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Appendix B
B.1
Journals and Conferences Dealing with Health Monitoring
Table B.
1
and
Table B.
2
in this section provide lists of technical Journals and
conferences that highli
ght developments in health monitoring.
These tables will be
updated as necessary to provide up

to

date information
B.2
Sensors
In
Table B.
3

Table B.
10
, different types of di
splacement, velocity, acceleration, strain, force,
temperature, and pressure sensors are summarized.
B.3
References on Data Analysis from the Literature
In
Table B.
11

Table B.
18
, references from the literature on a wide range of data analysis
topics in health monitoring are summarized and cited.
These references will be updated
as necessary to provide up

to

date information.
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Table B.
1
–
Technical Journals in health monitoring.
Journal Name
Publisher
AIAA Journal
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Experimental Mechanics
Society of Experimental Mechanics
International Journal of Analytical and Experimental Modal Analysi
s
CSA Illumina
International Journal of Engineering Science
CSA Illumina
International Journal of Fatigue
Elsevier Science
International Journal of Fracture
Springer
Journal of Applied Mechanics
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Journal of Dyn
amic Systems, Measurement, and Control
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Journal of Engineering Mechanics
American Society of Civil Engineers
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures
Sage Publishers
Journal of Pressure Vessel Techn
ology
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Journal of Sound and Vibration
Academic Press
Journal of Structural Engineering
American Society of Civil Engineers
Journal of Vibration and Acoustics
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Mechanical Sy
stems and Signal Processing
Academic Press
NDT&E International
Elsevier Science
Physical Review Letters
American Physical Society
Sensors Actuators
CSA Illumina
Smart Materials and Structures
Institute of Physics
Structural Health Monitoring: An Inter
national Journal
Sage Publishers
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Acoustical Society of America
The Shock and Vibration Digest
Sage Publishers
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Table B.
2
–
Technical conferences in health monitoring.
Conference
Name
International Modal Analysis Conference
European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring
International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring
The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
International Mechanical Engineering Congres
s
Asia

Pacific Conference on Systems Integrity and Maintenance (ACSIM)
IEEE Aerospace Conference
International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies
AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference
Internat
ional Conference on Adaptive Structures
IEEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation
International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures
International Design Engineering Technical Conference
Society for the Advancement of Material and Process En
gineering Conference
Integrated Systems Health Management Conference
Health and Usage Monitoring Conference
Machinery Failure Prevention Technology Annual Meeting
Materials Science and Technology Conference
Quantitative NDE Conference
AIAA/ASME/ASCE/
ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference
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Table B.
3
–
Displacement sensors.
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Table B.
4
–
Velocity sensors.
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Table
B.
5
–
Acceleration sensors.
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Table B.
6
–
Strain sensors.
Table B.
7
–
Force sensors.
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Table B.
8
–
Temperature sensors.
Table B.
9
–
Pressure sensors.
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Table B.
10
–
Piezoelectric actuators.
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Table B.
11
–
References on methods for loads identification.
Reference
Summary
Stevens, K.K.,
1987, “Force Identification Problems

An Overview”
Conference: Overview of indirect force estimation for linear systems.
Chae et al., 1999, “
A Feasi
bility Study in Indirect Identification of
Transmission Forces through Rubber Bushing in Vehicle Suspension System
by Using Vibration Signals Measured on Links
”
Journal: Relates the transmission force to the deformation of rubber bushings
through an appro
priate model.
Decker, M. and Savaidis, G., 2002, “
Measurement and Analysis of Wheel
Loads for Design and Fatigue Evaluation of Vehicle Chassis Components”
Journal: Discussed the interactions of wheel forces and moments, forces
acting in a suspension, and
the stress response of an axle casing.
O’Connor, C., and Chan, T.H.T., 1988, “Dynamic Wheel loads From Bridge
Strains”
Journal: Modeled the bridge deck as lumped masses interconnected by mass

less elastic beams and estimated loading of bridge due to wh
eels.
Chan, T.H.T., Law, S.S., Yung, T.H. and Yuan, X.R., 1999, “An Interpretive
Method for Moving Force Identification”
Journal: Modeled the bridge deck using Bernoulli

Euler beams and estimated
loading of bridge due to wheels.
Zhu, X.Q. and Law, S.S.,
2000, “Identification of Vehicle Axle Loads from
Bridge Responses”
Journal: Modeled the bridge deck as orthotropic plates and estimated loading
of bridge due to wheels.
Wang, M.L. and Kreitinger, T.J., 1994, “Identification of Force from Response
Data o
f a Nonlinear System”
Journal: Presented the sum of weighted acceleration technique (SWAT) to
estimate the input force.
Giergil, J. and Uhl, T., 1989, “Identification of the Input excitation forces in
mechanical structures”
Journal: Presented an itera
tive formula for calculation of excitation forces in
mechanical structures based on properties of the Toeplitz matrix.
Haas, D.J., Milano and Flitter, L., 1995, “Prediction of Helicopter Component
Loads Using Neural Networks”
Journal: Used a neural netw
ork approach to relate rotor system component
loads to flight data recorded using a flight recorder.
Giasante et al., 1983, “Determination of In

Flight Helicopter Loads”
Journal: Identified the external vibratory forces acting on a helicopter in
flight
using a calibration matrix.
Li, J., 1988, “Application of Mutual Energy Theorem for Determining
Unknown Force Sources”
Conference: Identified spectrum of loads based on vibration velocity
response measurements.
Zion, L., 1994, “Predicting Fatigue Loads
Using Regression Diagnostics”
Conference: Presented an approach based on a regression model relating
loads and flight data in a helicopter.
Uhl, T. and Pieczara, J., 2003, “Identification of Operational Loading Forces
for Mechanical Structures”
Journ
al: Based on the difference between measured and simulated system
responses, genetic algorithm estimates loads.
Starkey, J.M., and G.L. Merrill, 1989, “On the Ill

Conditioned Nature of
Indirect Force

Measurement Techniques”
Journal: Investigated the ill

conditioned nature of the inverse problem and
found that the condition of the FRF matrix is a good indicator of errors.
Bartlett, F.D., Jr., and W.G. Flannelly, 1979, “Model Verification of Force
Determination for Measuring Vibratory Loads”
Journal: Fou
nd that the pseudo

inverse method of force estimation worked
well for identifying vibrations forces on the rotary hub of a helicopter model
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Hundhausen, R.J., D.E. Adams, M. Derriso, Kukuchek, P., and Alloway, R.,
2005, “Transient Loads Identification for
a ptandoff jetallic 周ermal
Protection System Panel”
ConferenceW rsed two methods for identifying transient loads on standoff
metallic panelsW NF rigid body approachI and OF inverse coc approachK
Turco, E., 2005, “A Strategy to Identify Exciting Forces
Acting on Structures”
gournalW bxplores the use of the 呩khonov regularization technique to reduce
楬i
J
conditioning effects of frequency domain equations for pin
J
jointed trussesK
Kammer, D.C., 1996, “Input Force Reconstruction Using a Time Domain
呥chniq
ue”
gournalW Convolves the measured response and an inverse system of jarkov
parameters to estimate input forces on a structure in the time domainK
Jacquelin, E., Bennani, A., and Hamelin, P, 2003, “Force Reconstruction:
Analysis and oegularization of a
Deconvolution Problem”
gournalW Applies 呩khonov and trunctation regularization techniques to the
indirect force estimation problem and chooses the regularization parametersK
Fabunmi, J.A., 1986, “Effects of Structural Modes on Vibratory Force
aeterminat
ion by the Pseudoinverse Technique”
gournalW ptudied the implication of using the least
J
squares method of force
identification without considering the modes and mode shapesK
Carne, T.G., Mayes, R.L., and Bateman, V.I., 1994, “Force Reconstruction
rsing
the pum of teighted Acceleration 呥chnique
—
jax
J
Flat Procedure”
ConferenceW rsed coc data to determine appropriate scalar weights to use in
the pum of teighted Acceleration 呥chnique for force reconstructionK
Mayes, R.L., 1994, “Measurement of Lateral La
unch ioads on oe
J
bntry
Vehicles Using SWAT”
ConferenceW rses the ptA吠method to reconstruct forces acting on a
structureI but uses the free decay time histories to calculate the weightsK
Liu, Y., and Shepard, S., Jr., 2005, “Dynamic Force Identification
kased on
bnhanced ieast pquares and 呯tal ieast
J
pquares pchemes in the crequency
Domain”
gournalW rtilizes and compares the least
J
square method of indirect force
estimation without regularization and with truncated psa and regularizationK
NK
ChaeI CK
K., Bae, B.K., Kim, K.J., Park, J.H. and Choe, N.C., “A Feasibility Study in Indirect Identification of Transmission Forces t
hrough Rubber Bushing in
Vehicle Suspension System by Using Vibration Signals Measured on Links,” 1999, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vo
l. 33, No. 5, pp. 327

349.
2. Decker, M. and Savaidis, G., “
Measurement and Analysis of Wheel Loads for Design and Fatigue Evaluation of Vehicle Chassis Components
,” 2002, Fat igue
and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 25, Issue 12, 110
3.
3. O’Connor, C., and Chan, T.H.T., “Dynamic Wheel Loads from Bridge Strains,” 1998, J. Struct. Div. ASCE, 114(8), pp. 1703

1723.
4. Chan, T.H.T., Law, S.S., Yung, T.H. and Yuan, X.R., “An Interpretive Method for Moving Force Identification,” 1999, Journ
al of Sound and Vibrat ion,
219(3), pp. 503

524.
5. Zhu, X.Q. and Law, S.S., “Identification of Vehicle Axle Loads from Bridge Responses,” 2000, Journal of Sound and Vibratio
n, 236(4), pp. 705

724
6. Wang, M.L. and Kreit inger, T.J., “Identification of Force
from Response Data of a Nonlinear System,” 1994, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol.
13, pp. 267

280.
7. Giergil, J. and Uhl, T., “Identification of the Input Excitation Forces in Mechanical Structures,” 1989, The Archives of T
ransport, Vol. 1,
No. 1.
8. Haas, D.J., Milano and Flitter, L., “Prediction of Helicopter Component Loads Using Neural Networks,” 1995, Journal of the
American Helicopter Society, No.
1, pp. 72

82.
9. Giasante, N., Jones, R. and Calapodas, N. J., “Determination of In

Fligh
t Helicopter Loads,” 1983, Journal of the American Helicopter Society, 27, pp. 58

64.
10. Li, J., “Application of Mutual Energy Theorem for Determining Unknown Force Sources,” 1988, Proc. of Internoise 88, Avign
ion.
11. Zion, L., “Predicting Fatigue Loads
Using Regression Diagnostics,” 1994, Proc. of the American Helicopter Society 50 Annual Forum, Washington D.C.
12. Uhl, T. and Pieczara, J., “Identification of Operational Loading Forces for Mechanical Structures,” 2003, The Archives of
Transport, Vol. 16
, No. 2.
13.
Stevens, K.K., “Force Identification Problems

An Overview,” 1987, Proc. of SEM Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, pp. 838

844.
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14.
Starkey, J.M., and G.L. Merrill, “On the Ill

Conditioned Nature of Indirect Force

Measurement Techniques,” 198
9, Journal of Modal Analysis, pp. 103

108.
15.
Bart lett, F.D., Jr., and W.G. Flannelly, “Model Verificat ion of Force Determination for Measuring Vibratory Loads,” 1979, J.
American Helicopter Society,
24:10

18.
16.
Hundhausen, R.J., D.E. Adams, M. Derriso, P. Kuku
chek, and R. Alloway, “Transient Loads Identificat ion for a Standoff Metallic Thermal Protection
System Panel,” 2005, Proc. of the IMAC

XXIII: A Conference & Exposition on Structural Dynamics, No. 394.
17.
Turco, E., “A Strategy to Identify Exciting Forces Act
ing on Structures,” 2005, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 64:1483

1508.
18.
Kammer, D.C., “Input Force Reconstruction Using a Time Domain Technique,” 1996, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astrona
utics, Inc., pp. 21

30.
19.
Jacquel
in, E., A. Bennani, and P. Hamelin, “Force Reconstruction: Analysis and Regularizat ion of a Deconvolution Problem,” 2003, Jou
rnal of Sound and
Vibration, 265: 81

107.
20.
Fabunmi, J.A., “Effects of Structural Modes on Vibratory Force Determination by the Pseud
oinverse Technique,” 1986, American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, Inc., 24(3):504

509.
21.
Carne, T.G., R.L. Mayes, and V.I. Bateman, “Force Reconstruction Using the Sum of Weighted Acceleration Technique

Max

Flat Procedure,” 1994, Proc.
of 12
th
International Modal Analysis Conference, pp. 1054

1062.
22.
Mayes, R.L., “Measurement of Lateral Launch Loads on Re

entry Vehicles Using SWAT,” 1994, Proc. of 12
th
International Modal Analysis Conference, pp.
1063

1068.
23.
Liu, Y., and S. Shepard, Jr., “Dynamic F
orce Identification Based on Enhanced Least Squares and Total Least

Squares Schemes in the Frequency Domain,”
1995, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 282: 37

60.
Table B.
12
–
References on vibration

based damage identification method
s.
Reference
Summary
Doebling et al., 1996, “Damage Identification and Health Monitoring of
Structural and Mechanical Systems from Changes in Their Vibration
Characteristics: A Literature Review”
Report: Comprehensive survey of vibrations

based techniques
for damage
detection, location and characterization.
Hoon et al., 2001, “A Review of Structural Health Monitoring Literature:
1996

2001”
Report: An update to the work by Doebling et al. (1996) that outlines feature
extraction and damage quantification me
thods among other issues.
Afolabi, D., 1987, “An Anti

Resonance Technique for Detecting Structural
Damage”
Conference: Showed how data around anti

resonances is much more sensitive
to structural damage compared to the resonances.
Zhang et al., 1999, “Str
uctural Health Monitoring Using Transmittance
Functions”
Journal: Showed that transmissibility functions are reliable detection features
to locate perturbations in experiments on a composite beam.
Johnson, T. J. and Adams, D. E., 2002, "Transmissibility
as a Differential
Indicator of Structural Damage"
Journal: Developed a transmissibility

based detection feature that was able to
detect and locate damage.
Wang, W. and Zhang, A., 1987, “Sensitivity Analysis in Fault Vibration
Diagnosis of Structures”
Conf
erence: Determined that certain frequency ranges in FRFs, including those
near anti

resonances, are sensitive to changes in structural parameters.
I. Trendafilova et al., 1998, “Damage Localization in Structures. A Pattern
Recognition Perspective”
Confere
nce: Presented a pattern recognition approach for damage localization
in structures.
Sohn, H. and Farrar, C.F., 2001, “Damage Diagnosis Using Time Series
Journal: Used standard deviation of residual errors from a combination
of AR
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Analysis of Vibration Signals”
and Aou models as a damage
J
sensitive feature to locate damageK
Nair et al., 2003, “Application of Time Series Analysis in Structural Damage
Evaluation”
ConferenceW mrevious algorithm is modified to increase the effectiveness in
identifying small d
amage patterns by using normalized relative accelerationsK
Adams, D.E. and Farrar, C.R., 2002, “Classifying Linear And Non
J
iinear
Structural Damage Using Frequency Domain ARX Models”
gournalW rsed frequency domain autoregressive models to develop linear
and
nonlinear damage features in a three
J
story building frameK
Johnson et al., 2005, “Embedded Sensitivity Functions for Characterizing
Structural Damage”
gournalW mresented the use of
algebraic combinations of measured coc data to
estimate perturbations
in massI dampingI or stiffness due to damageK
Adams, D.E., 2002, “Nonlinear Damage Models for Diagnosis and Prognosis
in Structural Dynamic Systems”
ConferenceW aemonstrated that model reduction near bifurcations caused by
structural damage is a useful wa
y to identify damage featuresK
Farrar et al., 1999, “A Statistical Pattern Recognition Paradigm of Vibration
J
Based Structural Health Monitoring”
ConferenceW aiscussed the process of vibration
J
based structural health
monitoring as a statistical pattern rec
ognition problemK
Corbin et al., 2000, “Locating Damage Regions Using Wavelet Approach”
ConferenceW aetected damage using wavelet decomposition of acceleration
response dataK
Moyo, P. and Brownjohn, J.M.W., 2002, “Detection of Anomalous Structural
Behav
ior Using Wavelet Analysis”
gournalW rsed wavelet analysis to detect anomalies using strain data from a
bridge but does not distinguish damage from other sources of variabilityK
Sun, Z., and Chang, C.C., 2002, “Structural Damage Assessment Based on
tavel
et Packet Transform”
gournalW aeveloped a damage assessment method using the wavelet packet
transform to produce inputs to neural network modelsK
Hou et al., 2000, “Application Wavelet
J
Based Approach for ptructural aamage
Detection”
gournalW phowed that d
amage can be detected by decomposing response data
using wavelets with the potential to locate damage as wellK
Haroon, M., and Adams, D.E., 2005, “Active and Event
J
ariven massive
Mechanical Fault Identification in Ground Vehicle Suspension Systems”
Confer
enceW mresented active and passive data interrogation methodologies for
damage identification based on the frequency bandwidth of signalsK
Haroon, M., and Adams, D.E., 2006, “Nonlinear Fault Identification Methods
for Ground Vehicle Suspension Systems”
C
onferenceW aiscussed nonlinear damage identification methods which track
nonlinear changes accompanying damage using response acceleration dataK
Worden et al., 2003, “
bxperimental salidation of ptructural eealth jonitoring
jethodology fW kovelty aetecti
on on a iaboratory ptructure
”
gournalW mresented experimental verification of the novelty detection method
for damage identification based on transmissibility functionsK
Manson et al., 2003, “
bxperimental salidation of ptructural eealth jonitoring
jethod
ology ffW kovelty aetection on an Aircraft ting
”
gournalW Applied the previously discussed outlier analysis based novelty
detection algorithm on a realistic structureI the wing of a dnat aircraftK
Monaco, E., Calandra, G., and Lecce, L., 2000, “Experiment
al Activities on
aamage aetection rsing jagnetorestricitve Actuators and ptatistical
Analysis”
ConferenceW rsed averages of differences between healthy and damaged
structure cocs as damage detection featuresK
Natke, H.G., and Cempel, C., 1997, “Model
J
Aide
d aiagnosis Based on
Symptoms”
ConferenceW rsed changes in natural frequencies and mode shapes in a finite
element model of a cable
J
stayed steel bridge to detect damageK
Garcia et al., 1998, “Comparison of the Damage Detection Results Utilizing an
AojA jo
del and a FRF Model to Extract Modal Parameters”
ConferenceW 呩me domain AojA model and coc modal extraction techniques
are comparedI and AojA model out performs modal parametersK
Garcia, G., and Osegueda, R., 1999, “Damage Detection Using ARMA Model
Coef
ficients”
ConferenceW marameters of time domain AojA model are used for damage
detectionX location was possible with ambiguity for multiple damage sitesK
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Sohn, H. and Farrar, C.R., 2000, “Statistical Process Control and Projection
呥chniques for ptructura
l Health Monitoring”
ConferenceW Combined statistical process control with projection techniquesI
such as principal component analysisI for damage detectionK
Bodeux, J.B., and Golinval, J.C., 2000, “ARMAV Model Technique for
pystem fdentification and aama
ge Detection”
ConferenceW aemonstrated the use of time
J
domain Auto
J
oegressive joving
J
Average sector EAojAsF models for detecting damageK
Heyns, P.S., 1997, “Structural Damage Assessment Using Response
J
lnly
Measurements”
ConferenceW rsed a jultivariate Au
瑯
J
oegressive sector EAosF model based
approach to detect and locate damage in a cantilever beamK
Tsyfansky, S.L. and Beresnevich, V.I., 1997, “Vibrodiagnosis of Fatigue
Cracks in Geometrically Nonlinear Beams”
ConferenceW Attempted to detect and quantify
fatigue cracks in a beam by
analyzing the nonlinear harmonics in the courier spectrum of the responseK
Masri et al., 2000, “Application of Neural Networks fort Detection of Changes
in Nonlinear Systems”
gournalW mresented a neural network technique for h
ealth monitoring using
vibration measurementsX prediction error was used for detecting damageK
Feng, M., and Bahng, E., 1999, “Damage Assessment of Bridges with Jacketed
RC Columns Using Vibration Test”
ConferenceW mroposed a jacketed column monitoring m
ethod that combines
vibration testingI neural networkI and finite element techniquesK
Worden, K. and Fieller, N.R.J., 1999, “Damage Detection Using Outlier
Analysis”
gournalW ptudied outlier analysis for damage detection with a jahalanobis
distance based
on measured transmissibility functions as damage featureK
Salawu, O.S., 1997, “Detection of Structural Damage through Changes in
Frequency: A Review”
gournalW oeviewed methods for detecting damage using natural frequencies
and discussed relationships bet
ween frequency changes and structural damageK
Farrar, C.R., 1997, “Variability of Modal Parameters on the Alamosa Canyon
Bridge”
Doebling et al. 1997, “Effects of Measurements Statistics on the Detection of
Damage in the Alamosa Canyon Bridge”
Conference
W phowed that the sensitivity of frequency shifts to damage is low
but these shifts exhibit less statistical variation from random errorK
Cawley, P., and Adams, R.D., 1979, “Location of Defects in Structures from
Measurements of Natural Frequencies”
gour
nalW aetected damage in composite materials using ratios between
frequency shifts for two different modesK
Pandey et al., 1991, “Damage Detection from Changes in Curvature Mode
Shapes”
gournalW phowed that absolute changes in mode shape curvature can be a
杯潤g
indicators of damageK
Pandey, A.K. and Biswas, M., 1994, “ Damage Detection in Structures Using
Changes in Flexibility”
Pandey, A.K. and Biswas, M., 1995, “Damage Diagnosis of Truss Structures
by Estimation of Flexibility Change”
gournalW mresented
a damage detection and location method based on changes
in the measured flexibility matrix using lowest frequency vibration modesK
Lim, T.W., 1991, “Structural Damage Detection Using Modal Test Data”
gournalW rsed the unity check methods for damage detec
tion by defining a
least
J
squares problem for the elemental stiffness changes in a trussK
Banks, H. T., Inman, D. J., Leo, D. J., Want, Y., 1996, “An Experimentally
Validated Damage Detection Theory in Smart Structures”
gournalW aeveloped a damage detect
ion theory based on the derivative of
frequency with respect to either stiffness or massK
Doebling, S. W., 1996, “Minimum
J
oank lptimal rpdate of blemental
Stiffness Parameters for Structural Damage Identification”
gournalW aeveloped an optimal minimum
J
牡
nk update of stiffness parameters
for damage identificationK
Escobar, J. A., Sosa, J. J., Gomez, R., 2005, “Structural Damage Detection
using the Transformation Matrix”
gournalW rsed transformation matrix in two
J
and three
J
dimensional analytical
buildin
g models to detect damageK
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Fritzen, C. P., Jennewein, D., Kiefer, T., 1998, “Damage Detection Based on
Model Updating Methods”
gournalW Applied a sensitivity approach that used both time and frequency to
localize damage in a finite element beam modelK
e
ajela, P. and Soeiro, F. J., 1989, “Structural Damage Detection Based on
Static and Modal Analysis”
gournalW bigenmodes and static displacements were used to detect changes in
stiffnessK
Hwang, H.Y., Kim C., 2004, “Damage detection using a few frequency
response measurements”
gournalW jodeled damage using changes in the component stiffness matrix
and treated the damage detection problem as a minimization problemK
Lew, J. S., 1995, “Using Transfer Function Parameter Changes for Damage
aetection of ptruct
ures”
gournalW cound that changes in environmental factors contribute less
significantly to the structural natural frequencies than actual damageK
Kaouk, M., Zimmerman, D. C., 1994, “Structural Damage Assessment Using a
deneralized jinimum oank merturbat
ion Theory”
gournalW Addressed unsymmetric impedance matrices with singular value
decomposition to acquire a damage vectorK
Samuel, P. D., Pines, D. J., 2004, “A Review of Vibration
J
based 呥chniques
for Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics”
gournalW moin
ts out progress in the area of vibration
J
based fault detectionK
Sheinman, I., 1996, “Damage Detection and Updating of Stiffness and Mass
Matrices using Mode Data”
gournalW aamage was detected using minimal static and dynamic
measurements through a closed
form algorithmK
Tsuei, Y. G., Yee, E. K. L., 1989, “A Method for Modifying Dynamic
Properties of Undamped Mechanical Systems”
gournalW jodified mass and stiffness matrices by adding small changes in
mass and stiffness to the forcing function of the unmo
dified structureK
Zimmerman, D. C., Kaouk, M., 2005, “Model Correlation and System Health
Monitoring using Frequency Domain Measurements”
gournalW Addressed unsymmetric impedance matrices with singular value
decomposition to acquire a damage vectorK
ㄮ
Do
ebling, S.W., Farrar, C.R., Prime, M.B. and Shevitz. D.W., “Damage Identificat ion and Health Monitoring of Structural and Mec
hanical Systems from
Changes in Their Vibration Characteristics: A Literature Review,” 1996, Los Alamos National Laboratory report,
LA

13070

MS.
2.
Sohan, H., Farrar, C.R., Hemez, F.M., Shunk, D.D., St inemates, D.W. and Nadler, B.R., 20031, “A review of structural health m
onitoring literature: 1996

2001,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report, LA

13976

MS.
3.
Afolabi, D., “An Anti

Resonance
Technique for Detecting Structural Damage,” 1987,
Proc. of the 5th International Modal Analysis Conference
, pp. 491

495.
4.
Zhang, H., Schulz, M. J., Naser, A., Ferguson, F., and Pai, P.F., “Structural Health Monitoring Using Transmittance Functions
,” 1999,
Mechanical Systems
and Signal Processing, 13(5), pp. 765

787.
5.
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Table B.
13
–
References on wave propagation for damage identification.
Reference
Summary
Doebling et al., 1996, “Damage Identification and Health Monitoring of
Structural and Mech
anical Systems from Changes in Their Vibration
Characteristics: A Literature Review”
Report: Includes a review of literature on damage identification using
propagating elastic waves.
Sohn et al., 2001, “A Review of Structural Health Monitoring Literature:
1996

2001”
Report: Includes a review of literature on damage identification using
propagating elastic waves.
Kessler, 2002, “Piezoelectric

Based In

Situ Damage Detection of Composite
Materials for Structural Health Monitoring Systems”
Thesis: Damage ide
ntification using guided waves on an Al plate and
composite cylinder. Literature review of guided waves.
Wilcox et al, 1999, “Mode Selection and Transduction for Structural
Monitoring Using Lamb Waves”
Conference: Developed mode selection and transductio
n rules for monitoring
structures using Lamb waves.
Bar

Cohen et al., 1998, “Composite Material Defects Characterization Using
Leaky Lamb wave Dispersion Data”
Conference: Monitored the changes in dispersion characteristics of a leaky
Lamb wave to charact
erize porosity in a composite plate.
Grisso, 2004, “Considerations of the Impedance Method, Wave Propagation,
and Wireless Systems for Structural Health Monitoring”
Thesis: Studied temperature influences on wave propagation. Presented a
method to quantif
y damage using the impedance method.
Lakshmanan and Pines, 1997, “Modeling Damage in Rotorcraft Flexbeams
using Wave Mechanics”
Journal: Used and developed a wave propagation method to identify
delaminations and transverse cracks in Gr/Ep composite rotorc
raft.
Pines, 1997, “The Use of Wave Propagation Models for Structural Damage
Identification”
Conference: Identified damage in beams using wave propagation by modeling
damage as a local change in dispersion; local and global defects.
Prosser et al, 1995,
“Advanced, Waveform Based Acoustic Emission Detection
of Matrix Cracking in Composites”
Journal: Used acoustic emission to identify cracking of thin composite
specimens; also outlined the difficulties associated with acoustic emission.
Wevers, 1997, “List
ening to the Sound of Materials: Acoustic Emission for the
Analysis of Material Behavior”
Journal: Outlined the advantages of acoustic emission techniques over other
NDE methods for identifying damage in a loaded composite component.
Shah et al, 2000, “
New Directions in Concrete Health Monitoring Technology”
Journal: Used stress waves (0

100 kHz) and found that changes in signal
amplitude across a crack were sensitive to crack.
Adamou, and Craster, 2004, “Spectral Methods for Modeling Guided Waves in
El
astic Media”
Journal: Spectral method for dispersion curve generation of inhomogeneous,
curved, multilayered and materially damped structures.
Alleyne, and Cawley, 1992a, “The Interaction of Lamb Waves with Defects”
Journal: Numerical and experimental stu
dy of defect identification using
Lamb waves and two

dimensional fast Fourier transforms.
Alleyne, and Cawley, 1992b, “Optimization of Lamb Wave Inspection
Techniques”
Journal: Tests conducted on a butt

welded steel plate using A1 mode Lamb
wave.
Beard,
2002, “Guided Wave Inspection of Embedded Cylindrical Structures”
Thesis: Detailed literature review and numerical development of guided wave
inspection of curved plates and cylindrical structures.
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Banerjee et al, 2003, “Lamb Wave Propagation and Scatteri
ng in iayered
Composite Plates”
ConferenceW iamb waves for crack identification in composite platesK
Bar Cohen, 2000, “Emerging NDE Technologies and Challenges at the
Beginning of the Prd jillennium
J
Part I”
gournalW 呲aditional kab techniques Eultrasoni
csI radiographyI shearographyF
and associated challenges are reviewedK
Mustafa et al., 1997, “Imaging of Disbond in Adhesive Joints with Lamb
Waves”
lnline gournalW aetect and image disbonds in the tear
J
strap by using angle
wedge transducers to excite sel
ect iamb modesK
Chahbaz, et al., 1996, “Corrosion Detection in Aircraft Structures using
Guided Lamb Waves”
lnline gournalW aemonstrated the use of iamb waves to detect corrosion
damage in an aluminum fuselage panelK
Fromme, 2001, “Defect Detection in Pl
ates using Guided Waves”
周esisW ptudied and compared scatter patterns of the antisymmetric iamb
wave mode using both experimental and analytical resultsK
Giurgiutiu, 2003, “Lamb Wave Generation with Piezoelectric Wafer Active
pensors for ptructural eealt
h Monitoring”
ConferenceW rsed piezoelectric sensors for detecting damage in an aluminum
plateK
Lamb, 1917, “On Waves in An Elastic Plate”
gournalW 周e first work dealing with guided wave propagation in thin elastic
specimensK
iord
J
Rayleigh, 1889, “On th
e cree sibrations of An fnfinite mlate of
Homogeneous Isotropic Matter”
gournalW 周e first work dealing with wave propagation in a semi
J
infinite
solidK
Lowe, 1995, “Matrix Techniques for Modeling Ultrasonic Waves in
Multilayered Media”
gournalW iiterature
review of work involving guided wave dispersion curve
generationK
Pavlakovic et al, 1997, “Disperse: A General Purpose Program for Creating
Dispersion Curves”
ConferenceW lutlines the software developed by researchers at fmperial
College for generating g
uided wave dispersion curves and mode shapesK
Pavlakovic, 1998, “Leaky Guided Ultrasonic Waves in NDT”
周esisW mrovided design rules for generating iamb wavesX also carried out
defect identification studies in plates and shellsK
mavlakovicI and ioweI NV
99, “A General Purpose Approach to Calculating the
iongitudinal and clexural jodes of julti
J
layeredI bmbeddedI 呲ansversely
Isotropic Cylinders”
ConferenceW lutlined dispersion curve Elongitudinal and flexural modesF
characterization in a composite cylinde
爮
Purekar, and Pines, 2002, “A Phased Sensor/Actuator Array for Detecting
aamage in O
J
d Structures”
ConferenceW lutlined phased arrays for damage identification in O
J
搠
structuresX testing was carried out on aluminum beam and plate specimensK
murekar and
minesI OMMRI aamage aetection in mlate ptructures rsing iamb
Waves with Directional Filtering Sensor Arrays”
ConferenceW rse of a directional filtering algorithm for defect localization in
structuresK
Raghavan and Cessnik, 2005, , “Piezoelectric
J
Actuator
bxcited
J
tavefield
polutions for duided
J
Wave Structural Health Monitoring”
ConferenceW Analytical development of arbitrary shaped piezoelectric
actuator to excite Ao and po mode iamb waves from P
J
a elasticityK
Rose, 1999, “Ultrasonic Waves in Solid Media”
BookW A detailed outline of structural wave propagation with specific
emphasis on free and forced guided waves for kab applicationsK
Schmerr Jr., 1998, “Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation: A
Modeling Approach”
BookW A mathematical appro
ach to ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation using
transfer functions including traditional ultrasonic testing methodsK
Sohn et al, 2004, “Multi
J
pcale ptructural eealth jonitoring for Composite
ConferenceW rsed iamb waves to identify areas of d
elamination by
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Structures”
implementing the ideas of time reversal acousticsK
Sundararaman, 2003, “Structural Diagnostics through Beamforming of Phased
Arrays: Characterizing Damage in Steel and Composite Plates”
周esisW lutlined a phased array directional filterin
g algorithm for damage
localization in steel and woven composite structuresK
Tucker, 2001, “Ultrasonic Waves in Wood
J
based Composite Panels”
周esisW fncludes a literature review of the use of ultrasonics in kabK
aemonstrated defect identification in wood
analytically and experimentallyK
Viktorov, I.A., 1967, “Rayleigh and Lamb Waves: Physical Theory and
Applications”
BookW fncludes models for the generation of iamb and oayleigh waves using
ultrasonic transducersK
Wilcox, 1998, “Lamb Wave Inspection of La
rge ptructures using mermanently
Attached Transducers”
周esisW fncludes analytical and experimental development of piezoelectric
transducers for defect identification of large structures using iamb wavesK
Worlton, 1961, “Experimental Confirmation of Lamb
taves at jegacycle
Frequencies”
gournalW lne of the first works to identify the usefulness of iamb waves for
kab applicationsK
Rizzo, and di Scalea, 2005, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Multi
J
wire pteel ptrands
with the Aid of the Wavelet Transform”
gournalW r
sed discrete wavelet transforms to filter EdenoiseF data and
compress data for feature extractionX applied to multi
J
wire steel strandsK
Sundararaman et al, 2004a, “Incipient Damage Identification using Elastic
tave mropagation through a criction ptir teld
ed Al
J
ii fnterface for
Cryogenic Tank Applications”
ConferenceW duided wave experimental investigation using acoustic emission
transducers and piezoelectric actuatorsK
Sundararaman et al, 2004b, “Structural Health Monitoring Studies of a Friction
ptir tel
ded Al
J
Li Plate for Cryotank Application”
ConferenceW mresented wavelet and statistical analysis techniques for defect
identification in a friction stir welded Al
J
ii plateK
Purekar, and Pines, 2001, “Interrogation of Beam and Plate Structures Using
mhased
Array Concepts”
ConferenceW mresented a phased array method using a sweep sine broadband
signal to identify damage in beam and plate structuresK
Purekar et al, 2004, “Directional Piezoelectric Phased Array Filters for
aetecting aamage in fsotropic mlates
”
gournalW A detailed numerical and experimental presentation of the phased
array method for defect localization in an aluminum plateK
Giurgiutiu, and Bao, 2002, “Embedded Ultrasonic Structural Radar with
miezoelectric tafer Active pensors for the kab of
周in
J
Wall Structures”
ConferenceW A detailed experimental presentation for defect identification
using phased arrays consisting of piezoelectric wafersK
Yu, and Giurgiutiu, 2005, “Improvement of Damage Detection with the
bmbedded rltrasonics ptructural oa
dar for Structural Health Monitoring”
ConferenceW mresented new techniques for improving defect identification
using unitized phased arraysK
Bardouillet, P., 1984, “Application of Electronic Focusing and Scanning
Systems to Ultrasonic Testing”
gournalW ln
e of the early works to use ultrasonic phased arrays for detecting
defects in weldsK
Ihn and Chang, 2004, “Detection and Monitoring of Hidden Fatigue Crack
drowth rsing a Built
J
in miezoelectric pensorLActuator ketworkW fK
Diagnostics”
gournalW rsed spectr
ograms to process guided wave signals obtained from an
array of piezoelectric transducers to detect and monitor fatigue crack growthK
MacLauchlan et al, 1998, “Phased Array EMATs for Flaw Sizing”
ConferenceW rsed phased array bjA味 to generate and direct
high frequency
shear horizontal EpeF waves for defect identification of weld samplesK
McNab, and Campbell, 1987, “Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Nondestructive
Testing”
gournalW Conducted a feasibility study Ecost vs sample rate vs
instrumentationF for usin
g ultrasonic phased arrays for kabK
Sundararaman, and Adams, 2002, “Phased transducer arrays for Structural
ConferenceW aeveloped a spatio
J
temporal directional filtering methodology
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Diagnostics Through Beamforming”
for defect localization in isotropic str
ucturesK
Sundararaman et al, 2005a, “Biologically Inspired Structural Diagnostics
through Beamforming with Phased Transducer Arrays”
gournalW mresented an experimental study for directional filtering using
antisymmetric EAoF mode iamb waves in steel and w
oven compositesK
Sundararaman et al, 2005b, “Structural Damage Identification in
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Structures Using Beamforming”
gournalW mresented an experimental study for directional filtering using
antisymmetric EAoF mode iamb waves in ste
el and woven compositesK
Tua et al, 2004, “Detection of Cracks in Plates using Piezo
J
actuated iamb
Waves”
gournalW rsed the eilbert euang transform to detect cracks in plates
interrogated by piezo
J
actuated iamb wavesK
Li and Rose, 2001, “Implementing Gui
ded tave jode Control by use of a
Phased Transducer Array”
gournalW rse of guided waves for inspection of long pipes with a phased
transducer arrayK
Lin, 2000, “Structural Health Monitoring using Geophysical Migration
呥chnique with Built
J
in miezoelectric
Sensor/Actuator Arrays”
周esisW mresented a kab technique based on ultrasonic sensor arrays using
the ideas of geophysical migrationK
Lin and Yuan, 2001, “Diagnostic Lamb Waves in an Integrated Piezoelectric
pensorLActuator mlateW Analytical and bxperime
ntal Studies”
gournalW jodeled guided waves in an infinite isotropic plate Eincorporating
jindlin plate theoryF using a pair of circular actuatorsK
Wang, 2004, “Elastic Wave Propagation in Composites and Least
J
pquares
Damage Localization Technique”
周esis
W rsed a least squares approach with iterative minimization for damage
localization using distributed arraysK
Wang, and Yuan, 2005, “Damage Identification in a Composite Plate using
mrestack oeverse
J
time Migration Technique”
gournalW A pre
J
stack migrati
on technique was used to locate damage in
composite structuresK
Wilcox et al, 2001, “The Effect of Dispersion on Long
J
range fnspection using
Ultrasonic Guided Waves”
gournalW ptudied the effects of dispersion and mode sensitivity for defect
identificati
on in order to develop design guidelines for guided wave testingK
Wilcox et al, 2000, “Lamb and SH Wave Transducer Arrays for the Inspection
of Large Areas of Thick Plates”
ConferenceW mresented a method of using antisymmetric iamb and shear
horizontal wa
ves for defect identification over large areas of thick platesK
Wilcox, 2003, “A Rapid Signal Processing Technique to Remove the Effect of
Dispersion from Guided Wave Signals”
gournalW rsed the symmetric EpoF mode iamb wave and attempted to
compensate for
signal dilation due to dispersionK
Wilcox, 2003, “Omni
J
airect ional duided tave 呲ansducer Arrays for the
Rapid Inspection of Large Areas of Plate Structures”
gournalW fncorporated a dispersion compensation technique and developed a
guided wave compact p
hased transducer techniqueX holes and notchesK
Wilcox et al, 2005, “Omnidirectional Guided Wave Inspection of Large
Metallic Plate Structures Using an EMAT Array”
gournalW bxtended the work to using an bjA吠array for defect identification
in large metalli
c structuresK
Rajagopalan et al, 2006, “A Phase Reconstruction Algorithm for Lamb Wave
Based ptructural eealth jonitoring of Anisotropic jultilayered Composite
Plates”
gournalW bxtended the work by tilcox EOMMPbF to locate damage Emedium
sized through hol
eF using a single actuator and multiple sensorsK
Chen et alI OMMPI
“Acoustic Emission in Monitoring Quality of Weld in
Friction Stir Welding”
ConferenceW rsed acoustic emission techniques for monitoring the quality of
welds obtained through the friction s
tir welding processK
Lamarre and Moles, 2000, “Ultrasound Phased Array Inspection Technology
for the Evaluation of Friction Stir Welds”
ConferenceW fdentified defects in a friction stir weld using ultrasonic phased
arraysK
Raghavan and Cessnik, 2007, “Gu
ided
J
wave Based ptructural eealth
Monitoring: A Review”
gournalW A detailed review paper on work involving the use of guided waves
for nondestructive testingK
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Kundu et al, 2001, “Importance of the Near Lamb Mode Imaging of
Multilayered Composite Plates”
g
ournalW phowed that it was possible to detect internal defects in layers of
mirror symmetry in the upper and lower halves of a plateK
Crawley and de Luis, 1987, “Use of Piezoelectric Actuators as Elements of
Intelligent Structures”
gournalW mroposed a qu
asi
J
static induced strain actuation piezo actuator model
that can be more effectively modeled to operate in a pinching modeK
Yang, J., and Chang, F., 2006, “Detection of Bolt Loosening in C
J
C Composite
Thermal Protection Panels: I. Diagnostic Principle”
gournalW rsed elastic waves to determine the preload in bolt connections of
thermal protection panelsK
ㄮ
Adamou, A.T.I., and Craster, R.V., “Spectral Methods for Modeling Guided Waves in Elastic Media,” 2004, Journal of the Acoust
ical Society of
America,
Vol. 116, No.3, pp. 1524

1535.
2.
Alleyne, D.N., and Cawley, P., “The Interaction of Lamb Waves with Defects,” 1992a, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroe
lectrics and Frequency
Control, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 381

397.
3.
Alleyne, D.N., and Cawley, P., “Optimiz
ation of Lamb Wave Inspection Techniques,” 1992b, NDT and E International, Vol. 25, pp. 11
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Table B.
14
–
References on temporal data analysis.
Reference
Summary
Samuel an
d Pines, 2005, “A Review of Vibration

Based Techniques for
Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics”
Journal: A detailed review paper on statistical techniques in conjunction with
signal processing for helicopter transmission diagnostics.
Staszewski and Worden
, 2004, “Signal Processing for Damage Detection”
Book Chapter: Includes a summary of data analysis methods for damage
identification with illustrations of data compression and denoising.
Box et al, 1994, “Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control”
Bo
ok: Detailed account of time series analysis methods including different
auto

regressive and moving average models.
Castillo et al, 2005, “Extreme Value and Related Models with Applications in
Engineering and Science”
Book: Implementation and mathematica
l background for extreme value and
reliability models.
Montgomery, 2001, “Design and Analysis of Experiments”
Book: Illustrates methods of combining and analyzing data using
experimental design and hypothesis testing.
McLachlan, 1992, “Discriminant Analy
sis and Statistical Pattern Recognition”
Book: Seminal work in using temporal/transformed temporal data for feature
extraction and discrimination using pattern recognition.
Webb, 2002, “Statistical Pattern Recognition”
Book: Includes basic and advanced st
atistical tools used for feature extraction
and data/feature discrimination using pattern recognition.
Sohn et al, 2000, “Structural Health Monitoring using Statistical Process
Control”
Conference: Experimental investigation of statistical process control
to
identify damage during a vibration experiment.
Todd and Nichols, 2002, “Structural Damage Assessment Using Chaotic
Dynamic Interrogation”
Conference: Used a single factor analysis

of

variance (ANOVA) with
Bonferroni confidence interval generation to a
s a damage sensitive feature.
Monaco et al, 2000, “Experimental and Numerical Activities on Damage
Detection Using Magnetostrictive Actuators and Statistical Analysis”
Journal: Used a t

test to determine the effectiveness of damage indices
obtained from c
hanges in the frequency response functions.
Worden et al, 2003, “Extreme Value Statistics for Damage Detection in
Mechanical Structures”
Report: Detailed report on unsupervised learning methods based on extreme
value statistical analysis using statistical
process control.
George et al, 2000, “Identifying Damage Sensitive Features using Nonlinear
Time Series and Bispectral Analysis”
Conference: Multivariate analysis method that compares groups of data by a
weighted linear combination known as the canonical
variate analysis.
Kantz and Schreiber, 1997, “Nonlinear Time Series Analysis”
Book: Detailed review on nonlinear time series analysis methods.
Yu and Giurgiutiu, 2005, “Advanced Signal Processing for Enhanced Damage
Detection with Piezoelectric Wafe
r Active Sensors”
Journal: Detailed literature review of recent works using temporal and
frequency domain methods.
1.
Box, G., Jenkins, G.M., and Reinsel, G., “Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control,” 1994, Third Edition, Prentice

Hall, New Jersey.
2.
Castillo, E., Hadi, A.S., Balakrishnan, N., Sarabia, J.M., “Extreme Value and Related Models with Applications in Engineering
and Science,” 2005,
John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey.
3.
George, D., Hunter, N., Farrar, C.R., Deen, R., “Identifying Damage Sens
itive Features using Nonlinear Time Series and Bispectral Analysis,” 2000,
Proc. of the 18
th
International Modal Analysis Conference, San Antonio, Texas, p. 1

7.
4.
Kantz, H., Schreiber, T., “Nonlinear Time Series Analysis,” 1997, Cambridge Nonlinear Science
Series 7, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
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27
5.
McLachlan, G.J., “Discriminant Analysis and Statistical Pattern Recognition,” 1992, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
6.
Monaco, E., Franco, F., and Lecce, L., “Experimental and Numerical Activities on Damage
Detection Using Magnetostrictive Actuators and Statistical
Analysis,” 2000, Journal of Intelligent Materials and Structures, Vol. 11, pp. 567

578.
7.
Montgomery, D.C., “Design and Analysis of Experiments,” 2001, Fifth Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
8.
S
amuel, P.D., and Pines, D.J., “A Review of Vibration

Based Techniques for Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics,” 2005, Journal of Sound and
Vibration, Vol. 282, pp. 475

508.
9.
Sohn, H., Czarnecki, J.A., and Farrar, C.R., “Structural Health Monitoring Using St
atistical Process Control,” 2000, Journal of Structural Engineering,
Nov. 2000, pp. 1356

1363.
10.
Staszewski W. and Worden K., “Signal Processing for Damage Detection,” 2004, Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures, eds.
Staszewski W.,
Boller C. and Tomlins
on G., John Wiley & Sons, UK, pp. 163

206.
11.
Todd, M.D., and Nichols, J.M., “Structural Damage Assessment Using Chaotic Dynamic Interrogation,” 2002, Proc. of 2002 ASME I
nternational
Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, v. 71, pp. 613

620.
12.
Webb
A., “Statistical Pattern Recognition,” 2002, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, West Sussex, UK.
13.
Worden, K., Allen, D.W., Sohn, H., Stinemates, D.W., and Farrar, C.R., “Extreme Value Statistics for Damage Detection in Mech
anical Structures,”
2003, Los Al
amos National Laboratory Report LA

13903

MS.
14.
Yu, L., and Giurgiutiu, V., “Advanced Signal Processing for Enhanced Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors
,” 2005, Smart
Systems and Structures, Vol. 1, No.2, pp. 185

215.
Table B.
15
–
References on time

frequency data analysis.
Reference
Summary
Staszewski, W.J., 1998, “Wavelet Based Compression and Feature Selection
for Vibration Analysis”
Journal: Used wavelet analysis to extract features from vibration time series
to detect damage.
Prosser et al, 1999, “Time

Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb
Modes”
Journal: Lamb mode signals were processed using a pseudo Wigner Ville
distribution for determining material properties (i.e., dispersion).
Cao, X., 2002, “
Adaptability and Comparison of the Wavelet

based with
Traditional Equivalent Linearization Method and Potential Application for
Damage Detection.”
Thesis: Presented background for time

frequency analysis and compared a
wavelet based equivalent linearizatio
n method with traditional method.
Yuan et al, 2004, “A New Damage Signature for Composite Structural Health
Monitoring.”
Journal: Introduced a damage signature based on wavelet analysis to
determine the presence and extent of damage.
Peng et al, 2005, “A
Comparison Study of Improved Hilbert

Huang Transform
and Wavelet Transform: Application to Fault Diagnosis for Roller Bearing”
Journal: Compared the results obtained by processing data using the Hilbert
Huang transform (HHT) and wavelet analysis.
Shinde,
2004, “A Wavelet Packet Based Sifting Process and Its Application in
Structural Health Monitoring”
Thesis: Extended the HHT by using wavelet packet principles; also included
details and background about obtaining the HHT and wavelet transform.
Cohen, 199
5, “Time

Frequency Analysis”
Book: Outline and mathematical background for time

frequency methods
used for signal analysis.
Auger et al, 1996, “Time Frequency Toolbox
–
For Use with MATLAB:
Online Report: Review article and tutorial in the use o
f time, frequency and
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28
Tutorial”
time
J
frequency analysis Eincluding wavelet analysisF with jA呌AB
.
Huang et al, 1998,
“The Empirical Mode Decomposition Method and the
eilbert ppectrum for kon
J
linear and kon
J
stationary Time Series Analysis”
gournalW aetailed literat
ure review of time frequency analysis and extends the
eilbert transform by implementing empirical mode decompositionK
Daubechies, I., 1992, “Ten Lectures in Wavelets”
Daubechies, I., 1990, “The Wavelet Transform, Time
J
crequency iocalization
and pignal Ana
lysis”
gournal C BookW peminal works on wavelet analysisX used quadrature mirror
filters associated with the scaling function and the mother wavelet functionK
Donoho, D.L., 1995, “De
J
noising by poft
J
Thresholding”
gournalW mresented a soft thresholding met
hod for denoising data using the
wavelet transformK
gensen and la Cour
J
Harbo, 2001, “Ripples in Mathematics: The Discrete
Wavelet Transform”
BookW oeviewI background and implementation of time
J
frequency analysis
Ewavelet transformsFK
Mallat, 1999, “A Wav
elet Tour of Signal Processing”
BookW oeviewI background and implementation of time
J
frequency analysis
Ewavelet transformsFK
ㄮ
Auger, F., Flandrin, P., Goncalves, P., and Lemoine, O., “Time Frequency Toolbox
–
For Use with MATLAB: Tutorial,” 1996, Web: Mat
lab File
Exchange.
2.
Cao, X., “Adaptability and Comparison of the Wavelet

based with Traditional Equivalent Linearization Method and Potential Application for Damage
Detection,” 2002, MS Thesis (Advisor: Mohammad N. Noori), North Carolina State University.
3.
C
ohen, L., “Time

Frequency Analysis,” Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995.
4.
Daubechies, I., “Ten Lectures in Wavelets,” 1992, CBMS

NSF Regional Conference Series in Mathematics, Society for Industrial and Applied Math
(SIAM), Philadelphia, PA.
5.
Daubech
ies, I., “The Wavelet Transform, Time

Frequency Localization and Signal Analysis,” 1990, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 36,
No. 5, pp. 961

1005.
6.
Donoho, D.L., “De

noising by Soft

Thresholding,” 1995, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,
Vol. 41, No.3, pp. 613

627.
7.
Huang, N.E., Shen, Z., Long, S.R., Wu, M.C., Shih, H.H., Zheng, Q., Yen, N.

C., Tung, C.C., Liu, H.H., “The Empirical Mode Decomposition Method
and the Hilbert Spectrum for Non

linear and Non

stationary Time Series Analysis”, 19
98, Proc. of the Royal Society London, Vol. 454, pp. 903

995.
8.
Ihn, J.

B., and Chang, F.

K., “Detection and Monitoring of Hidden Fatigue Crack Growth Using a Built

in Piezoelectric Sensor/Actuator Network: I.
Diagnostics,” 2004, Smart Materials and Structur
es, Vol. 13, pp. 609

620.
9.
Jensen, A., la Cour

Harbo, A., “Ripples in Mathematics: The Discrete Wavelet Transform,” 2001, Springer International, New Delhi.
10.
Mallat, S., “A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing,” 1999, Second Edition, Academic Press.
11.
Peng, Z.K
., Tse, P.W., Chu, F.L., “A Comparison Study of Improved Hilbert

Huang Transform and Wavelet Transform: Application to Fault Diagnosis
for Roller Bearing,” 2005, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 19, pp. 974

988.
12.
Prosser W.H., Seale M.D. and
Smith B.T., “Time

Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes,” 1999, Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America, Vol. 105, No. 5, pp. 2669

2676.
13.
Raghavan, A., and Cesnik, C.E.S., “Piezoelectric

Actuator Excited

Wavefield Solutions for Guided

Wave
Structural Health Monitoring,” 2005, Proc. of
the SPIE 5765, p. 1

11.
14.
Rizzo, P., and di Scalea, F.L., “Ultrasonic Inspection of Multi

wire Steel Strands with the Aid of the Wavelet Transform,” 2005, Smart Materials and
Structures, Vol. 14, pp. 685

695.
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15.
S
hinde, A.D., “A Wavelet Packet Based Sifting Process and Its Application in Structural Health Monitoring,” 2004, MS Thesis, W
orcester Polytechnic
Institute.
16.
Staszewski, W.J., “Wavelet Based Compression and Feature Selection for Vibration Analysis,” 1998,
Journal of Sound and Vibration, v. 211(5), p. 735

760.
17.
Yuan, S., Wang, L., and Wang, X., “A New Damage Signature for Composite Structural Health Monitoring,” 2004, Proc. of the 2
nd
European Workshop
on Structural Health Monitoring, Munich, Germany, July 7

9, 2004, p. 1

8.
18.
Hou, Z., Noori S. and Amand, St. R., “A Wavelet

Based Approach for Structural Damage Detection”, 2000, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics,
126, pp. 667

683.
Table B.
16
–
References on triangulation for damage lo
cation.
Reference
Summary
White et al, 2005, “Modeling and Material Damage Identification of a
Sandwich Plate Using MDOF Modal Parameter Estimation and the Method of
Virtual Forces”
Conference: Developed a distributed sensor array technique for detecting
and
locating damage.
Sundararaman, 2003, “Structural Diagnostics through Beamforming of Phased
Arrays: Characterizing Damage in Steel and Composite Plates”
Thesis: Outlined a phased array directional filtering algorithm for damage
localization in steel an
d woven composite structures.
1.
Sundararaman, S., “Structural Diagnostics through Beamforming of Phased Arrays: Characterizing Damage in Steel and Composite
Plates,” 2003, MS
Thesis, Purdue University.
2.
White, J., Adams, D.E., Jata, K.V., “Modeling and Mate
rial Damage Identification of a Sandwich Plate Using MDOF Modal Parameter Estimation and
the Method of Virtual Forces,” 2005, Proc. of the International Mechanical Engineers Congress and Exposition, Nov 5

11, 2005, Orlando, FL, Paper #:
80472.
Table B.
17
–
References on transfer path, other types of data analysis, and non

contact sensing.
Reference
Summary
Donskoy, D. et al., 2001, “Nonlinear Acoustic Interaction on Contact
Interfaces and Its Use for Nondestructive Testing”
Donskoy
, D.M. et al., 1998, “Vibro

acoustic Modulation Nondestructive
Evaluation Technique”
Journal: Used the modulation of a high

frequency ultrasonic wave by low
frequency vibration to detect defects.
Ballad, E.M. et al., 2004, “Nonlinear Modulation Technique
for NDE with Air

Coupled Ultrasound ”
Journal: Studied a new air

coupled nonlinear acoustic modulation method
that used non

contact ultrasound excitation.
R
ek, R. et al., 2006, “ Ultrasonic C

Scan and Shearo
graphy NDI
Techniques Evaluation of Impact Defects Identification”
Journal: Compared the ultrasonic C

scan with laser shearography method in
the impact damage identification of sandwich panels.
Edwards, R.S., et al., 2006, “Dual EMAT and PEC Non

Contact
Probe:
Applications to Defect Testing”
Journal: Applied a dual

probe combining electromagnetic acoustic
transducers and a pulsed eddy current sensor to detect defects.
Cho, H. et al., 1996, “Non

Contact Laser Ultrasonics for Detecting Subsurface
Journal: Employed non

contact and non

destructive laser ultrasonics to
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Lateral
Defects”
identify subsurface lateral defectsK
Warnemuende, K. et al., 2004, “Actively Modulated Acoustic Nondestructive
Evaluation of Concrete”
gournalW ptudied nonlinear frequency a
nalysis methods for concrete damage
detection and evaluation using actively modulated acoustic signalsK
Moussatov, A. et al., 2002, “Frequency Up
J
Conversion and crequency aown
J
Conversion of Acoustic Waves in Damaged Materials”
gournalW fnvestigated corre
lation between nonlinear signatures and amount of
damageK
Li, T.Y. et al., 2004, “Vibrational Power Flow Characteristics of Circular Plate
Structures with Peripheral Surface Crack”
gournalW fnvestigated the vibrational power flow of circular plates with
愠
surface crackK
Sun, J.Q. , 1995, “Vibration and Sound Radiation of Non
J
Uniform Beams”
gournalW mresented an analytical method for studying vibration and acoustic
radiation problems of non
J
uniform beamsK
Lu, Y. et al., 2005, “A Methodology for Structu
ral eealth jonitoring with
Diffuse Ultrasonic Waves in the Presence of Temperature Variations”
gournalW Applied diffuse ultrasonic waves to the problem of detecting
structural damage in the presence of unmeasured temperature changesK
Wevers, M., 1997, “L
istening to the pound of jaterialsW Acoustic bmission for
the Analysis of Material Behaviour”
gournalW rsed acoustic emission to do detect damage in different types of
composite materialsK
Gudmundson, P., 1999, “Acoustic Emission and Dynamic Energy Rele
ase
Rate for Steady Growth of a Tunneling Crack in a Plate in Tension”
gournalW ptudied acoustic emission and dynamic steady state growth of
tunneling cracks in membrane loaded isotropic hirchhoff platesK
Toutountzakis, T. et al., 2003, “Observation of A
coustic bmission Activity
During Gear Defect Diagnosis”
gournalW Applied acoustic emission as a non
J
destructive technique for
damage detection in rotating machineryK
Rippert, L. et al., 2000, “Optical and Acoustic Damage Detection in Laminated
Ccom Compo
site Materials”
gournalW rsed an intensity
J
modulated fibre
J
optic sensor as an alternative to
the piezoelectric transducers for acoustic emission monitoringK
Tong, F. et al., 2006, “Impact
J
Acoustics
J
Based eealth jonitoring of 呩le
J
tall
Bonding fntegrity r
sing Principal Component Analysis”
gournalW rsed the impact
J
acoustic signature in tile
J
wall inspection to mitigate
the adverse influence of surface non
J
uniformityK
ㄮ
Donskoy, D., A. Sutin, A. Ekimov, “Nonlinear Acoustic Interaction on Contact Interfaces a
nd Its Use for Nondestructive Testing,” 2001, NDT&E
international, 34:231

238.
2.
Donskov, D., A. Sutin, “Vibro

Acoustic Modulation Nondestructive Evaluation Technique,” 1998, Journal of intelligent material systems and structures,
9(9):765

771.
3.
Ballad, E. M.
, S. Yu. Vezirov, K. Pfleiderer, I. Yu.
Solodov, G. Busse, “Nonlinear Modulation Technique for NDE with Air

Coupled Ultrasound.
Ultrasonics,” 2004, 42:1031

1036.
4.
Roman R
ek, Radek Lohonka, Josef Jiron
, “Ultrasonic C

Scan and Shearography NDI Techniques Evaluation of Impact Defects Identification,”
2006, NDT&E international, 39:132

142.
5.
Edwards, R. S., A. Sophian, S. Dixon, G.

Y. Tian, X. Jian, “Dual EMAT and PEC Non

Contact Probe: Applicati
ons to Defect Testing,” 2006, NDT&E
international, 39:45

52.
6.
Cho, H., Ogawa, S., and Takemoto, M., “Non

Contact Laser Ultrasonics for Detecting Subsurface Lateral Defects,” 1996, NDT&E international,
29(5):301

306.
7.
Warnemuende, K., Hwai

Chung Wu, “Actively
Modulated Acoustic Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete,” 2004, Cement and concrete research,
34:563

570.
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31
8.
Moussatov, A., Bernard Castagn
de, Vitalyi Gusev, “Frequency Up

Conversion and Frequency Down

Conversion of Acoustic Waves in
Damaged
Materials,” 2002, Physics Letters A, 301:281

290.
9.
Li, T. Y., J. X. Liu, T. Zhang, “Vibrational Power Flow Characteristics of Circular Plate Structures with Peripheral Surface
Crack,” 2004, Journal of
sound and vibration, 276:1081

1091.
10.
Sun, J., “Vi
bration and Sound Radiation of Non

Uniform Beams,” 1995, Journal of sound and vibration, 185(5):827

843.
11.
Lu, Y., Jennifer E. Michaels, “A Methodology for Structural Health Monitoring with Diffuse Ultrasonic Waves in the Presence o
f Temperature
Variations,”
2005, Ultrasonics, 43:717

731.
12.
Wevers, M., “Listening to the Sound of Materials: Acoustic Emission for the Analysis of Material Behaviour,” 1997, NDT&E inte
rnational, 30(2):99

106.
13.
Gudmundson, P., “Acoustic Emission and Dynamic Energy Release Rate for Ste
ady Growth of a Tunneling Crack in a Plate in Tension,” 1999, Journal
of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 47:2057

2074.
14.
Toutountzakis, T., David Mba, “Observation of Acoustic Emission Activity during Gear Defect Diagnosis,” 2003, NDT&E internati
onal,
36:471

477.
15.
Rippert, L., M. Wevers, S. Van Huffel, “Optical and Acoustic Damage Detection in Laminated CFRP Composite Materials,” 2000, C
omposites science
and technology, 60:2713

2724.
16.
Tong, F., S. K. Tso, M.Y.Y. Hung, “Impact

Acoustics

Based Health Monito
ring of Tile

Wall Bonding Integrity Using Principal Component Analysis,”
2006, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 294:329

340
.
Table B.
18
–
References on variability analysis in health monitoring.
Reference
Summary
Lew, J.

S., 1995,
“Using Transfer Function Parameter Changes for Damage
Detection of Structures”
Journal: Developed an interval modeling technique to investigate how
environmental variations alter natural frequencies.
Cornwell, P.J. et al., 1999, ” Environmental Variabili
ty of Modal Parameters”
Journal: Investigated how temperature changes influence modal properties
using data from the Alamosa Canyon Bridge.
Sohn, H. et al., 1998, “Adaptive Modeling of Environmental Effects in Modal
Parameters for Damage Detection in Civ
il Structures”
Conference: Applied an adaptive filter to establish a linear correlation
between temperature and natural frequencies.
Peeters, B. et al., 2001, “Vibration

Based Damage Detection in Civil
Engineering: Excitation Sources and Temperature Effe
cts”
Journal: Used a single

input single

output ARX model to fit baseline data
and then extrapolated the influence caused by thermal variations.
Sohn, H. et al., 2003, “Statistical Damage Classification under Changing
Environmental and Operational Condi
tions”
Journal: Showed that an AR

ARX model was able to detect damage in the
presence of wide operational and environmental ranges.
Yan, A.

M. et al., 2005, “Structural Damage Diagnosis under Varying
Environmental Conditions

Part 1: A Linear Analysis”
Journal: Uses principle component analysis to monitor systems under
varying environmental conditions.
Gawronski, W., 1999, “Simultaneous placement of actuators and sensors”
Journal: Presents a sensor/actuator placement algorithm based on modal
norming.
Shi, Y.Z. et al., 2000, “Optimum Sensor Placement for Structural Damage
Detection”
Journal: Uses an eigenvector sensitivity analysis to eliminate potential sensor
locations.
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32
1.
Lew, J.

S., “Using Transfer Function Parameter Changes for Damage Detection o
f Structures,” 1995,
AIAA Journal
, 33(11):2189

2193.
2.
Cornwell, P. J., C. R. Farrar, S. W. Doebling, and H. Sohn, “Environmental Variability of Modal Parameters,”
Experimental Techniques
, 1999,
39(6):45

48.
3.
Sohn, H., M. Dzwonczyk, E. G. Straser, K. H. Law,
A. S. Kiremidjian, and T. Meng, “Adaptive Modeling of Environmental Effects in Modal
Parameters for Damage Detection in Civil Structures,” 1998,
Proc. of SPIE

The International Society for Optical Engineering
, 3325(1):127

138.
4.
Peeters, B., J. Maeck, and
G. De Roeck, “Vibration

Based Damage Detection in Civil Engineering: Excitation Sources and Temperature Effects,” 2001,
Smart Materials and Structures
, 10(1):518

527.
5.
Sohn, H., K. Worden, and C. R. Farrar, “Statistical Damage Classification under Changing
Environmental and Operational Conditions,” 2003,
Journal
of Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures
, 13(9):561

574.
6.
Yan, A.

M., G. Kerschen, P. De Boe, and J.

C. Golinval, “Structural Damage Diagnosis under Varying Environmental Conditions

Part 1: A
Linear
Analysis,” 2005,
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing
, 19(1):847

864.
7.
Gawronski, W., “Simultaneous Placement of Actuators and Sensors,” 1999,
Journal of Sound and Vibration
, 228(4):915

922.
8.
Shi, Z. Y., S. S. Law, and L. M. Zhang, “Optimum Senso
r Placement for Structural Damage Detection,” 2000,
Journal of Engineering Mechanics
,
126(11):1173

1179.
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