Technology Assessment of renewable energy systems: an introduction

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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T
ECHNOLOGY

A
SSESSMENT

OF

RENEWABLE

ENERGY

SYSTEMS


I
NTRODUCTION


Dr.Johan

Evers

Project manager Institute Society & Technology, Brussels, Belgium

Liège

26.06.2012

Overview


History of TA


TA practices


Parliamentary TA (PTA)


PTA in Europe


PTA & PACITA

Technology Assessment (TA)


Some facts and figures


Energy TA in Europe

Renewable energy systems

What is Technology Assessment?


Study

and
evaluation

of
exising
,
new

and
emerging

technologies


Intended and unintended
consequences


Interdisciplinary

approach to solving already existing
and potential problems and preventing potential damage


Dynamic

concept:



Report with neutral and
objective input for
decision
-
making

Strategic, inspiring
source for broader
discussion to empower
different stakeholders in
the complex process of
decision
-
making

Different TA modes and functions


Expert TA


Participatory

TA

Actors

involved


Early

warning

TA


Parliamentary

TA


Constructive

TA


Discursive

TA
or

argumentative

TA

Objectives


Health TA


Nuclear

TA

Themes

Different
stakeholders

TA

Science &
Technology


Academia


Industry

Society


Broader
public


Interested
citizens


Civil society

Media

Politics


Government


Parliaments

Questions central to Technology Assessment

(Van Est &
Brom
, 2012)

Technology

development


What is currently known about the technological development?


How did the technology develop over the last years?


What
is the current state
-
of
-
the
-
art of the technology?


What are the expectations for the coming five to ten years?


What
are the technological alternatives?

Relevant
social

actors


Which actors (individuals, groups or organizations) are involved, in one way or the other, in the
development of the technology?

Potential

social

impacts


What kind of potential positive and negative social (for example, legal, economical, ecological, societal
and cultural) effects do various actors foresee?


How serious are these social effects? Which actors will be affected?


Which
groups are likely to benefit and who will be negatively affected?

Potential

solutions


What kind of policy options or instruments are able to address various policy issues?


How much space is available?


What can be said about the effectiveness, feasibility, and social acceptability of the proposed policy
options?


What are potential side effects of the proposed policy
measures
?

TA
-
like activities

Science

communication

Science

&
Technology

Studies

Risk
assessments

Forecasting

/
Foresight

Studies

Innovation

performance
studies

ELSA studies

Value

analysis

PARLIAMENTARY TA

IN EUROPE


Analytical

and
democratic

pratice


Critique

to
seperation

of


promotion and
regulation


development

and impact


upstream
innovation

and downstream
embedding


Awareness

on

the (
potentially
)
negative

impact of
technology

and
optimistic

belief
that

such

impact
can

be

anticipated

and/
or

mitigated



Technology assessment is a
scientific, interactive
and
communicative

process

which aims to contribute to the formation
of public and political opinion on societal aspects of science and
technology (Decker &
Ladikas
, 2004)


History of Parliamentary TA

Office of
Technology

Assessment


(OTA; 1972
-
1995;USA)

European

Parliamentary

Technology

Assessment


(
EPTA; 1990
-
present,
Europe
)

Source
:
Eurostat

EPTA
-
members


Catalonia

(Spain)


Denmark


Flanders

(Belgium)


Finland


France


Germany


Greece


Italy


Netherlands


Norway


Sweden


Switzerland


United
Kingdom

Origin of PTA in Europe

PTA in Europe


EPTA network
(
www.eptanetwork.org
)


National PTA


European PTA


Cross
-
European PTA


EUROPTA (1997
-
2000), TAMI (2002
-
2003), PACITA (2011
-
2015)


Technopolis

Group 2011 report


PACITA descriptions

PTA and PACITA

Common characteristics in parliamentary TA


Client
-
oriented


Problem
-
driven & technology
-
driven


Constructive logic rather than acceptance logic


Prospective and anticipatory rather than evaluative


Cognitive & pragmatic, rather than prescriptive





3 models of PTA in Europe

3 models of PTA in Europe

PTA topics EPTA members (2005
-
2010)

Institutionalisation of PTA


Early entrepreneurs & societal events


Political momentum


Evaluation, ongoing institutionalisation,
deinstitutionalisation and
reinstitutionalisation


Relationship with parliament, government, S&T
community and public


Relationship with other TA and TA
-
like activities


Reflection on PTA niche


Daily practices of PTA


Organizational structure


Financing


Priority setting


TA approaches


Dissemination and valorisation


Quality control


Criteria of success

WHAT DO WE DO?

RENEWABLE

ENERGY

SYSTEMS

Source
: The
European

Parliamant

Magazine,
June

12, 2012

Introduction


Affordable, reliable and clean energy for present and
future generations


From niche to mainstream technology


Short term & long term cost/gains


Political objectives in Europe: 20
-
20
-
20 context and
beyond


Mix of technological and non
-
technological issues



Conventional energy generation

Energy

Wood

Coal

Oil

Gas

Nuclear
energy

Energy generation for

Electricity

Heating
/
cooling

Transport

Renewable energy sources

Geothermy


Drilling wells

Fluid flow
underground

Hydropower

On land

Marine
energy

Solar power

Photovoltaics

Concentrated
solar power

Solar

water
heating

Wind

Offshore

Inland

Urban areas

Biomass

Direct energy
crop
production

Waste
products

Biofuels

Why renewable energies?
(
European

Commission
, 2011)


Limits carbon dioxide emissions


Is
continuously

available


Uses

inexhaustible

sources


Low
-
cost

indigenous

power


Can

be

deployed

on

land, offshore
or

both


Creates

local

jobs and
stimulates

local

economy

(
rural

areas)


Requires

minimal
maintenance


Helps

recycle waste


Diversifies

energy

supply

for

non
-
oil

producing

countries


Replaces

high CO2
-
emitting
conventional

fuels


Reduces

greenhouse gas
emissions







Energy systems


Complex, large
-
scale system that provides energy to a
region, country or transnational area


Multiple, interconnected energy carriers (energy chain)


Focus on energy services (heating/cooling, transport and
electricity for households and industries)

Renewable energy social mapping

Producers, promoters and
operators of existing and
new power plants &
suppliers

Transmission and
distribution system
operators

Energy consumers


Industry & SMEs


Households

Prosumers

Land owners

European and member
state governments,

administrations,

specialised technical and
environmental authorities

Think thanks

Academia

Media

Lobby
groups



SOME

FACTS

AND
NUMBERS

Source
:
www.energy.eu

Legal framework

How do deal with?


Grant licenses and subsidies
with long run planning


Private networks


Producers and distributors
forcing to increase the
production and distribution of
renewable energy


Internal market in electricity
and natural gas


RES legal
www.res
-
legal.de/en.html



Energy 2020
strategy


Energy
Roadmap

2050


Energy
infrastructures

for



2020 and
beyond

Political framework

Source
: The
European

Parliamant

Magazine,
June

12, 2012

International and
European

organisations


International Energy Agency (IEA)


G8 and G20


OPEC


Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)


International Energy Forum (IEF)






European

Union


European

Commission

-

Energy DG


European

Parliament

-

Industry
, Research and
Energy
committee


European

Council

-

Transport,
Telecommunications and Energy committee


European

Renewable

Energy Research
Centres

(EUREC)


Council

of
European

Energy Regulators
(CEER)


European

Renewable

Energies

Federation

(EREF)


European

Renewable

Energy
Council

(EREC)


EU Agency for the Cooperation of Energy
Regulators (ACER)


Europe’s

energy

portal

www.energy.eu

Eurostat

data


Eurostat

data



Investments in renewable and conventional energy
capacity


ENERGY TA IN
EUROPE

Why energy TA in Europe?


Business as usual or …?


Passive and unconstrained energy consumption?


Power cuts, brownouts and blackouts?




Interaction between renewable energy generation and conventional
energy generation


Intelligent devices, grid and behaviour of producers and consumers


Sustainable (natural) resources and waste management

Technological issues


Energy sources /carriers


Energy conversion


Energy storage


Energy efficiency


Emissions


Battery efficiency


Flexible supply/demand


Management of net system variability and net system uncertainty


Variability or uncertainty of wind and solar


Energy infrastructure: electric mobility, smart meters, smart grid,…


Mitigation of line losses


System stability over long distances


Interaction with the grid


Enlarged EU with poor east
-
west and south
-
north connections


...





Societal issues


Climate change


Depletion of carbon based energy sources


Pollution


Sustainability & environment for present and future generations


Energy prices


Basic human needs: heating, food production, transport & electricity generation


Energy security


Energy intensive industry


Political stability and dependency


Non
-
energetic use of energy sources


Carbon footprint


Land use planning


Policy goals: Horizon 2020, bio
-
economy,…


From NIMBY to BANANA to PIMBY


(Financial) participation


Impact on landscape & urban areas







Fuel

Food

Fibre

Flower

Fun

Some energy TA in Europe

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Energy
Renewable energy
Energy technology
Number of EPTA projects (1985-2012)
Some energy TA in Europe

Rathenau

institute (Netherlands)


Energy in 2030 book


Lack of objective data regarding the affordability, reliability
and sustainability of our energy


No or limited sense of urgency amongst citizens


Renewable energy systems: shortages, environmental
problems and sustainability issues


Stimulate and force reduced energy consumption: price
increase & energy rationing


Sustainability = competition


Smart grid or off
-
grid?

TA
-
Swiss (Switzerland)


Biomass

fuel

-

Second

Generation

(2010)



Current state of knowledge on the production and use of
biofuels

will be explored by research in literature.


Prospective eco
-
balance or life cycle assessment (LCA)


Scenario
-
based analysis of future prospects.


Overall
assessment

and
recommendations

Some energy TA in Europe

Institute

Society &
Technology

(
Flanders
,
Belgium
)


Energy
roadmap

2050 (2005)



Scenario
development

including

citizens

visions

and
backcasting


Extended

DPSIR
chain

(
driving

forces
,
pressures
, state,
impact,
responses
)

TAB
-
ITAS (
Germany
)


Energy
storage

systems
:
current

status and outlook
(2008)



Overview of the current technological status of available
energy storage systems and innovative storage concepts
in both the stationary and mobile areas.

Renewable versus sustainable


Renewable energy sources are not CO
2

neutral (indirect emissions)


CO
2

reduction potential


Cost and benefits for


Environment


Society


Producers


Users


Potentially unsustainable renewable energy production


e.g. Biomass energy production


Sustainability criteria, principles and verifiers


Sustainable renewable energy certification


Conclusions

TA of
renewable

energy

Facts

&
figures

Stakeholder

management

Socio
-
technical

issue
management

Policy

options

&
actions