Automated Systems - Clydebank High School

loutclankedAI and Robotics

Nov 13, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Automated Systems

System where you provide the
input
, and the machine
or computer carries out the

process

and provides you
with the
output
.



Washing Machine



Central Heating



Programming a Video Recorder



Vending machine

Dirty Clothes

Washing Machine
Cleans Clothing

Clean Clothes

Automated Systems in Industry

Industrial processes use automated systems for
example:

Car Manufacturing factory use an
assembly line
to put
cars together.


Assembly Line

Uses a conveyor belt to move the parts from one part of
the factory to the next

Why use automated systems?



Carry out the process much faster than a human.



Tasks that automated systems are programmed to do are
often boring or repetitive.



Used in hazardous environments (hot or cold)



More efficient than people because the can work without
breaks



More accurate than people and can do finely detailed
work without getting tired



They are
adaptable
because they can be programmed to
carry out different tasks.

Adaptable

The ability of an automated system to be able to carry out
a variety of different tasks.


Social Issues

Disadvantages



Loss of jobs, less workers
needed



Employees may need
retrained


fear change



Nature of job changes


fear change

Advantages



Jobs may be created for the
maintenance of the
automated system.



Nature of job changes (new
skills)



Fewer people working in
potentially dangerous factory


Technical Implications

-

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS



Moving parts of a machine must be covered



Robots programmed to move slowly around factory



Robots should be fitted with flashing lights and have siren



Have hazardous signs around area where robot is in use



Robots are fitted with sensors to prevent them bumping
into other objects

Economic Implications



High initial cost
-

expensive to install

Why do it?



Automated systems don’t require pay rises, holidays,
don’t require costly facilities like a canteen. (Long term
savings)



Productivity (Workload) is increased

Quality Control

When using automated systems the quality of the product
must be kept consistent.


Humans are still needed for this task on the production
line.

Systems Analysis

A
systems

analyst

is a person who examines a method of
working (manual system) and decides the best way of
doing it using a computer system.


The systems analysis is the process of carrying out the
job.


Robot Anatomy

Robot

A device which can carry out repetitive tasks under the
control of a computer program.


Robots have parts that resemble human limbs.


Waist


Shoulder


Elbow


Wrist

Robot Anatomy

WAIST

SHOULDER

ELBOW

WRIST

Interface

Part of a computer system that allows different devices to
communicate with the processor by compensating for any
differences in their operations.


Make sure the correct signals are sent between the
computer and the robot.

Sensors and Feedback

Sensors

A device that detects a physical quantity, for example, light,
heat (temperature), movement, bump, strain (weight or
sound (microphone).


Feedback

Signal which a sensor sends back to the computer. The
computer makes a decision based on the feedback.

Sensors and Feedback Example

Sensors and Feedback Example

Car park barrier


weight sensor on ground

Robots


bump sensor

Heating


temperature sensor

Types of Robots

Stationary Robot

Robots which stay in one place all the time, fixed point on
an
assembly line
.


Mobile Robot

A robot that can move around the factory floor.

Analogue & Digital

Analogue Signal

A signal which changes continuously rather insteps, such
as temperature and speed.


Digital Signals

Computers only understand digital signals. Consists of a
series of ‘on’ and ‘off’.

On
-

1

Off
-

0

Analogue to Digital (A to D) and digital to
analogue (D to A) converters

Analogue to Digital (A to D) converter

Accepts an analogue signal and changes it into a digital
signal so the computer can understand it.

Scanner converts an image from a photograph into digital
form.

Digital to Analogue (D to A) converter

Accepts a digital signal (binary) and changes into a
analogue signal

CD player converts the digital data on a CD into analogue
data, music, so that we can hear it.

Programmable Robots

Robots are controlled by a computer program. Robots
need to be programmed to do different tasks.


Robots can be reprogrammed to change their tasks.
Adaptability.


Lead Through Programming

A human operator, connected to a computer system,
creates a movement. This movement is programmed and
the robot can mimic the movement.


ROM software

Programs can be stored in ROM chips.

Disadvantages


ROM chips are
expensive.


Professional
programmer needed to
reprogram the ROM chip

Advantages



Retain their information if the
power is switched off.



Difficult to delete and change



Programs can be loaded
faster



Programs less likely to
become corrupt.

Autonomous Guided Vehicles

A robot that can work on their own by moving around the
factory fetching and carrying parts.

How do they move around?

Controlled by a computer during their journey

Magnetic Guidance System

Follow wires buried under the
factory floor.

Not flexible difficult to change
(dig wires up)

Light Guidance System

Follows a painted line on
the factory floor.

More flexible to draw a line
on the floor.

Real time and Interactive Processing

Real time

-

a system which responds immediately to input.
For example, airline reservation, robots moving around a
factor. The response in a real time system is vital.


Interactive processing

-

operators instructions are
processed continuously like a conversation. The speed of
response is not vital.

Control Languages
-

Credit

Program language specially designed to control a robot.
The language would have command like:

GRASP

MOVE

WAIT

TURN

SPEED UP

Control logo is and example of a control language.

Intelligent Robots

Robots which are programmed to behave as though they
had a form of intelligence. ASIMO is and example.

Computer Aided Design (CAD)

Using a computer system to help design something. For
example:



Cars



Boats



Kitchens plans



Houses Plans



Electrics

Computer Aided Design (CAD)

IKEA


allows you to design your own kitchen, bathroom
and bedroom.

BACK DOOR

ENTRANCE TO
LIVINGROOM

KITCHEN WINDOW

Computer Aided Design (CAD) cont..

Hardware Used for CAD


Graphics Tablet

Input device which allows free drawing using a hand held pen or
stylus

Plotter

A large printer used to output plans of used in CAD. For
example, Ship plans, house plans etc.

Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

Using a computer system to help manufacture something.
For example:


Cars

Kitchens



doors, cupboards, sinks etc

Houses


flat pack houses (IKEA)

Question

1.
What does CAD stand for?

2.
What does CAM stand for?

3.
Name two devices used in CAD.

4.
What can be produced from CAD/CAM?

Simulation

A computer program used to model a real life situation.

Used to predict what will happen in a real life situation from
a model of that situation on the computer.

Training Aircraft Pilots

Using simulators saves time and money when training
pilots.


No real plane used


No fuel wasted


No one gets hurt if plane crashes

Virtual reality

Reproducing the outside world digitally within a computer
system and displaying it to the user in such a way that
allows them in interact with it.


Headset and gloves are required to take part in virtual
reality.

Summary of Unit

Second Life

Second Life is a virtual 3
-
D online community, built and owned
by its two million residents.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxj8RTW4ev4


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mro9Qzv
--
k8