System where you provide the
, and the machine
or computer carries out the
and provides you
Programming a Video Recorder
Automated Systems in Industry
Industrial processes use automated systems for
Car Manufacturing factory use an
Uses a conveyor belt to move the parts from one part of
the factory to the next
Why use automated systems?
Carry out the process much faster than a human.
Tasks that automated systems are programmed to do are
often boring or repetitive.
Used in hazardous environments (hot or cold)
More efficient than people because the can work without
More accurate than people and can do finely detailed
work without getting tired
because they can be programmed to
carry out different tasks.
The ability of an automated system to be able to carry out
a variety of different tasks.
Loss of jobs, less workers
Employees may need
Nature of job changes
Jobs may be created for the
maintenance of the
Nature of job changes (new
Fewer people working in
potentially dangerous factory
Moving parts of a machine must be covered
Robots programmed to move slowly around factory
Robots should be fitted with flashing lights and have siren
Have hazardous signs around area where robot is in use
Robots are fitted with sensors to prevent them bumping
into other objects
High initial cost
expensive to install
Why do it?
Automated systems don’t require pay rises, holidays,
don’t require costly facilities like a canteen. (Long term
Productivity (Workload) is increased
When using automated systems the quality of the product
must be kept consistent.
Humans are still needed for this task on the production
is a person who examines a method of
working (manual system) and decides the best way of
doing it using a computer system.
The systems analysis is the process of carrying out the
A device which can carry out repetitive tasks under the
control of a computer program.
Robots have parts that resemble human limbs.
Part of a computer system that allows different devices to
communicate with the processor by compensating for any
differences in their operations.
Make sure the correct signals are sent between the
computer and the robot.
Sensors and Feedback
A device that detects a physical quantity, for example, light,
heat (temperature), movement, bump, strain (weight or
Signal which a sensor sends back to the computer. The
computer makes a decision based on the feedback.
Sensors and Feedback Example
Sensors and Feedback Example
Car park barrier
weight sensor on ground
Types of Robots
Robots which stay in one place all the time, fixed point on
A robot that can move around the factory floor.
Analogue & Digital
A signal which changes continuously rather insteps, such
as temperature and speed.
Computers only understand digital signals. Consists of a
series of ‘on’ and ‘off’.
Analogue to Digital (A to D) and digital to
analogue (D to A) converters
Analogue to Digital (A to D) converter
Accepts an analogue signal and changes it into a digital
signal so the computer can understand it.
Scanner converts an image from a photograph into digital
Digital to Analogue (D to A) converter
Accepts a digital signal (binary) and changes into a
CD player converts the digital data on a CD into analogue
data, music, so that we can hear it.
Robots are controlled by a computer program. Robots
need to be programmed to do different tasks.
Robots can be reprogrammed to change their tasks.
Lead Through Programming
A human operator, connected to a computer system,
creates a movement. This movement is programmed and
the robot can mimic the movement.
Programs can be stored in ROM chips.
ROM chips are
programmer needed to
reprogram the ROM chip
Retain their information if the
power is switched off.
Difficult to delete and change
Programs can be loaded
Programs less likely to
Autonomous Guided Vehicles
A robot that can work on their own by moving around the
factory fetching and carrying parts.
How do they move around?
Controlled by a computer during their journey
Magnetic Guidance System
Follow wires buried under the
Not flexible difficult to change
(dig wires up)
Light Guidance System
Follows a painted line on
the factory floor.
More flexible to draw a line
on the floor.
Real time and Interactive Processing
a system which responds immediately to input.
For example, airline reservation, robots moving around a
factor. The response in a real time system is vital.
operators instructions are
processed continuously like a conversation. The speed of
response is not vital.
Program language specially designed to control a robot.
The language would have command like:
Control logo is and example of a control language.
Robots which are programmed to behave as though they
had a form of intelligence. ASIMO is and example.
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Using a computer system to help design something. For
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
allows you to design your own kitchen, bathroom
Computer Aided Design (CAD) cont..
Hardware Used for CAD
Input device which allows free drawing using a hand held pen or
A large printer used to output plans of used in CAD. For
example, Ship plans, house plans etc.
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Using a computer system to help manufacture something.
doors, cupboards, sinks etc
flat pack houses (IKEA)
What does CAD stand for?
What does CAM stand for?
Name two devices used in CAD.
What can be produced from CAD/CAM?
A computer program used to model a real life situation.
Used to predict what will happen in a real life situation from
a model of that situation on the computer.
Training Aircraft Pilots
Using simulators saves time and money when training
No real plane used
No fuel wasted
No one gets hurt if plane crashes
Reproducing the outside world digitally within a computer
system and displaying it to the user in such a way that
allows them in interact with it.
Headset and gloves are required to take part in virtual
Summary of Unit
Second Life is a virtual 3
D online community, built and owned
by its two million residents.