
d
b
eca
u
s
e
not
e
q
u
a
t
e
d
t
o
po
we
r

A
dd
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
-
s
h
a
r
ing
i
nto
a
pp
r
a
i
s
a
l
c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a
,
not
o
n
a
on
e
-
o
f
f
b
o
nus
b
a
s
i
s

E
mp
h
a
s
i
s
e
c
o
n
s
t
a
nt
l
e
a
r
ni
n
g

L
on
g
-
t
e
r
m
d
e
v
e
lop
m
e
nt
of
s
k
i
l
l
s
,
c
u
ltu
r
e
a
nd
ca
p
a
b
i
l
it
i
e
s
w
i
t
h
in
t
h
e
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
ion

F
o
c
u
s
on
p
e
o
p
le
a
nd
r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
h
i
ps
3.
M
o
t
iva
t
i
on
and
c
o
mm
it
m
e
nt

Ke
y
f
ac
to
r
s
f
or
i
n
d
ividu
a
l
mo
t
i
v
a
t
i
o
n
:
P
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
g
r
o
w
th;
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
a
u
t
o
n
om
y
;
T
as
k
a
c
h
i
e
v
e
m
e
n
t
;
M
o
n
e
y
r
e
w
a
r
d

O
r
g
a
ni
s
a
t
i
on
a
l
c
u
ltu
r
e
h
e
lp
to
s
o
c
i
a
lly
i
nt
e
g
r
a
te
i
nd
i
v
i
d
u
a
ls
w
h
o
a
r
e
h
i
g
h
l
y
a
ut
o
n
omous
a
n
d
in
d
i
v
i
du
a
l
i
s
t
i
c

So
c
i
a
l
id
e
n
t
i
t
i
e
s
c
r
ea
te
the
s
e
n
s
e
of
b
e
i
ng
p
a
r
t
of
a
n
e
l
i
t
e
g
r
oup
4.
D
e
v
e
lop
i
ng
C
o
m
muni
t
i
e
s
of
P
r
ac
ti
c
e
:
A
g
r
oup
of
in
d
i
v
idu
a
l
s
th
a
t
c
oll
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y
c
r
ea
t
e
a
nd
s
h
a
r
e
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
th
r
ou
g
h
s
h
a
r
e
d
p
r
ac
ti
c
e
N
e
xt
W
e
e
k
w
e
w
ould
e
x
a
m
i
ne
how
KM
and
IT
:
I
s
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
a
bout
m
a
n
a
g
ing
p
e
ople
or
m
a
n
a
g
ing
I
T
or
m
a
n
a
g
ing
bot
h
?
D
r
R
i
c
ha
r
d
B
o
at
e
ng,
I
C
I
T
D
,
Sou
t
h
e
r
n
U
n
i
ve
r
s
i
t
y
a
n
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
ty
of
G
han
a
B
u
s
in
e
s
s
S
c
h
oo
l
,
20
1
0
E
m
ai
l
:
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
@
p
e
a
r
l
r
i
c
h
a
r
d
s.
o
r
g
P
a
ge
23
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
K
e
y
Re
ading
s
:
1.
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
,
R
.
(
2
004)
K
no
w
l
e
d
ge
T
r
an
s
f
e
r
B
e
t
w
ee
n
I
n
f
o
rm
at
i
on
S
ys
t
e
m
s
D
eve
l
o
p
me
n
t
P
r
o
j
e
c
t
s
,
M
S
c
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
nd
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
S
y
s
t
e
m
s
I
D
P
M
,
T
h
e
U
ni
v
e
r
s
i
ty
of
M
a
n
c
h
es
t
e
r
,
M
a
n
c
h
e
s
t
e
r
.
2.
B
r
o
w
n
,
J
.
S.
&
D
uguid,
P.
(
2
0
01
)
.
“K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
a
nd
o
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
io
n
:
a
s
o
c
i
a
l
-
p
r
ac
t
i
c
e
p
e
r
s
p
ec
t
i
ve
,

O
r
gan
i
z
at
i
on
S
c
i
e
n
c
e
,
12
(
2
)
,
198

2
13.
3.
Ca
b
r
e
r
a
,
E
.
F
.
&
C
a
b
r
e
r
a
,
A
.
(
2005
)
.

F
o
s
t
e
r
i
n
g
k
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
s
h
a
r
i
n
g
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
e
op
l
e
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
p
r
a
c
t
i
ces
,

I
n
t
.
J
.
of
H
u
m
an
R
es
o
u
r
c
e
Ma
n
ag
em
e
n
t,
1
6
(
5
)
;
720

735
4.
*
*
D
i
x
o
n
,
N
.
(
1
9
94)
The
O
r
ga
n
i
s
atio
n
a
l
L
e
a
r
ni
n
g
C
y
c
l
e
:
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ow
W
e
C
an
L
e
a
r
n
C
ol
l
e
c
t
i
ve
l
y
,
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cG
r
a
w
-
H
i
l
l
C
omp
a
n
y
,
L
o
ndo
n
.
5.
*
*
D
i
x
o
n
,
N
.
(
2
000)
C
o
m
m
on
K
no
w
l
e
dg
e
:
H
ow
C
o
m
pan
i
e
s
Th
r
i
v
e
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y
S
ha
r
i
n
g
W
h
a
t
Th
e
y
K
n
o
w
,
H
a
r
v
a
r
d
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n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
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e
s
s
,
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o
s
to
n
.
6.
*
*
G
l
o
e
t,
M
.
&
B
e
rr
e
l
l
,
M
.
(
2
003
)
.

T
he
d
u
a
l
p
a
r
a
d
i
g
m
n
a
t
u
r
e
o
f
k
no
w
l
e
dge
m
a
na
g
e
m
e
n
t
:
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l
i
c
a
t
io
n
s
of
a
c
h
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e
v
i
n
g
q
u
a
l
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t
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t
c
om
e
s
i
n
hum
a
n
r
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ou
r
c
e
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
,

J
o
u
r
nal
o
f
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
Ma
n
ag
em
e
n
t,
7
(
1
)
,
7
8
-
89.
7.
*
*
H
aes
l
i,
A
.
&
B
o
x
a
ll,
P.
(
20
0
5
)
.

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h
e
n
k
no
w
l
e
d
ge
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
m
e
e
t
s
H
R
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
y
:
a
n
e
x
p
l
o
r
a
t
i
on of
p
e
r
s
on
a
l
i
z
a
t
i
on
-
r
e
t
e
n
t
ion
a
nd
c
od
i
f
i
c
a
t
io
n
-
r
e
c
ru
i
t
m
e
nt
c
on
f
i
g
u
r
a
tio
n
s
,

I
n
t.
J
.
of
H
u
m
an
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
Ma
n
ag
em
e
n
t,
1
6
(
11
)
,
1
9
5
5
-
1
9
75.
8.
*
*
H
a
n
s
e
n,
M
.
T.
,
N
oh
r
i
a
,
N
.
&
T
i
e
r
n
ey
,
T
.
(
199
9
)
.

W
h
a
t
'
s
your
s
t
r
a
t
e
gy
f
or
m
a
n
a
gi
n
g
k
n
o
w
l
e
dg
e
?

H
a
r
v
a
r
d
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
R
e
v
i
ew
,
7
7
,
10
8
-
11
6
.
9.
I
l
es
,
P
.
,
Y
o
l
l
es
,
M
.
&
A
ltm
a
n,
Y
.
(
200
1
)
.

HR
M
a
n
d
k
no
w
l
e
dge
m
a
na
g
e
m
e
n
t
:
r
e
s
pond
i
ng
t
o
t
he
c
h
a
l
l
e
n
g
e
,

R
e
se
a
r
c
h
and
P
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
in
H
u
m
an
R
es
ou
r
c
e
Ma
n
ag
em
e
n
t
,
9
(
1
)
,
3
-
33.
10.
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a
k
a
b
a
d
s
e
,
N
.
K.
,
K
a
k
a
b
a
d
s
e
,
A
.
&
K
o
u
z
mi
n
,
A
.
(
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003
)
.

R
ev
i
ew
ing
t
he
k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
m
a
na
g
e
m
e
nt
lit
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
:
t
o
w
a
r
d
s
a
t
o
x
o
nom
y
,

J
ou
r
nal
o
f
K
no
w
l
e
dge
Man
a
g
em
e
n
t
,
7
(
4
)
,
7
5
-
91.
11.
M
a
l
i
k
,
A.
A
.
(
20
0
8
)
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ow
c
a
n
W
e
b
2
.
0
E
na
b
le
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
in
O
r
ga
n
i
s
atio
n
s
,
M
Sc
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
a
nd
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n
f
o
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m
a
t
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on
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y
s
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ms
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D
P
M
,
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h
e
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n
i
v
e
r
s
ity
o
f
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a
n
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he
s
t
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r
,
M
a
n
c
h
es
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e
r
.
12.
*
*
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ll,
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.
,
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ob
e
r
t
s
o
n,
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.
,
S
c
a
r
b
r
ou
g
h
,
H
.
&
S
w
a
n,
J
.
(
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0
0
2
)
.
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a
na
g
i
ng
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
Wo
r
k
.
C
h
a
p
t
e
r
4
13.
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on
a
k
a
,
I
.
(
1
994
)
.

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dyn
a
m
i
c
th
e
o
r
y
o
f
o
r
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
k
no
w
l
e
dge
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r
ea
t
i
on
,

O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
on
S
c
i
e
n
ce
,
5
(
1
)
,
14

3
7.
14.
N
on
a
k
a
,
I
.
a
nd
T
a
k
e
u
c
h
i
,
H
.
(
1
9
9
5
)
The
K
no
w
l
e
dg
e
-
c
r
e
at
i
ng
C
o
m
pan
y
,
O
x
f
o
r
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
ity
P
r
e
ss
,
O
x
f
o
r
d.
15.
*
*
N
o
n
a
k
a
,
I
.
T
o
y
a
m
a
,
R
.
a
nd
K
o
nno,
N
.
(
20
0
0
)

S
E
C
I
,
B
a
a
nd
L
ea
d
e
r
s
hip:
a
U
nit
e
d
M
od
e
l
of
D
y
n
a
mic
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
Cr
ea
t
ion

,
Lo
n
g
R
a
n
ge
P
lannin
g
,
V
o
l.
3
3,
p
p
.
5
-
34
16.
N
on
a
k
a
,
I
.
,
T
o
y
a
m
a
,
R
.
a
n
d
B
y
o
s
i
e
r
e
,
P.
(
2
001
a
)

A
th
e
o
r
y
of
O
r
g
a
ni
z
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e
C
r
e
a
t
i
o
n:
U
nd
e
r
s
t
a
nd
i
ng t
h
e
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
P
r
o
c
e
s
s
of
C
r
e
a
t
i
ng
K
no
w
l
e
d
g
e

in
D
i
e
r
k
es
,
M
.
,
A
nt
a
l
,
A
.
,
C
h
i
l
d,
J
.
a
nd
N
on
a
k
a
,
I
.
(
e
d
s
.
)
H
and
b
ook
of
O
r
g
an
i
s
a
t
i
on
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
and
K
no
w
l
e
dg
e
,
O
x
f
o
r
d
U
niv
e
r
s
i
ty
P
r
e
ss
,
O
x
f
o
r
d.
17.
N
on
a
k
a
,
I
.
,
R
e
i
n
m
o
ll
e
r
,
P.
a
nd
T
oy
a
m
a
,
R
.
(
2
001b)

I
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
e
d
I
T
S
y
s
t
e
ms
f
or
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
C
r
e
a
t
i
o
n

,
i
n
D
i
e
r
k
es
,
M
.
,
A
n
t
a
l
,
A
.
,
C
h
i
l
d
,
J
.
a
nd
N
o
n
a
k
a
,
I
.
(
e
d
s
.
)
H
and
b
ook
o
f
O
r
gan
i
s
at
i
onal
L
e
a
r
n
ing
a
n
d
K
no
w
l
e
dg
e
,
O
x
f
o
r
d
U
niv
e
r
s
i
ty
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r
e
ss
,
O
x
f
o
r
d.
18.
N
on
a
k
a
,
I
.
a
nd
T
oy
a
m
a
,
R
.
(
20
0
5
)

T
he
t
h
e
o
r
y
of
t
h
e
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
-
c
r
ea
t
i
ng
f
i
r
m

,
I
n
du
s
t
r
i
al
and
C
o
r
p
o
r
ate
C
ha
n
g
e
,
V
ol.
41
(
3
)
,
p
p:
419

4
36
19.
O
l
t
r
a
,
V
.
(
2
00
5
)
K
ni
w
l
e
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
Eff
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
s
f
a
c
t
o
r
s
:
t
he
r
o
le
of
H
R
M
,
J
ou
r
nal
o
f
K
n
o
w
l
e
dge
Man
a
g
em
e
n
t
,
V
o
l
ume
9,
Is
s
u
e
4,
p
p
.
7
0
-
8
6
20.
P
y
ö
r
i
ä
,
P.
(
20
0
5
)
.

T
he
c
on
c
e
pt
of
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
w
o
r
k
r
e
v
i
s
i
t
e
d
,

J
ou
r
n
a
l
of
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
M
a
nag
eme
nt,
9
(
3
)
,
116
-
127.
21.
*
*
R
a
u
b
,
S.
(
2
0
0
2
)
.
“C
o
mm
u
n
iti
e
s
of
p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
:
a
n
e
w
c
h
a
l
l
e
n
ge
f
o
r
h
um
a
n
r
es
ou
r
c
e
s
m
a
na
g
e
m
e
n
t
,

R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
&
P
r
a
c
ti
c
e
i
n
H
u
m
an
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
M
ana
g
e
me
nt
,
10
(
2
)
,
16
-
35.
22.
*
*
Sv
e
t
l
ik
I
.
a
nd
S
t
a
v
r
ou
-
C
o
s
t
ea
,
E
.
(
20
0
7)
C
on
n
e
c
t
i
n
g
hum
a
n
r
es
o
u
r
ce
s
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
a
n
d
kno
w
l
e
d
g
e
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t,
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
on
a
l
J
ou
r
n
a
l
of
M
a
n
p
o
w
e
r
,
V
ol
u
m
e
26,
I
ss
u
e
¾
,
pp.
197
-
206
23.
*
*
T
y
s
o
n
,
S.
(
1
9
99
)
,
"
H
ow
H
R
kn
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
c
on
t
r
ib
u
t
e
s
t
o
o
r
g
a
ni
sa
t
i
on
a
l
p
e
r
fo
rm
an
c
e
"
,
H
u
m
an
R
es
o
u
r
c
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
J
ou
r
n
a
l
,
V
o
l
.
9
N
o
.
3,
p
p
.
4
2
-
52.
P
a
ge
24
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
OT
HE
R
R
E
F
E
R
E
N
C
E
S
1.
A
l
b
e
rt
o
C
.
(
2
0
0
1
)
The
Ro
l
e
Of
I
n
t
el
li
g
e
n
t
R
e
s
ou
r
c
e
s
I
n
K
n
ow
l
e
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
,
J
ou
r
n
a
l
o
f
K
n
ow
le
d
ge
M
an
a
ge
m
e
n
t
,
V
o
l
.
5,
Is
s
ue
4
,
p
p
.
3
58.
2.
A
r
g
y
ris
,
C
.
(
1999)
On
O
r
ga
n
i
sa
t
i
on
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
,
B
la
ck
w
el
l
P
u
b
l
i
s
h
i
ng,
M
a
l
d
e
n,
M
a
ss
c
h
u
s
ett
s
.
3.
A
r
g
y
ris
,
C
.
&
S
c
hon,
D.
(
1
9
7
8
)
O
r
g
an
is
a
ti
o
nal
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g:
A
Th
e
o
r
y
o
f
A
c
t
i
o
n
P
e
rs
p
e
c
t
iv
e
,
Add
i
s
o
n
-
We
s
le
y
,
N
e
w
Yo
r
k
.
4.
A
r
g
y
ris
,
C
.
&
S
c
hon,
D
.
(
1
996)
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
o
nal
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
I
I
:
T
he
o
r
y
,
M
e
t
h
o
d
and
P
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
,
A
d
d
is
on
-
W
e
sl
e
y
,
R
e
a
d
i
n
g,
M
as
s
c
hu
s
e
t
t
s
.
5.
B
o
is
o
t
,
M
.
(
1995)
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
on
S
p
a
c
e
:
A
F
r
a
m
e
w
o
r
k
f
o
r
L
ea
r
n
i
ng
I
n
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
on
s
,
I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
i
o
n
s
And
Cu
l
t
u
r
e
,
B
l
a
c
k
w
e
ll
,
London.
6.
B
r
ow
n
,
J
.
S.
&
Du
g
u
i
d,
P
.
(
1
9
9
1)
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
a
nd
C
o
m
m
un
i
ti
e
s
of
P
ra
c
t
i
c
e
:
Tow
a
r
d
a
Un
i
f
i
e
d
V
i
e
w
of
W
o
r
k
i
ng,
L
ea
r
n
i
n
g
a
nd
I
n
no
v
a
ti
on,
O
r
g
an
is
a
t
i
on
S
c
i
e
n
c
e
,
V
o
l
u
m
e
2
,
Is
s
ue
1
,
p
p
.
4
0
-
57.
7.
B
u
c
hho
l
z
,
S.
&
Ro
t
h, T.
(
1
9
8
7
)
C
r
ea
ti
n
g
t
he
H
i
g
h
-
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
T
e
a
m,
J
o
h
n
W
i
l
e
y
,
N
e
w
Yo
r
k
.
8.
C
a
s
t
el
l
s
,
M
.
(
1998)
E
n
d
Of
M
il
l
e
n
n
i
u
m
:
T
h
e
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
A
g
e
,
E
c
o
no
m
y
,
So
c
i
e
t
y
A
n
d
C
u
l
t
u
r
e
,
V
o
l
u
m
e
3
,
B
l
ac
k
w
e
ll
,
O
x
f
o
r
d.
9.
C
h
a
w
l
a
,
S
.
(
1
9
9
5
)
I
n
tr
od
u
c
ti
o
n
:
The
B
e
g
i
nn
e
r’
s
Mi
n
d
,
I
n
Ch
a
w
l
a
,
S
.
&
R
e
n
e
s
c
h,
J
.
(
e
d
s
.
)
L
e
a
r
n
in
g
O
r
g
an
is
a
ti
o
n
s
,
D
e
v
e
l
op
i
n
g C
u
lt
u
r
e
s
For
T
o
m
o
r
r
ow

s
W
o
rk
p
l
a
c
e
,
P
r
od
u
c
ti
v
i
t
y
P
r
e
s
s
,
P
o
r
tl
a
nd,
OR,
p
p
.
1
-
1
0.
1
0
.
C
h
e
p
a
it
i
s
,
E
.
V
.
(
1
9
94)
A
ft
e
r
The
C
o
m
m
a
nd
E
c
o
n
o
m
y:
Ru
ss
ia

s
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
on
Cu
lt
u
r
e
A
nd
I
t
s
I
m
pac
t
O
n
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
,
J
ou
r
nal
Of
G
l
o
b
a
l
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
en
t
,
Vo
l
.
2,
I
s
s
.
1
,
p
p
.
5
-
1
1
.
1
1
.
C
h
o
u
ri
d
e
s
,
P
.
,
L
o
n
g
b
o
tt
o
m
,
D
.
,
&
M
u
r
p
h
y
,
W
.
(
2
0
03)
E
x
c
e
ll
e
n
c
e
I
n
K
now
l
e
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
:
An
E
m
p
ir
ic
a
l
S
t
u
d
y
To
I
d
e
n
t
i
f
y
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
F
a
c
t
o
r
s
And
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
M
ea
s
u
r
e
s
,
M
ea
s
u
r
i
n
g
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
E
x
c
e
ll
e
n
c
e
,
V
o
l
.
7,
Is
s.
2,
p
p
.
29.
1
2
.
C
h
u
a
,
A.
(
2002)
T
a
x
on
o
m
y
of O
r
g
a
n
i
s
at
i
on
a
l
Kno
w
l
e
d
ge
,
S
i
n
g
a
po
r
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
R
e
v
i
e
w
,
V
o
l
u
m
e
24
,
Is
s
ue
2
,
p
p
.
69
-
7
6.
1
3
.
C
h
u
r
c
h
m
a
n,
C
.W
.
(
1
9
7
1
)
T
h
e
D
e
s
i
gn
o
f
I
n
qu
i
r
in
g
S
y
s
t
e
m
s
:
B
a
s
i
c
Con
c
ep
t
s
o
f
S
y
s
t
e
m
s
a
nd
O
r
ga
n
i
s
a
ti
o
n
,
B
a
s
i
c
B
ook
s
,
N
e
w
Yo
r
k
.
1
4
.
C
le
gg,
C
.W.
,
Co
l
e
m
a
n,
P
.
,
Ho
r
n
b
y
,
P
.
,
M
c
C
la
r
e
n,
R.
,
R
o
b
s
on,
J.
,
C
a
r
e
y
,
N
.
&
Sy
m
o
n,
G.
(
1
9
96)
To
o
l
s
To
I
n
c
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
e
S
o
m
e
P
s
y
c
h
o
l
o
g
i
ca
l
A
n
d
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
on
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l
I
ss
u
e
s
Du
ri
ng
The
D
e
v
elo
p
m
e
nt
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f C
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
-
B
a
s
e
d
S
y
st
e
m
s
,
E
r
g
o
n
o
m
i
c
s
,
V
o
l
u
m
e
39
,
Is
s
ue
3
,
pp
.
4
8
2

5
11
.
1
5
.
C
o
h
e
n,
M.
D.
&
S
p
r
ou
l
,
L
.
E
.
(
1
9
9
1
)
,
"
Ed
i
t
o
r
s
'
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n
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
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on
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,
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r
g
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n
is
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ti
o
n
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e
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e
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l
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m
e
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u
m
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e
r
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p.
1
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e
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i
a
l
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s
s
u
e
on
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g
a
n
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t
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on
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l
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ea
r
n
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ng
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a
p
er
s
i
n
honour
o
f
<
a
nd
b
y
>
J
a
m
e
s
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M
ar
c
h
)
I
n
W
a
ng,
C
.
L
.
,
&
A
h
m
e
d,
P
.
K.
(
2
003)
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
L
ea
r
n
i
ng:
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r
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t
ic
a
l
R
e
v
i
e
w,
T
h
e
L
e
a
r
n
in
g
O
r
g
a
n
is
a
t
i
o
n
,
V
o
l
u
m
e
10
,
I
ss
ue
1
;
p
p
.
8
-
1
8.
1
6
.
C
o
o
k
,
S
.
D
.N
.
&
Y
a
no
w
,
D.
(
1
9
9
3)
Cu
lt
u
r
e A
n
d
O
r
g
a
n
i
sa
t
i
o
n
a
l
L
ea
r
n
i
ng,
J
ou
r
n
a
l
o
f
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
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n
q
u
i
r
y
,
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o
l
u
m
e
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,
N
u
m
b
e
r
4,
I
n
Coh
e
n,
M
.
D.
&
S
p
r
ou
l
l
,
L. S.
(
e
d
s
)
(
1
9
96
)
,
O
r
gan
i
s
a
t
i
o
na
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
,
I
n
st
i
t
u
t
e
For
O
p
er
a
t
i
ons
R
e
s
ea
r
c
h
And
The
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
S
c
ie
n
c
e
s
(
I
N
FOR
M
S
)
,
S
a
ge
P
u
b
l
i
c
a
ti
o
n
s
,
I
n
c
.
,
T
h
ou
s
a
nd
O
ak
s
,
C
a
l
i
f
o
r
n
i
a
.
1
7
.
C
r
o
ss
a
n,
M.M
.
,
L
a
n
e
,
H
.W.
,
W
h
ite
,
R
.
E.
&
Ru
s
h
,
J
.
C.
(
1
9
9
4)
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e
a
r
n
i
n
g
W
it
h
i
n
O
r
g
an
i
s
a
ti
o
n
,
W
o
r
k
i
ng
P
ap
e
r
N
u
m
b
e
r
94
-
0
6
,
The
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
of
W
e
st
e
r
n
O
n
t
a
r
i
o
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
I
v
e
y
S
c
h
o
ol
of
B
u
s
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n
e
ss
,
Lo
n
don,
On
t
a
ri
o.
1
8
.
C
u
l
p
,
G
.
&
S
m
i
t
h,
A
.
(
19
9
2)
M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
P
eo
p
l
e
For
P
r
o
j
ec
t
S
u
cce
s
s
,
V
a
n
N
o
s
t
r
a
nd
R
e
i
n
h
o
l
d
,
N
e
w Yo
r
k.
1
9
.
D
a
f
t
,
R
.
L.
&
H
u
b
e
r
,
G
.
P
.
(
19
8
7)
H
o
w
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
ons
L
e
a
r
n:
A
Co
m
m
un
i
ca
t
i
on
F
r
a
m
e
w
o
r
k
,
R
es
e
a
r
c
h
I
n
The
So
c
i
o
l
o
g
y
O
f
O
r
g
an
is
a
t
i
o
n
s
,
V
o
l
u
m
e
5
,
p
p
.
1
-
3
6
.
2
0
.
D
a
n
e
,
F
.
C.
(
19
9
0)
R
es
e
a
r
c
h
M
e
t
h
o
d
s
,
B
r
o
o
k
s/
Co
l
e
,
Pac
if
i
c
Co
le
, C
a
l
i
f
o
r
n
i
a
.
2
1
.
D
a
v
e
n
p
o
rt
,
T
.
(
1997)

I
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
E
c
o
l
o
g
y
,
M
a
s
te
ri
n
g
The
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
ti
on
And K
n
o
w
l
e
d
ge
E
n
v
ir
o
n
m
e
n
t’
,
O
x
f
o
r
d
U
n
i
v
e
rsit
y
P
r
e
s
s
,
O
x
f
o
r
d
2
2
.
D
a
v
e
n
p
o
rt
,
T
.
H.
&
Ma
r
c
h
a
n
d, D.
A.
(
2
0
0
0
)

I
s
KM
J
u
s
t
Good
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
?

,
I
n
T
.
H.
D
a
v
e
n
p
o
rt
,
T.
D
i
c
k
s
on
&
D.
A.
Ma
r
c
h
a
nd
(
e
d
s
)
M
a
s
te
r
i
n
g
I
nf
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
M
a
n
a
ge
m
e
nt
C
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
M
B
A
C
omp
a
n
i
o
n
i
n
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
P
a
ge
25
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
M
a
n
a
ge
m
e
n
t
,
F
i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l
T
i
m
e
s
,
P
r
e
n
t
i
c
e
H
a
l
l
,
L
o
n
d
o
n
,
pp
.
165
-
1
69
.
2
3
.
D
a
v
e
n
p
o
rt
,
T
.
&
P
r
o
b
st
,
G
.
(
20
0
1)
Know
l
e
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
nt
C
as
e
B
o
o
k
-
S
i
e
m
e
n
s
,
B
e
s
t
P
r
a
c
tic
e
,
M
CD
V
e
r
l
a
g
A
n
d
W
i
ll
e
y
&
S
o
n
s
,
G
e
r
m
an
y
.
P
a
ge
26
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
i
c
h
a
r
d
B
o
a
t
e
n
g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
Kn
o
w
le
d
g
e
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d
H
R
2
4
.
D
a
v
e
n
p
o
rt
,
T
.
&
P
r
u
s
a
k,
L
.
(
1998)
W
o
r
k
i
n
g
K
n
o
w
le
d
g
e
,
H
a
r
v
a
r
d
Bu
si
n
e
s
s
S
c
h
ool
P
r
e
s
s
,
C
a
m
b
r
i
dg
e
,
M
ass
ac
h
u
s
e
t
t
s
.
2
5
.
D
a
v
e
n
p
o
rt
,
T.
&
P
r
u
s
a
k,
L.
(
2000)
W
o
r
k
i
n
g
Kn
o
w
l
e
d
ge
:
H
o
w
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
o
n
s
M
an
a
g
e
W
h
at
T
h
e
y
Kn
o
w
,
H
a
r
v
a
r
d
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
S
c
h
o
o
l
P
r
e
s
s
,
C
a
m
b
ri
d
g
e
,
M
as
s
a
c
h
u
s
e
tts
.
2
6
.
D
e
e
t
z
,
S
.
(
19
9
6)
D
esc
r
i
b
i
ng
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
I
n
A
p
p
r
o
ac
h
e
s
To
O
r
g
a
n
is
a
ti
o
n
S
c
ie
n
c
e
:
R
e
t
h
i
n
k
i
ng
B
u
rr
e
l
l
A
n
d
M
o
r
g
a
n
a
nd
Th
ei
r
L
e
g
a
c
y
,
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
on
S
c
i
e
n
c
e
,
Vo
l
u
m
e
7,
N
u
m
b
e
r
2
.
2
7
.
D
e
F
r
ei
t
a
s
,
R.
(
2
0
0
2)
Know
le
d
ge
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
en
t
f
or
C
omp
e
t
i
t
i
v
e
Ad
v
a
n
t
a
g
e
:
T
h
e
Ch
a
n
ne
l
o
f
C
o
r
e
C
o
m
p
e
t
e
n
c
e
-
D
i
s
s
e
r
t
a
t
i
o
n
,
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Sc
M
a
n
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g
e
m
e
n
t
a
nd
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n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
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y
st
e
m
s
I
D
P
M
,
T
he
Un
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
of
M
a
n
c
h
e
s
te
r
,
M
a
n
c
h
e
s
te
r
.
2
8
.
D
e
H
a
a
n,
R.
(
2
0
0
4)
B
o
t
h
G
l
a
d
A
nd
S
a
d,
O
u
r
D
a
il
y
B
r
e
a
d
,
J
u
l
y
27
2
0
0
4
,
[
On
l
i
n
e
]
,
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
:
h
tt
p
:
//
w
w
w
.
go
s
p
el
c
o
m
.
n
e
t/r
b
c
/
o
d
b
/
o
d
b
-
0
7
-
2
7
-
04
.
s
h
t
m
l
,
[
20
th
Au
g
u
st
,
2
0
0
4
]
.
2
9
.
D
i
B
e
l
l
a
,
A
.
,
N
e
v
i
s
,
E.
&
G
ou
l
d
,
J
.
(
1996)

O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
on
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
A
s
A
Co
r
e
C
a
p
a
b
i
lit
y

,
I
n
M
o
i
ng
e
on,
B
.
&
E
d
m
o
nd
s
o
n
,
A.
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
A
n
d
C
o
m
p
e
ti
tiv
e
A
d
v
an
t
a
ge
,
S
a
ge
P
u
b
l
i
c
a
ti
o
ns
L
t
d
.
,
Lo
n
d
o
n.
3
0
.
D
i
x
o
n
,
N
.
(
1
994)
T
h
e
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
on
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
C
y
c
l
e
:
H
o
w
W
e
Can
L
e
a
r
n
C
o
l
l
e
c
tiv
e
l
y
,
M
c
G
r
a
w
-
H
i
l
l
Co
m
p
an
y
, Lond
o
n.
3
1
.
D
i
x
o
n
,
N
.
(
2
0
0
0
)
C
o
mmon
K
now
l
e
d
g
e
:
H
o
w
C
o
m
p
a
n
i
e
s
T
h
r
iv
e
B
y
S
h
a
r
i
n
g
W
h
a
t
Th
e
y
K
no
w
,
H
a
r
v
a
r
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
P
r
e
ss
,
B
o
s
t
on.
3
2
.
D
r
u
c
k
e
r
,
P
.
F
.
(
19
9
3)
P
o
s
t
-
ca
p
i
t
a
li
s
t
s
o
c
ie
t
y
,
B
u
t
t
e
r
w
o
r
t
h
H
e
i
n
e
m
a
n
n
,
Ox
f
o
r
d.
3
3
.
E
d
m
o
nd
s
o
n
,
A.
C
.
,
Wi
n
s
l
ow,
A
.
B
.
,
Boh
m
e
r
,
R.
M
.
J
.
&
P
is
a
no,
G. P.
(
2
0
03)
L
ea
r
n
i
ng
How
a
nd L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
Wh
a
t
:
E
f
f
ect
s
o
f
T
a
c
i
t
a
nd
Cod
i
fi
e
d
K
n
ow
l
e
dge
on
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
I
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
nt
Fo
l
l
o
w
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n
g
T
e
ch
no
l
og
y
A
d
o
p
ti
o
n
,
D
ec
i
s
i
o
n
S
c
ie
n
ce
s
,
Vo
l
u
m
e
3
4
,
I
ss
ue
2,
p
p
.
1
9
7
.
3
4
.
F
i
e
l
d,
L.
(
1
9
9
7
)
I
m
p
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
s
To
E
m
po
w
e
r
m
e
nt
A
n
d
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
W
i
t
h
i
n
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
on
s
,
The
L
e
a
r
n
in
g
O
r
g
an
is
a
t
i
o
n
,
Vo
l
u
m
e
4,
N
u
m
b
e
r
,
p
p
.
1
49
-
5
8
.
3
5
.
F
i
e
d
l
e
r
,
J
.
(
1
978)
F
i
e
l
d
R
es
e
a
rc
h:
A
M
a
n
ua
l
f
or
L
o
g
i
s
t
i
c
s
and
M
an
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
o
f
S
c
ie
n
t
i
f
i
c
S
t
u
d
ie
s
i
n
N
a
t
u
r
a
l
S
e
tt
i
n
g
s
,
J
o
s
s
e
y
-
B
a
s
s
,
S
a
n
F
r
a
n
c
i
s
c
o
.
3
6
.
F
l
e
ck
,
J
.
(
1
994)
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng
B
y
T
r
y
i
ng:
T
he
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
ta
t
i
on
Of
C
o
n
f
i
g
u
r
at
i
on
a
l
T
e
c
hn
o
l
o
g
y
,
R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
Po
l
i
c
y
,
Vo
l
u
m
e
23
,
6
3
7
-
6
52
.
3
7
.
F
r
ei
r
e
,
P.
(
1
9
7
0
)
P
e
d
a
g
o
gy
o
f
t
he
O
p
p
r
ess
ed
,
P
e
ngu
i
n
,
H
a
r
m
ond
s
wo
rt
h.
3
8
.
F
r
ie
d
l
a
n
d
e
r
,
F.
(
1
9
84)

P
a
tt
e
r
n
s
Of
I
nd
i
v
i
d
u
a
l
And
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
on
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
ng

,
I
n
S
ri
v
a
st
v
a
,
S
.
(
e
d
.
)
T
h
e
Ex
e
c
u
t
i
v
e
M
i
nd,
J
o
s
s
e
y
-
B
a
s
s
,
S
a
n
F
r
a
n
c
i
s
c
o
I
n
J
o
s
s
e
y
-
B
a
s
s
,
S
a
n
F
r
a
n
c
is
c
o,
pp.
1
9
2
-
2
20
,
I
n
D
i
x
o
n
,
N
.
(
1994)
T
h
e
O
r
g
a
n
is
a
t
i
o
n
al
L
e
a
r
n
in
g
C
y
cle
:
H
ow
W
e
Can
L
e
a
r
n
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
v
ely
,
M
c
G
r
a
w
-
H
i
l
l
Co
m
p
a
n
y
, London.
3
9
.
F
r
o
s
t
,
P
.
J.
,
M
oo
r
e
,
L
.
F
.
,
L
o
u
i
s
,
M.
R.
Lu
n
d
b
e
r
g,
C
.
C
.
,
&
Ma
r
ti
n
,
J
.
(
1
9
91)
R
e
f
r
a
m
i
ng
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
o
n
a
l
Cu
l
t
u
r
e
s
,
S
a
ge
P
u
b
l
i
c
a
ti
o
n
s
,
N
e
wbu
r
y
P
a
r
k,
C
a
l
i
f
o
r
n
i
a
.
4
0
.
G
a
r
v
i
n
,
D
.
A
.
(
1
9
93)
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g
A L
ea
r
n
i
ng
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
ti
o
n,
H
a
r
v
a
r
d
B
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
R
ev
i
e
w
,
J
u
l
y
/
Au
g
u
s
t
,
pp.
7
8
-
9
1
.
4
1
.
G
h
e
r
a
r
d
i
,
S.
(
2
0
0
2)
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
L
ea
r
n
i
ng
I
n
So
r
ge
,
S
.
(
e
d
)
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
,
Th
o
m
s
o
n
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g,
Lon
d
o
n.
4
2
.
G
u
n
n
l
a
ug
s
do
t
t
ir
,
J
.
(
2
003)
S
ee
k
And
Y
o
u
W
il
l
F
i
nd,
Sh
a
r
e
A
n
d
Y
o
u
Wil
l
B
e
n
e
f
i
t
:
O
r
g
a
n
i
s
i
n
g
K
n
ow
le
d
ge
U
si
ng
G
r
o
u
p
w
a
r
e
S
y
st
e
m
s
,
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
al
J
o
u
r
nal
o
f
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
M
a
n
a
g
e
m
en
t
,
Vo
l
u
m
e
23
,
I
s
s
u
e
5, pp.
3
6
3
-
38
0
.
4
3
.
H
a
n
d
y
,
C.
(
1
9
95)

M
a
n
a
g
i
n
g
T
he
D
r
e
a
m

,
I
n
Ch
a
w
l
a
,
S
.
&
R
e
n
e
s
c
h,
J
.
(
e
d
s.
)
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
O
r
ga
n
i
s
a
ti
o
n
s
,
D
ev
e
l
o
p
i
n
g
Cu
lt
u
re
s
F
o
r
Tomo
r
r
o
w

s
W
o
r
k
p
l
a
c
e
,
P
r
o
d
u
c
ti
v
i
t
y
P
r
es
s
,
P
o
r
tl
a
nd,
OR,
pp.
4
4
-
5
5.
4
4
.
H
a
t
a
no,
G
.
&
I
n
a
g
ak
i
,
K
.
(
1991)

S
h
a
r
i
ng
Cog
n
iti
on
T
h
r
ough
C
o
l
l
e
c
ti
v
e
C
o
m
p
r
e
h
e
n
si
o
n
A
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

,
I
n
R
e
s
n
i
ck
,
L
.
B
.
, L
e
v
i
n
e
,
J
.
M
.
&
T
ea
sl
e
y
,
S
.
D.
(
e
d
s
.
)

So
c
i
a
l
l
y
S
h
a
r
e
d
Cogn
i
ti
o
n

,
A
m
e
ri
ca
n
P
s
y
c
ho
l
og
i
ca
l
A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
i
on,
W
a
s
h
i
n
g
t
on
DC, p
p
.
3
3
2
-
3
48,
I
n
D
i
xon,
N
.
(
1
9
9
4)
T
h
e
O
r
g
an
i
s
a
ti
on
a
l
L
e
a
r
n
i
n
g
Cy
c
le
:
H
o
w
W
e
C
a
n
L
e
a
r
n
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
ve
l
y
,
M
c
G
r
a
w
-
H
i
l
l
Co
m
pa
n
y
,
Lo
n
d
o
n.
4
5
.
H
e
e
k
s
,
R.
(
2
0
0
3)
I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
on
a
n
d
O
r
ga
n
i
sa
t
i
o
n
al
T
a
s
k
s
:
D
e
c
is
i
on

M
a
k
i
n
g
a
n
d
C
o
mm
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
,
F
u
n
d
a
m
en
t
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l
s
o
f
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n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
I
nf
o
r
m
a
ti
o
n
S
y
s
t
e
ms
Co
u
rs
e
Un
i
t
H
a
n
d
o
u
t
,
I
D
P
M
,
Un
i
v
e
rsit
y
of
M
a
n
c
h
e
st
e
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,
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27
o
f
2
7
Dr.
R
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g
2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
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Dr.
R
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c
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2011 |
Richard@pearlrichards.org
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o
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T
.
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I
s
s
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3
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M
a
n
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m
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nt

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v
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C
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p
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tit
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A
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e

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,
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2
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pp.
242
-
26
6
.
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p.
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-
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m
p
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