Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations

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Jun 26, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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Handbook on E-marketing
for Tourism Destinations
Copyright © 2008 World Tourism Organization and European Travel Commission
Cover photo: copyright © iStockphoto.com/Alex Slobodkin
Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
ISBN: 978-92-844-1276-1 (UNWTO)
ISBN: 978-92-990050-1-9 (ETC)
Published by the World Tourism Organization and the European Travel Commission
Printed by the World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain
First printing 2008
All rights reserved
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delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
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Table of Contents
Foreword ............................................................................................................................ xv
Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... xvii
How to Use this Handbook .............................................................................................. xix
Executive Summary .......................................................................................................... xxi
1 E-marketing for Tourism Destinations – The Big Picture .............................................. 1
1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 The Benefits of E-marketing ........................................................................................ 2
1.3 Overview of E-marketing Techniques ........................................................................... 3
1.4 Working in Partnership ................................................................................................ 4
1.5 Market Trends ............................................................................................................. 4
1.5.1 Rapid Growth in the Use of the Internet........................................................... 4
1.5.2 The Internet Is a Major and Trusted Source of Travel Information ..................... 4
1.5.3 Social Networking and User-generated Content (UGC) ................................... 5
1.5.4 E-commerce in Tourism .................................................................................. 5
1.5.5 Market Development Forecasts ....................................................................... 5
1.6 Technology Trends ...................................................................................................... 6
1.6.1 Convergence – At the Heart of the Revolution ................................................. 6
1.6.2 New Consumer Technologies .......................................................................... 6
1.6.3 Multimedia Content Resources ....................................................................... 7
1.7 State-of-the-art – 10 Keys to Successful E-marketing ................................................. 8
1.7.1 New Technologies for E-marketing .................................................................. 11
1.8 Management Information Dashboard .......................................................................... 12
1.9 Key Steps in Planning for E-marketing – A Summary ................................................... 13
2 Content Is King – How to Build and Manage Content that Convinces the Customer 15
2.1 What Is ‘Content’? ...................................................................................................... 15
2.1.1 Formats and Media ......................................................................................... 16
2.1.2 ‘Data’ and ‘Editorial’ ........................................................................................ 16
2.2 Trends ....................................................................................................................... 16
2.3 Objectives for Content ................................................................................................. 17
2.3.1 Marketing Objectives ....................................................................................... 17
2.3.2 Strategic Issues .............................................................................................. 17
2.3.3 Understand the Customer and the Marketing Priorities.................................... 18
2.4 Types of Information .................................................................................................... 19
iv Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
2.4.1 What Kind of Information Do Customers Need? .............................................. 19
2.5 Quality Control ............................................................................................................ 21
2.5.1 Quality and Trust ............................................................................................. 21
2.5.2 Style and Taxonomy Guides ............................................................................ 21
2.5.3 Quality Standards ............................................................................................ 22
2.6 Storing and Managing Content .................................................................................... 23
2.6.1 Make Product Data Retrievable ....................................................................... 23
2.6.2 Create Multilingual Databases ......................................................................... 23
2.6.3 Geocodes, Geographic Information Systems, and Maps ................................. 24
2.7 Content Management Systems (CMS) ......................................................................... 24
2.7.1 How a CMS Works ......................................................................................... 24
2.7.2 Benefits of a CMS ........................................................................................... 25
2.7.3 Getting the Best out of Using a CMS .............................................................. 26
2.8 Building Content.......................................................................................................... 26
2.8.1 Why DMOs Should Find Content Partners ...................................................... 26
2.8.2 How to Acquire the Content ............................................................................ 27
2.8.3 How to Acquire Geocodes .............................................................................. 28
2.9 Information about Accessible Visitor Facilities .............................................................. 28
2.9.1 What Does ‘Accessible’ Mean? ....................................................................... 29
2.9.2 Why Accessibility Information Is Worthwhile .................................................... 29
2.9.3 Information Collection ..................................................................................... 29
2.10 Content – Measures of Success .................................................................................. 31
3 Social Networking and User-generated Content (UGC) ................................................ 33
3.1 Why Social Networks and UGC Are so Important ........................................................ 33
3.2 Commercial Sites that Host Structured UGC ............................................................... 34
3.3 Targeting the Right UGC Communities ........................................................................ 35
3.4 UGC Opportunities for Destinations ............................................................................. 36
3.4.1 UGC Opportunity No.1 – Encourage It ............................................................ 38
3.4.2 UGC Opportunity No. 2 – Host It or Mash It .................................................... 38
3.5 Mash-ups and Widgets Make New Experiences .......................................................... 39
3.5.1 Mash-ups ....................................................................................................... 39
3.5.2 Widgets .......................................................................................................... 40
3.6 How to Blog ................................................................................................................ 40
3.6.1 First, Can We Define a Blog? .......................................................................... 40
3.6.2 What Are Blogs for, and Are They Important for Destination Marketing? .......... 41
3.6.3 The Benefits .................................................................................................... 42
3.6.4 Best Blog Ideas ............................................................................................... 42
3.6.5 ‘Do’s’ and ‘Don’ts’ .......................................................................................... 42
3.7 Make Wikis Work for You............................................................................................. 43
3.7.1 What Is a Wiki? ............................................................................................... 43
3.7.2 How Can Destinations Use Them? .................................................................. 43
3.8 Put Your Picture Up in More Places ............................................................................. 44
3.9 Tagging ....................................................................................................................... 44
3.10 Social Networking and UGC – Measures of Success ................................................... 45
vTable of Contents
4 Make a Winning Website – The Keys to Success ........................................................... 47
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 47
4.2 Smooth the ‘Customer Journey’ ................................................................................. 48
4.3 Make Accessibility the Basis for Website Quality .......................................................... 48
4.3.1 It Is Right for Customers, and It Is Good for Business ..................................... 48
4.3.2 Barriers to Avoid ............................................................................................. 48
4.3.3 WAI Levels and Marks of Conformance ........................................................... 50
4.3.4 Meeting Government Requirements ................................................................ 51
4.3.5 Help on Your Site ............................................................................................ 51
4.4 Write to Suit the On-screen Reader ............................................................................. 51
4.4.1 Help Customers to Scan the Page .................................................................. 51
4.4.2 The Inverted Pyramid Style .............................................................................. 52
4.5 Build Identity and Trust ................................................................................................ 52
4.5.1 Vital Confidence Builders ................................................................................ 52
4.5.2 About Us/Contact Us ...................................................................................... 53
4.5.3 Privacy Policy and Terms of Use of the Site ..................................................... 53
4.6 Ensure the User Can Contact You ............................................................................... 53
4.7 Provide a Travel Planner .............................................................................................. 54
4.7.1 Features of a Travel Planner ............................................................................ 54
4.7.2 ‘Recommenders’ for a Personalised Tour ........................................................ 56
4.7.3 The Future for Travel Planners ......................................................................... 56
4.8 Make the Navigation Easy ........................................................................................... 58
4.8.1 Navigation Components .................................................................................. 58
4.8.2 Alternative Sites .............................................................................................. 58
4.8.3 Navigation and Links Principles ....................................................................... 59
4.8.4 Links and the Text You Use for Them .............................................................. 59
4.8.5 Destination Site Navigation .............................................................................. 59
4.8.6 Testing and Monitoring .................................................................................... 60
4.8.7 FAQs ............................................................................................................... 60
4.9 Optimise the Site for Search Engines ........................................................................... 60
4.10 Make It Easy to Use the Site ........................................................................................ 60
4.11 Provide an Integrated Service ...................................................................................... 62
4.11.1 Information Services ........................................................................................ 62
4.11.2 Contact Services ............................................................................................. 62
4.11.3 Transaction Services ....................................................................................... 62
4.11.4 Entertainment Services ................................................................................... 62
4.11.5 Relationship Services ...................................................................................... 64
4.11.6 Combining the Services .................................................................................. 64
4.12 Make Printed Brochures Work for You Online .............................................................. 66
4.12.1 Put Them On-screen in a Virtual Brochure ....................................................... 66
4.12.2 Provide Them as Printable PDFs from Your Site .............................................. 66
4.13 Earn Revenue from Your Site ....................................................................................... 66
4.14 Deliver Faultless Technical Performance ...................................................................... 67
4.15 The Design and Building Process ................................................................................ 67
4.15.1 A Structured Approach ................................................................................... 67
vi Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
4.15.2 Possible Approaches ...................................................................................... 68
4.15.3 Usability Testing as an Integral Part of the Design and Development Process .. 69
4.15.4 Further Advice ................................................................................................. 72
4.16 Winning Websites – Measures of Success................................................................... 72
5 Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) – Getting Better Search Engine Results
the ‘Natural’ Way ............................................................................................................... 75
5.1 What Is Search Engine Optimisation? .......................................................................... 75
5.1.1 Which Search Engines Matter? ....................................................................... 76
5.1.2 How Do Crawler-based Search Engines like Google and Yahoo Work? ........... 77
5.2 ‘Do’s’ and ‘Don’ts’ of SEO .......................................................................................... 78
5.2.1 The Importance of Website Structure .............................................................. 78
5.2.2 ‘White Hat’ versus ‘Black Hat’ Techniques ...................................................... 78
5.2.3 Targeting Search Terms – Pick the ‘Low Hanging Fruit’ ................................... 79
5.2.4 Optimising Text and Meta Data for Your Target Terms...................................... 79
5.2.5 Developing Keyword-Rich Anchor Text Links within the Site ............................ 80
5.2.6 Page URLs Matter .......................................................................................... 80
5.2.7 Choosing a Content Management System ...................................................... 81
5.2.8 Sitemaps Based on Text Links ........................................................................ 81
5.2.9 How to Develop Ranking and ‘Authority’ Status .............................................. 81
5.2.10 Update the Site Frequently .............................................................................. 82
5.2.11 Develop Links from other High Ranking Sites .................................................. 82
5.2.12 Take Care Redesigning Your Site ..................................................................... 83
5.2.13 Continuous Development ................................................................................ 83
5.3 Paid Listings and Pay-per-click .................................................................................... 84
5.4 Search Engine Optimisation – Measures of Success ................................................... 84
6 How to Acquire and Develop Customers – Marketing Channels and the Use
of Customer Relationship Management ......................................................................... 85
6.1 Set Your Objectives for New Customer Acquisition ...................................................... 85
6.1.1 E-marketing Campaign Objectives .................................................................. 85
6.2 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) ................................................................ 86
6.2.1 What Is CRM? ................................................................................................ 86
6.2.2 What Can CRM Do for Destinations? .............................................................. 86
6.2.3 One-to-one Relationships versus Market Segmentation .................................. 87
6.2.4 Customer Data Fields ...................................................................................... 87
6.2.5 CRM Business Processes and Technology ...................................................... 88
6.3 Choosing Campaign Media Channels .......................................................................... 93
6.4 E-mail Marketing ......................................................................................................... 93
6.4.1 Guidelines for the Content of E-newsletters ..................................................... 94
6.4.2 E-mail and Mobile Campaign Management Systems ....................................... 95
6.4.3 Responses and Management Reporting ......................................................... 96
6.4.4 Newsletter Audit Service ................................................................................. 96
6.4.5 The DMO Corporate E-mail Signature ............................................................. 96
6.5 Paid-for Search Engine Marketing ............................................................................... 97
6.5.1 Buying Keywords ............................................................................................ 97
viiTable of Contents
6.5.2 Using an E-marketing Agency ......................................................................... 98
6.5.3 Campaign Management and Optimisation ...................................................... 98
6.6 Artificial Linking............................................................................................................ 101
6.7 Online Media and Advertising ...................................................................................... 101
6.7.1 Display Advertising .......................................................................................... 101
6.7.2 Rich Media Ads ............................................................................................... 102
6.7.3 Ads in New Windows, such as Pop-ups ......................................................... 102
6.7.4 Landing Pages ................................................................................................ 103
6.7.5 Media Buying, Design, Production and Campaign Management ..................... 103
6.7.6 Advertising Networks ...................................................................................... 103
6.7.7 Costs .............................................................................................................. 103
6.7.8 Affiliate Programmes ....................................................................................... 103
6.8 Viral Campaigns .......................................................................................................... 105
6.8.1 Advantages of Viral Campaigning .................................................................... 105
6.8.2 Disadvantages ................................................................................................ 106
6.8.3 Subjects for a Viral .......................................................................................... 106
6.8.4 Viral Distribution .............................................................................................. 107
6.9 Campaign Landing Pages, Calls to Action and Data Capture ...................................... 107
6.9.1 Calls to Action ................................................................................................. 108
6.9.2 Keep Data Capture Barriers Low ..................................................................... 109
6.9.3 Other Barriers to Avoid .................................................................................... 109
6.9.4 Managing Anti-spam ....................................................................................... 110
6.10 Walk-in Offices and Contact Centres ........................................................................... 110
6.10.1 Walk-in Enquirers ............................................................................................ 110
6.10.2 Take Advantage of Spare Contact Centre Capacity ......................................... 111
6.11 Encourage User-generated Content ............................................................................ 111
6.12 Virtual Worlds .............................................................................................................. 111
6.12.1 What Are Virtual Worlds? ................................................................................ 111
6.12.2 Real Activities Happen in Virtual Worlds .......................................................... 111
6.12.3 Opportunities for Destinations ......................................................................... 112
6.12.4 Treat Virtual Worlds as a Real Marketing Activity .............................................. 113
6.12.5 Second Life – Measures of Success ................................................................ 114
6.13 Content Distribution to Third Parties ............................................................................ 114
6.13.1 What Are Your Assets and Liabilities? .............................................................. 115
6.13.2 Use RSS to Feed News Out and Bring It In ..................................................... 115
6.13.3 Other Potential Distribution Channels .............................................................. 117
6.13.4 Measurement of Distribution Value .................................................................. 118
6.14 Acquiring and Developing Customers – Measures of Success ..................................... 120
7 Branding – Project the Essence of the Destination ....................................................... 121
7.1 Essentials .................................................................................................................... 121
7.1.1 E-branding Opportunities ................................................................................ 121
7.1.2 The Basics of Branding ................................................................................... 121
7.2 Brands Need to Bridge Gaps ...................................................................................... 123
7.2.1 Research the Effectiveness of Brand Effort – Identify Gaps and Opportunities . 124
viii Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
7.3 Action Points for Destination Branding Online .............................................................. 126
7.4 Branding – Measures of Success ................................................................................ 126
8 E-commerce for Destinations – Turning Enquiries into Sales ...................................... 129
8.1 What Is E-commerce? ................................................................................................. 129
8.2 Why Does a Destination Need E-commerce? .............................................................. 129
8.3 What Product Categories Should Be Priorities for DMO Intervention? .......................... 130
8.3.1 Travel to the Destination .................................................................................. 130
8.3.2 Within the Destination ..................................................................................... 130
8.4 How Does Online Payment Work?............................................................................... 130
8.5 Guiding Principles for Destination E-commerce ........................................................... 131
8.6 Channels for Distributing E-commerce Offers .............................................................. 132
8.6.1 Direct Sale ...................................................................................................... 132
8.6.2 Via Resellers Who Sell Online Direct to the Public ............................................ 132
8.6.3 Via Wholesalers Who Sell to Specialist Retail Travel Agents ............................. 133
8.6.4 Via the Global Distribution Systems ................................................................. 133
8.7 Alternative Business Models for Destinations ............................................................... 134
8.7.1 Not Acting as an E-commerce Trader, but Promoting the Destination in
Partnership with Commercial E-commerce Operators as Tactical Partners ...... 134
8.7.2 Appointing a Single Commercial Partner to Carry Out the Role as
a Strategic Partner .......................................................................................... 135
8.7.3 Entering into a Joint Venture with a Commercial Partner .................................. 135
8.7.4 Running Its Own E-commerce System ............................................................ 136
8.7.5 Open Exchange Platform ................................................................................ 138
8.8 Alternative Business Models Offered by E-commerce System Vendors........................ 141
8.9 How to Get Real-time Inventory from SMEs ................................................................ 142
8.10 Tips for Successful E-commerce ................................................................................. 144
8.10.1 Barriers to Establishing Trust in Your Service ................................................... 144
8.10.2 The Shopping Basket – First Stages ............................................................... 144
8.10.3 Shopping Basket – When You Start Asking for Personal Information ............... 145
8.10.4 Shopping Basket – The Payment Method Page .............................................. 145
8.10.5 After They Have Bought .................................................................................. 145
8.11 Cost of Sale ................................................................................................................ 146
8.12 Selling Merchandise through an Online Shop ............................................................... 146
8.13 Selling Digital Downloads ............................................................................................ 147
8.14 E-commerce – Measures of Success .......................................................................... 147
9 Mobile Marketing – Exploiting the Essential Companion to Everyday Life ................. 149
9.1 What Is a ‘Mobile’?...................................................................................................... 149
9.2 Why Are Mobiles Important? ....................................................................................... 150
9.3 Are There Limitations? ................................................................................................. 151
9.3.1 Slow Speeds ................................................................................................... 151
9.3.2 Availability and Price of the Connection ........................................................... 151
9.3.3 Travelling Overseas ......................................................................................... 151
9.3.4 Location Sensitivity ......................................................................................... 152
9.3.5 Getting Users to Opt-in ................................................................................... 152
ixTable of Contents
9.3.6 Screen Size ..................................................................................................... 152
9.4 Key Points for a Mobile Marketing Strategy ................................................................. 152
9.5 The Trends in More Detail ............................................................................................ 153
9.5.1 Web Usage ..................................................................................................... 153
9.5.2 Content ........................................................................................................... 154
9.5.3 Messaging ...................................................................................................... 154
9.5.4 Satellite Navigation (Satnav) ............................................................................ 154
9.5.5 Speed ............................................................................................................. 154
9.5.6 Developing Markets ........................................................................................ 154
9.5.7 Advertising Revenue Has Built Up Rapidly ....................................................... 155
9.5.8 Mobile TV Has Arrived ..................................................................................... 155
9.5.9 Interaction with Print Media ............................................................................. 155
9.5.10 M-commerce .................................................................................................. 155
9.5.11 In-car Systems ................................................................................................ 156
9.5.12 In-flight Mobile Use ......................................................................................... 156
9.6 Which Markets, which Segments? .............................................................................. 156
9.6.1 Percentage of Users with a Broadband Mobile Connection ............................. 156
9.6.2 Percentage Using Mobile for Web Surfing ....................................................... 156
9.6.3 Use of ‘Rich Media’ Including MMS, Video, TV ................................................ 157
9.6.4 M-commerce .................................................................................................. 158
9.6.5 Demographics ................................................................................................ 158
9.7 Summary of Action Points for Destinations .................................................................. 159
9.8 Tex Messaging Service (SMS) Campaigns ................................................................... 159
9.8.1 How It Works .................................................................................................. 159
9.8.2 Multimedia Messaging .................................................................................... 161
9.8.3 Campaign Costs ............................................................................................. 161
9.9 Mobile Websites .......................................................................................................... 162
9.9.1 As a First Move ............................................................................................... 162
9.9.2 Register a ‘.mobi’ Domain ............................................................................... 164
9.9.3 Advertise Your Mobile Site ............................................................................... 164
9.9.4 Take Advertisers on Your Site .......................................................................... 165
9.10 Digital Guidebooks ...................................................................................................... 165
9.11 Satellite Navigation (Satnav) ......................................................................................... 166
9.11.1 Touring Routes ................................................................................................ 166
9.11.2 Satnav Vendors You Can Approach ................................................................ 167
9.12 Podcasting .................................................................................................................. 167
9.12.1 What Is Podcasting? ....................................................................................... 167
9.12.2 What Are the Benefits? ................................................................................... 167
9.12.3 What Are the Problems? ................................................................................. 168
9.12.4 Who Listens to Podcasts? .............................................................................. 168
9.12.5 Where Are there some Good Examples I Can Listen To? ................................. 168
9.12.6 I Still Have not Got a MP3 Player. How Do I Try It Out? .................................... 169
9.12.7 What Makes a Good Podcast? ....................................................................... 169
9.12.8 How Can I Get Worthwhile Distribution for My Podcasts? ............................... 169
9.12.9 How Do I Produce My Podcasts? ................................................................... 169
x Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
9.13 Contact Centres .......................................................................................................... 170
9.14 Signing Up Customers ................................................................................................ 170
9.15 Content Requirements ................................................................................................ 171
9.15.1 For Pre-trip Marketing Offers ........................................................................... 171
9.15.2 For Services to Visitors on Arrival .................................................................... 172
9.15.3 Content for Texting .......................................................................................... 172
9.15.4 Content for Mobile Websites ........................................................................... 172
9.16 Business Models for Mobile Marketing ........................................................................ 173
9.17 Mobile Marketing – Measures of Success .................................................................... 173
10 The New Television – Convergence of Media: Interactive TV, Video, Internet
and Gaming ....................................................................................................................... 175
10.1 What Is Digital Television? ............................................................................................ 175
10.1.1 Digital Television Technology Offers New Opportunities ................................... 176
10.1.2 A Little More Jargon – Web TV and Smart TV ................................................. 176
10.2 What Is Meant by Interactivity? .................................................................................... 177
10.3 Enhanced and Interactive Services .............................................................................. 177
10.3.1 Enhanced TV .................................................................................................. 177
10.3.2 Interactive TV .................................................................................................. 177
10.4 Aspects of Consumer Behaviour and Marketing .......................................................... 178
10.4.1 ‘Lean Back’ versus ‘Lean Forward’ ................................................................. 178
10.4.2 Opportunities for Tourism ................................................................................ 178
10.4.3 Marketing Aspects .......................................................................................... 178
10.4.4 Market Information .......................................................................................... 179
10.5 Interactive Advertising ................................................................................................. 182
10.5.1 How It Works .................................................................................................. 182
10.5.2 Formats, Standards and Tools for Interactive Advertising ................................. 182
10.5.3 What Does Interactive Advertising Cost, and How Do We
Measure Effectiveness? ................................................................................... 183
10.5.4 Critical Success Factors .................................................................................. 183
10.5.5 Viewers Become Consumers .......................................................................... 184
10.6 ‘Advergaming’ and In-game Advertising ...................................................................... 186
10.7 The New Television – Measures of Success ................................................................. 187
11 Online Destination Media Relations – How to Gain Online Coverage
and Be Ready for a Crisis ................................................................................................. 189
11.1 How to Target the Media Online .................................................................................. 189
11.1.1 Use CRM Techniques ...................................................................................... 189
11.1.2 Use External Online Expertise.......................................................................... 190
11.2 E-mail Communication ................................................................................................ 190
11.3 E-newsletters .............................................................................................................. 191
11.4 What to Put in the DMO Web ‘Media Centre’ .............................................................. 191
11.5 How to Place Your Stories on Websites ....................................................................... 192
11.5.1 Websites and Message Boards ....................................................................... 192
11.5.2 Blogs and other User-generated Content (UGC) ............................................. 192
11.5.3 PR Newswire Services .................................................................................... 193
xiTable of Contents
11.6 Work with Partners ...................................................................................................... 193
11.7 Crisis Management ..................................................................................................... 193
11.7.1 Be Prepared .................................................................................................... 193
11.7.2 Prepare Your Channels of Communication in Advance .................................... 194
11.7.3 React Quickly to Prevent a Situation Becoming a Crisis................................... 195
11.7.4 SOS.Travel and the Tourism Emergency Response Network (TERN) ............... 195
11.8 Online Destination Media Relations – Measures of Success ......................................... 196
12 Supporting the Travel Trade in Source Markets ............................................................. 197
12.1 Working with Tour Operators and Travel Agents Who Sell Your Destination .................. 197
12.2 Travel Trade Website .................................................................................................. 197
12.2.1 Website Target Audiences ............................................................................... 197
12.2.2 Website Content ............................................................................................. 198
12.2.3 Key Tour Operators ......................................................................................... 198
12.2.4 Online Training for Travel Agents ...................................................................... 199
12.3 E-newsletters for the Trade .......................................................................................... 199
12.4 Supporting the Travel Trade in Source Markets – Measures of Success ...................... 199
13 E-marketing with the Destination’s Tourism Suppliers................................................. 201
13.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................... 201
13.2 Industry-facing Websites ............................................................................................. 201
13.2.1 Components of the Website ............................................................................ 202
13.3 Online Tools to Find Marketing Opportunities and Research Resources ....................... 203
13.4 DMO-Industry Social Networking Sites ........................................................................ 204
13.5 Corporate Blogs .......................................................................................................... 204
13.6 Working with Tourism Suppliers – Measures of Success .............................................. 204
14 Income Sources for DMOs – Raising Income from Your E-marketing Services ......... 205
14.1 Revenue Sources ........................................................................................................ 205
14.2 The ‘Pros’ and ‘Cons’ of a Commercial Approach ....................................................... 205
14.2.1 ‘Pros’ .............................................................................................................. 205
14.2.2 ‘Cons’ ............................................................................................................. 206
14.3 Carry Display Advertising on Your Websites ................................................................. 206
14.3.1 Display Advertisement Space on Your Sites .................................................... 206
14.3.2 Selling Space Via Advertising Networks .......................................................... 207
14.4 Sell Advertorial on Your Sites ....................................................................................... 207
14.5 Work with other Sites that Will Pay You Commission ................................................... 208
14.5.1 Embed a Major E-commerce Provider on Your Site ......................................... 208
14.5.2 Join an Affiliate Programme ............................................................................. 208
14.6 Sell ‘Enhanced’ Entries to Tourism Suppliers ............................................................... 208
14.6.1 Benefits for Customers ................................................................................... 209
14.6.2 Benefits for the Advertisers ............................................................................. 209
14.6.3 Benefits for the DMO ...................................................................................... 209
14.6.4 Measures of Success ...................................................................................... 209
14.7 Accept Context-sensitive Ads on Your Site .................................................................. 210
xii Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
14.8 Make Money from Your E-mail Marketing .................................................................... 210
14.9 Income Sources for DMOs – Measures of Success ..................................................... 211
15 Measuring Success – Methods for Reporting of E-marketing Activity,
and Continuous Measurement of Performance Quality and Outcomes ...................... 213
15.1 Types of Measurement Reports ................................................................................... 213
15.2 The Methods ............................................................................................................... 213
15.2.1 Evaluation of Specific ICT Applications ............................................................ 214
15.2.2 Evaluation of Specific Aspects of E-marketing ................................................. 217
15.3 Website and Newsletter Expert Audit and Evaluation ................................................... 218
15.4 Online Surveys ............................................................................................................ 219
15.4.1 Survey Types and Delivery Methods ................................................................ 219
15.4.2 Survey Tools ................................................................................................... 220
15.5 Offline User Surveys .................................................................................................... 221
15.6 Laboratory Testing and Online Experiments ................................................................. 222
15.6.1 Online Experiments ......................................................................................... 222
15.7 Laboratory Testing ....................................................................................................... 224
15.8 E-commerce Metrics ................................................................................................... 225
15.9 Other Methodologies ................................................................................................... 225
16 Web Analytics – Boost Your Online Impact with Data-driven Optimisation ................ 227
16.1 What Is Web Analytics? ............................................................................................... 227
16.1.1 What Is Internet Data? .................................................................................... 227
16.1.2 What Is Web Traffic Data? ............................................................................... 227
16.1.3 What Are Web Analytic Software Tools? .......................................................... 228
16.2 Evaluating Outcomes and Uncovering Opportunities ................................................... 228
16.3 Web Analytics Is a Journey .......................................................................................... 230
16.3.1 The ‘Investment Chasm’ ................................................................................. 231
16.3.2 Stage 1 – Tracking Data and Reporting ........................................................... 231
16.3.3 Stage 2 – Analysing Campaign Results ........................................................... 232
16.3.4 The ‘Staffing Chasm’ ...................................................................................... 233
16.3.5 Stage 3 – Effective Tactical Performance Reporting and Diagnostics ............... 233
16.3.6 The ‘Action Chasm’ ........................................................................................ 233
16.3.7 Stage 4 – Strategic and Closed Loop Optimisation ......................................... 234
16.4 The Technology of Web Traffic Data Collection ............................................................ 234
16.4.1 Data Storage Options ..................................................................................... 234
16.4.2 Types of Data Collection .................................................................................. 235
16.5 Understand the Website’s Visitors as People ............................................................... 238
16.6 Invest in Skilled People ................................................................................................ 239
16.7 How to Select a Web Analytics Tool ............................................................................ 239
16.7.1 Define the Needs ............................................................................................ 239
16.7.2 Assess Web Analytics Tools Based on Defined Needs .................................... 241
xiiiTable of Contents
17 How to Manage Your Domain Names – Choosing and Maintaining Domains
that Support a Wide Range of E-marketing Activities ................................................... 243
17.1 What Constitutes a Domain Name? ............................................................................. 243
17.2 Choosing a Top Level Domain ..................................................................................... 243
17.2.1 The ‘.Travel’ TLD ............................................................................................. 243
17.3 Choosing a Sub-domain ............................................................................................. 244
17.4 Looking Up Domain Names ........................................................................................ 245
17.5 Campaign Landing Page URLs ................................................................................... 245
17.6 Domain Name Management ........................................................................................ 245
17.7 If Someone Sets Up a Conflicting Domain ................................................................... 246
18 Market Trends .................................................................................................................... 247
18.1 Internet and Broadband Penetration, overall and by main Markets .............................. 247
18.2 The Relative Influence of Online and Traditional Media on Consumer Choice ............... 250
18.3 Relative Importance of Different Search Engines .......................................................... 251
18.4 Social Networking and User-generated Content (UGC) – Including Blogs .................... 253
18.5 E-commerce in Tourism ............................................................................................... 253
18.6 Market Development Forecasts ................................................................................... 255
Glossary and Abbreviations ............................................................................................. 257
List of Figures .................................................................................................................... 263
List of Tables ...................................................................................................................... 265
References and Bibliography ........................................................................................... 267

Foreword
This handbook is the fourth in a series of joint publications by the European Travel Commission (ETC)
and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in the area of methodological manuals. The first
three handbooks, Evaluating NTO Marketing Activities, Tourism Market Segmentation – Maximising
Marketing Effectiveness, and Tourism Forecasting Methodologies have all been very well received by the
international tourism industry, and we hope that this handbook will be equally well received.
The internet and other new technologies have changed the tourism industry in an unprecedented way,
and to a degree that has not been seen in any other sector. The speed of change and development is
fast, and keeping pace is becoming more and more of a challenge. Online information is now one of
the primary influences on consumer decisions in nearly all major markets. And when figures show that
41% of all tourists arriving in Spain last year booked their trip through the internet – or that in the United
States of America, in 2007 for the first time ever, the number of trips bought online exceeded those
purchased offline, it is clear that the internet and new technologies have become a key competitive
factor for both destinations and enterprises alike.
Much is going on in the technology arena today that is influencing the way consumers decide, buy
and exchange information. And these changes are impacting on the way destinations and companies
manage and market themselves. In a marketplace where consumers are becoming more demanding,
distribution more transparent and supply increasingly competitive, keeping pace with the challenges
will determine any player’s competitive positioning.
We hope that this handbook will help destinations to improve the effectiveness of their e-marketing
strategies and plans, enabling them to make the best possible use of information and communication
technologies in marketing, and ultimately to be more competitive in the global marketplace.
Leslie Vella
Chairman, ETC Market Intelligence Group
and John Kester
Chief, Market Trends, Competitiveness and Trade in Tourism Services, UNWTO
Acknowledgements
This handbook was commissioned by the European Travel Commission (ETC) and the World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO). It was written by Peter Varlow, Karin Nijhuis, and Roger Carter, and edited by
Peter Varlow, with research and administrative assistance from Vincentia Tri Astuti and Gaëlle Connolly,
all of TEAM Tourism Consulting.
The handbook would not have been possible without the advice and expert contributions of many
e-marketing professionals from throughout the world. We acknowledge their inputs at the relevant
points in the text throughout the book, with our grateful appreciation.
The report, which forms part of ETC’s ongoing Market Intelligence Programme, was carried out under
the supervision of Ms Judit Sulyok of the Hungarian National Tourist Office, on behalf of ETC’s Market
Intelligence Group and UNWTO’s Market Trends, Competitiveness and Trade in Tourism Services
Section.
The members of ETC’s Market Intelligence Committee and its Marketing and Technology Network who
contributed to the project were:
Mr Leslie Vella (Chairman), Malta, Ms Lisa Davies (ETC Executive Unit), Mr Tom Ylkänen, Finland,
Ms Karine Bruère, France, Mr Joachim Scholz, Germany, Ms Judit Sulyok, Ms Tünde Mester and
Mr Attila Végvári, Hungary, Mr Brian Maher, Ireland, Ms Helena Varona, Portugal, Mr Felipe Formariz and
Ms Marisa Navarro, Spain, Ms Carla Matta, Sweden, Ms Sandra Carvão and Mr John Kester (UNWTO),
Mr Andrew Saines, Mr Andrew Duff and Ms Vickie Birnage, United Kingdom.
How to Use this Handbook
‘Destinations’ and ‘DMOs’
We use the term ‘destination’ in this handbook when we refer to a place as a whole – a country, region,
city or locality, and all its tourism organisations.
Where it is important to make clear that we are talking about a corporate, accountable body, we have
used the term ‘Destination Management Organisation’ (DMO). A DMO may be a national, regional,
city or local body.
Finding your way around the handbook
E-marketing is a very joined-up subject, so we have tried to make it as easy as possible to move around
the book:
You can dip into the book at any chapter•
There are frequent cross-references in the text to other relevant chapters, and to sections within •
chapters
There is a glossary of terms and abbreviation at the end of the handbook•
The wider picture
E-marketing is only one aspect, albeit an important one, of destination management, and the scope
of this book does not extend to e-business as a whole. For this wider picture, see the World Tourism
Organization publication A Guide to Destination Management, which includes a chapter with an
overview of e-business and information management.
Keeping pace – further information, and online sources
The pace of change and development in e-marketing is fast and exciting, and no handbook such as
this can aim to capture more than a current account of best practice. But there are enduring lessons
throughout the book.
We have provided as many online and offline points of further reference as we can. These are given
in some places in the text, as well as at the end of each chapter, and there is a list of references and
bibliography at the end of the book.
Observing the law
There is now a substantial amount of law that governs aspects of e-marketing, but it varies from country
to country and we do not cover this in the handbook.
There are many websites that provide guidance on internet law, such as www.isoc.org/internet/law (the
internet Society) and those of legal firms such as www.out-law.com (Pinsent Masons, an international
xx Handbook on E-marketing for Tourism Destinations
firm). But you should always consult your own legal advisor in relation to each of the countries in which
you operate.
Areas where it is wise to seek advice about legal obligations include:
Privacy and data protection•
Ownership and intellectual property•
Software, including accessibility• , domain names, and e-commerce
Identification on websites and in e-mails•
Executive Summary
This Summary is drawn from the ‘Key Messages’ sections that preface each of the main chapters.
Online information is now the primary influence on consumer decisions in nearly all major markets.
E-marketing• is only effective through full application of customer relationship management (CRM)
with all target audiences – consumers, travel trade, media, and industry partners
E-marketing• provides excellent management information, enabling the calculation of return on
investment (ROI) and comparison with offline methods
E-marketing• must be an integral part of a DMO’s marketing programme, not a separate entity.
Budgets for e-marketing should properly reflect its potential value to the destination, compared to
off-line marketing
DMOs should play the key role in presenting information and imagery (‘content’).
‘Content is king’, so it is important to make it a primary and long-term investment:
Market segment information should be used to decide the priority audiences and topics•
It is vital to be clear about the publishing channels to be used, and what formats these channels •
need
DMOs should not attempt to collect and distribute all the content themselves; they should work •
with partners
Images and video are becoming paramount, both to motivate and inform•
An open data platform• to take in content and feed it out, and a good content management system
with well-trained users, are both essential investments
Online social networks are a new and powerful arena for destination marketers.
Online social networks, and the user-generated content (UGC) which they stimulate, may become
central to those holiday decisions that are based on recommendation:
Destinations can and should actively encourage the creation of user-generated content• about the
destination, wherever it is published
Equally, they should use it in their own communication channels, and integrate it with their own •
content
A winning website depends on a willingness to be of service, and attention to detail in building the
site.
Accessibility• should be the basis of website quality
Research-based guidelines should be followed to create an easy-to-use website that builds trust •
and identity
Websites should aim to smooth the path right through the ‘customer journey’• of the internet user