Teleoperation

loutclankedAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

98 views

Teleoperation


Jennifer Homich

CSC338

Teleoperation


Teleoperation is defined as operation of a
machine at a distance.


It is similar in meaning to the phrase
“remote control" but is usually
encountered in research, academic and
technical environments.

Distance


Teleoperation is controlling a robot
from a distance. Distance can vary
from tens of centimeters to millions of
kilometers

Teleoperation System


A teleoperation system consists of a
master device
-

that the operator
holds on to
-

and a slave device
-

the
robotic tool on the other place.

Since the user cannot see the robot
directly, he or she must rely on
feedback from the robot's worksite.
This is presented to the user by way
of the interface.

Forms of Feedback


Live video from video cameras


Haptic (touch, such as a vibration)


Auditory (human ear range)


temperature


contact sensors


sonar images


Sample Teleoperation
Setup

Common Uses for
Controlling Robots



in space from earth



in a nuclear reactor



to diffuse a bomb



for minimally
-
invasive surgery.


Teleoperation

In Space From Earth



Space Teleoperation Study Using
ARS/A


ARS/A is Aerospace Robot System
for Aoba arm



ARS/A


a test
-
bed to establish technologies for
earth
-
to
-
space teleoperation.


It is composed of a 6
-
DOF industrial
manipulator A
-
ARM (Aoba
-
ARM) as a
slave and a 6
-
DOF compact haptic
interface as the master arm.


For planetary surface operations, the
European Space Agency initiated a
development for teleoperated mini
-
rovers.


Remote control functions related to
autonomous reaction capabilities and sensor
data processing on
-
board the vehicle exhibit
interesting transfer potential to industrial
and educational teleoperation tasks.



Activities in space are fundamentally limited
by the amount of energy required to raise
loads into earth orbit.


An additional requirement, when humans are
involved, is the expense and additional mass
of life support and safety critical systems.
Because of these reasons, conducting
operations such as protein crystal growth on
manned space missions is very expensive.


Teleoperation technology can thus have a
very substantial impact on the cost of
microgravity operations by reducing the
number of humans required in space for a
given amount of work.


Secondly, if the size of the teleoperation slave
system is reduced, the cost of launching and
housing the robotic system is also reduced.

Difficulties


communication time delay


restrictions of communication capacity


limitations of computation power on board


These space systems demand a high level of
safety and reliability. A mis
-
operation may
induce serious damages to human life or to
the space system itself.

An example of a slave system based in space


Teleoperation in Nuclear
Reactors

Inspection and maintenance is essential
in the nuclear industry. It is not easy to
carry out such maintenance tasks since
the environments are usually highly
radioactive and are unsafe for human
workers. The usual way of carrying out
inspection and maintenance tasks in
these hazardous environments is using
long reach fixed base manipulators.


Difficulties


suffer from low payload capacity


relatively large end point deflections.


installation and the storage of these
long manipulators could be costly.

Teleoperation in Diffusing
a Bomb


Diffusing a bomb can be very unsafe
for a human, so we use a robot to do
this and operate it from a distance.

Army readies robot soldier for Iraq

MSNBC, Jan 24, 2005


“The Army is preparing to send 18 of these remote
-
controlled robotic warriors to fight in Iraq beginning
in March or April.”


Made by a small Massachusetts company these will
be the first armed robotic vehicles to see combat.


“Military officials like to compare the roughly three
-
foot
-
high robots favorably to human soldiers: They
don’t need to be trained, fed or clothed. They can
be boxed up and warehoused between wars. They
never complain.”


A SWORDS robot shoots only when its human
operator presses a button after identifying a target
on video shot by the robot’s cameras.


Teleoperation in Minimally
-
Invasive Surgeries


an operation is performed with
instruments and viewing equipment
that is inserted into the body through
small incisions.



Increase the surgeon's dexterity for difficult aspects of the minimally
invasive procedure



Offer better visualization of anatomical structures by immersing the
surgeon in a high
-
resolution three
-
dimensional image, instead of the
two dimensional or "flat" video screen of traditional minimally invasive
surgery


Minimally invasive surgery with robotic technology creates less trauma
for the patient, less risk of complications, faster overall recovery time,
and a quicker return to normal activities.

da Vinci™
Surgical System, the newest
and most advanced technology for
minimally invasive surgery (MIS).

The surgeon's console with


three
-
dimensional endoscopic viewer and
hand controls.

The da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive, Inc.,
Sunnyvale, CA). Operating room setup with
surgeon seated at control console.

The da Vinci robot consisting of two
manipulation arms and one camera
arm.


Advantages


This minimizes the surgical trauma
and damage to the healthy tissue,
resulting in shorter patient recovery
time.



Disadvantages


Reduced dexterity


Reduced workspace


Reduced sensory input to surgeon
which is only available through a
single video image

Video example

Soccer Teleoperation Video

First Teleoperation
Systems


The first teleoperation systems were
built after the Second World War for
needs in nuclear activities.


They used the master
-
slave concept.


They are composed of two
symmetrical arms.


The master arm is handled by the
operator; the slave one replicates the
operator motions at the spot where
the task has to be performed.



In the earlier systems, master and slave
were mechanically connected.


they were electrically powered giving the
possibility of any distance between master
and slave.


In early systems, the absence of
sophisticated electronics (mainly
computers), obliged to a symmetrical
mechanical device to correctly transfer the
motions from the operator to the slave
device.


Problems in Teleoperation


The unreachable ideal transparency


Time delay


Industrial robotics is sometimes
opposed to teleoperation solutions


Reliability and safety

The unreachable ideal
transparency


One of the most important teleoperator
characteristics after stability is transparency.


The goal of teleoperation is to achieve
transparency

by mimicking human motor
and sensory functions


An established fact is that ideal
transparency can never be reached by
conventional bilateral control unless it is
redefined by other criteria or conceived
differently.

Time Delay


Communication time delay between
master and slave is very crucial in
teleoperation


Time delay affects not only
transparency, because the operator
actions and feedback are delayed, but
also stability

Problems with Industrial
Robotics


Industrial robotics is sometimes opposed to
teleoperation solutions from a flexibility
viewpoint.


Yet teleoperation flexibility is in many ways
dependant on operator adaptation to the
teleoperation system.


to perform a task the operator must be
trained and specialized.


Reliability and Safety


Use of high
-
powered master/slave
devices is very dangerous.


Powered manipulation arms are very
slow devices


quick or jerky motions should not be
used.

Field of Haptics


These machines communicate with humans
using movement and forces


The most common devices are force
-
feedback joysticks that can give a certain
force back to the user, dependent on the
joystick position.


Sometimes the forces are generated from a
virtual environment, and sometimes from a
real robot somewhere else. In this case, it is
called force
-
reflecting (or haptic)
teleoperation.

Credits


http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~coral
-
downloads/segway/movies/03
-
09
-
Prototype/teleoperation/CM
-
RMP
-
23
-
Jun
-
03.mpg


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleoperation


http://lims.mech.northwestern.edu/projects/teleope
ration/


http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/MURI/researchsu
mmary/cenk96.html


http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6852832/