Advanced Placement_ Chemistry

lochfobbingMechanics

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Advanced Placement_
Chemistry

Course Syllabus_2012
-
13


The AP Chemistry course is designed for students who enjoy chemistry, have demonstrated
competence in a first year chemistry course and are willing to tackle the challenges that are certain to
be
given to them in this course. Both the science oriented and the non
-
science oriented student will
increase his/her skills while preparing for college work or to receive advanced placement credit in
college. Although many of the topics covered will have bee
n introduced in Chemistry I, they will be
covered in greater breadth and depth and with a greater emphasis on quantitative results. Advance
Placement Chemistry is a course designed much like a college freshman chemistry course. We will use a
college textbo
ok, college level laboratories, and exams that require a thorough understanding of
concepts. The major requirements for success in this course are a desire to learn and a willingness to
work diligently. Honesty in all facets of the course work and respect
for fellow students and instructor
are expectations for all of the AP Chemistry students.



Class Structure


The AP Chemistry course will emphasize laboratory investigations along with discussion material
for each unit. In order to have sufficient time to
meet the laboratory requirements of the course
students will be required to attend additional class/lab sessions at least once a week before or after
school. It is impossible to cover, during lecture, all of the material a student needs to know to pass the

AP Exam. It is the student’s responsibility to read the textbook and make sure that the assigned portions
are understood. Approximately five to six hours per week in individual study is expected of each
student.


Grading


The grade for each six week peri
o
d will be determined as follows
:



Exams/
Quizzes
= 20%



Projects = 25%



Assigned homework (i.e.
problem sets
)

and/or electronic homework
=
40%



Participation

=
15%


Sum Total = 100%


Homework, Quizzes and Exams


Homework will be assigned on a regular basis, usually as a set of problems per unit. Seldom are
there assignments that can be completed in a single evening, so students should plan ahead, using the
course syllabus provided.
Albeit, situations will arise th
at
generate

variance in the sequence and/or
timing and all students are expected to keep abreast of said
variances
.
Homework will
be graded on
correctness and
ce
rtain regard to
honest attempt
; the latter is of the teachers’ discretion
. Students will
have the opportunity to go over homework problems.
Assessments

will be given over each chapter
(which will include selected homework problems) or, for long chapters, over sections of a chapter.
Usually, there will be two tests per six
-
week
period.

All assigned work is due on the date assigned by the instructor, and normally will

not be
accepted at a later date
. Retests will only be given at the discretion of the teacher.

Exams are designed to be mini
-
AP exams to allow each student the opport
unity to practice the
format before the AP test in May. Each exam takes the entire 90 minute period. The
test consists of 25



45

multiple choice questions and 2
-

4 free response questions.
Students should master 75% of the
multiple choice and 50% of the

free response.


Primary Text


Zumdahl, Steven
Chemistry
, 5
th
ed.


Supplementary Texts


Kotz, John C. and Paul Treichel, Jr.
Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity
, 2
nd
ed.


Whitten, Kenneth W., et al.
General Chemistry
, 5
th
ed.


Lab Manuals


Beran, J.A.,
Laboratory Manual for Principles of General Chemistry, Fifth Ed.


Vonderbrink, Sally Ann
Laboratory Experiments for AP Chemistry


Electronic Homework


AP Chemistry students use an electronic homework system. Each student received a copy of the

(or access t
o the)

program for their summer assignment. The program,
Chem
-
Skill

Builders

(or UT
Quest)
, is designed to complement all of the various chemistry textbooks that are used to teach AP
Chemistry. The problems are organized by topic. When using the program
remember that the writer
(s)

was
/were

meticulous with units and significant figures.

The electronic homework data disk will be turned in on the day of each exam
; the UT quest
system will open/close access at a specific time and date
. Students may redo each
topic set as many
times as they want to improve their scores, within a given six week period, but the disk
(or UT Quest
assignment)
must be turned
-
in
/completed

on the
date required
. The electronic homework is in addition
to selected book problem assignment
s.



The AP Exam


The Advanced Placement Chemistry E
xam will be offered in May

2012
. It is expected that each
student will take the AP Exam. Most state universities will give one or two semesters of credit in
chemistry for scores of 4 or 5 on the exam (sco
res range from 1 to 5), and will grant a grade of “A” on
the transcript for AP scores of 5.


Laboratory


Each student will keep a lab notebook as a “research record” using the format prescribed. The
lab notebook will be graded periodically through a six we
ek period, but not necessarily after each lab
exercise. Some universities request to see a student’s lab notebook in order to determine if lab credit
will be given as part of the AP credit offered by the university.

A pre
-
lab assignment will be required b
efore lab work can be done on a specific lab exercise.
Since the lab experiments are usually taken from a university level lab manual more than one class
period may be required for completion of the lab work. It may be necessary to complete lab work before

and after school. Missed lab work must be rescheduled and made up within one week of the absence
from the lab.


Lab equipment broken or damaged because of inappropriate lab procedure or behavior will be
the responsibility of the student. Safety regulation
s must be adhered to during any work in the lab.
Closed toed shoes must be worn during lab. A Safety Contract is provided with this sheet for both
student and parents to sign before any lab work is permitted.


Time Requirement


For a student to do well in
AP Chemistry it may be necessary to allot more time to cover the
required content in lecture and laboratory. Therefore, each student will be required to attend a six hour
session in the fall and again in the spring. Also, during the year there are three ad
vanced Placement
Tutoring sessions on Saturdays which take place at Townview from 8:30 am to 2:30 pm. AP Strategies
hires presenters who are experts in their field to conduct the sessions. Lunch is provided at all Saturday
events. Tutoring is available bef
ore and after school. Each student needs to indicate that they are in
need of tutoring to make sure that Mr. Almaguer does not have a previous commitment.


Parent Contact:


If you would like to discuss the progress of your son/daughter in AP Chemistry, or
have

any questions
about the course, please call the school and leave a message. I will

return your call promptly. My email is
Xalmaguer@dallasisd.org
.




AP Chemistry_ Course Outline

Fall Semester 2012


First

Six Weeks

Chemical Foundations Chapter 1

Topics:

1. Measurement

2. Significant Figures

3. Dimensional Analysis

Text problems: AP Summer Assignment

Electronic homework: Topic Measurement (or UT Quest)


Atoms, Molecules, and Ions


Chapter 2

Topics:

1. Atom
ic theory

2. Atomic structure

3. Molecules and ions

Laboratory: Chromatography: Cations

Text problems: AP Summer Assignment

Electronic homework: Topic 2 (or UT Quest)


Stoichiometry


Chapter 3

Topics:

1. The mole, molar mass

2. Percent composition,
empirical and molecular formulas

3. Chemical equations

4. Stoichiometric calculations

Laboratory: Empirical Formulas

Text problems: AP Summer Assignment

Electronic homework: Topic


Stoichiometry (or UT Quest)


Gases


Chapter 5

Topics:

1. Kinetic molecula
r theory, Avogadro’s hypothesis

2. Gas Laws


Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure, Ideal Gas Law,
Graham’s Law of Diffusion

3. Stoichiometric relationships in gaseous reactions

4. Nonideal gases


sources of deviations, pressure, a
nd volume consequences, reasons

Laboratory: Molar Volume of a Gas

Text problems: 24,27,29,34,36
-
44(even),48
-
54(even),63,72
-
76(even),80,82

Electronic homework: Gases (or UT Quest)


Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry


Chapter 4

Topics:

1. Electrolytes

2. Types of reactions

3. Acid/Base reactions

4. Redox

Laboratory:

1. Qualitative Analysis

2. Acid/
Base Titration

Text Problems: 11,12,16
-
18,24,28,30,33,34,40,46,48,50,58
-
66(even)

Electronic Homework: Chemical Reactions, Oxidation/Reduction
(or UT Quest)

Second Six Weeks

Electrochemistry


Chapter 17

Topics:

1. Galvanic and electrolytic cells

2. Cell potential, electrical work, free energy

3. Nernst equation

Laboratory:

1. Electrochemical Cells

Text problems:
16,25,26,28,30,33,34,36,40,43,35,50,55,59,60,64,73,79,83,89

Electronic homework: Electrochemistry (or UT Quest)

Thermochemistry


Chapter 6

Topics:

1. Energy

2. Enthalpy and Calorimetry

3. Hess’s Law

Laboratory:

1. Calorimetry

2. Hess’s Law

Text Problems:
18,20,22,24,26,29,30,32,34
-
38(even),52
-
56(even),60
-
62(even)

Electronic homework: Thermochemistry (or UT Quest)

Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy


Chapter 16

Topics:

1. Spontaneity

2. Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics

3. Temperature, Pressure, a
nd Spontaneity

4. Free Energy

Text Problems: 17,18,22
-
26(even),28,3437,40,44,45,49,50,56,58,62

Electronic homework: Thermodynamics (or UT Quest)

Third Six Weeks

Atomic Structure and Periodicity


Chapter 7

Topics:

1. Atomic spectra, electrons in atoms, the

Bohr atom, quantum mechanics

2. Atomic orbital designations s,p,d,f, as well as n, l, m
l
,m
s.
.

3. Paramagnetism and diamagnetism

4. Transition


metal complexes

5. Chemical families, physical and chemical properties, periodic trends, periods vs. rows,
shie
lding, accounting for observed trends (and some anomalies)

Laboratory:

1. Atomic structure of hydrogen

Text Problems: 38
-
46(even), 50
-
56(even),61,62,66,68,74,88(even),92
-
102(even)

Electronic Homework: Atomic Structure (or UT Quest)

Nuclear


Chapter 21

Topics:

1. Nuclear stability and radioactive decay

2. The kinetics of radioactivity decay

3. Nuclear fusion and nuclear fission

Text Problems: 9
-
15,18,19
-
21,23,26

This topic will be a homework assignment during Thanksgiving break.

Bonding


Chapter 8

Topic
s:

1. For molecules or ions involving either octet bonding,
non
-
octet
(expanded octet) bonding, or
multiple bonded systems, determination of

∙ Shapes (VSEPR Theory)

∙ Polarities

∙ Type of hybridization

∙ Relative bond stabilities

Laboratory:

1. Molecular ge
ometry

Text problems: 20
-
42(even),47
-
51,59,61,63,66
-
72(even),77,81
-
91(odd)

Electronic homework: Chemical bonding

(or UT Quest)


AP Chemistry_ Course Outline

Spring

Semester
_ 2013


Fourth Six Weeks

Kinetics


Chapter 12

Topics:

1. Reaction rates and
mechanisms, terminology, kinetic energy

distribution

2. Factors affecting reaction rates

3. Reactant orders, overall reaction orders

4. Potential energy diagrams


endothermic vs. exothermic, catalyzed

and uncatalyzed,
activation energy

Laboratory:

1. Rate

Law for Crystal Violet with NaOH

2. Determination of a Rate Law

Text problems: 9
-
11,19
-
26,28,29
-
33,45
-
48,49
-
51,59
-
60

Electronic homework: Kinetics

(or UT Quest)

Intermolecular Forces, Liquids and Solids


Chapter 10

Topics:

1. Intermolecular forces and fa
ctors that determine their relative strengths,

hydrogen bonding

2. Molecular, metallic, ionic, and network and planar covalent crystals and

t
heir properties, as
well as allotropes

3. Amorphous solids, glasses and plastics

4. Heating and cooling curves

Laboratory:

1. Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water

Text problems: 14,13
-
15,31,33,35
-
41,43,44,71,72,79
-
87,91,92

Electronic homework: Intermolecular Forces

(or UT Quest)

Fifth Six Weeks

The Solution Process


Chapter 11

Topics:

1. Lattice energies, hydration e
n
ergies, endo
-

and exothermic heats of
dissolving

2. Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, DebyeHuckel

and concentration

c
onsiderations, Born
-
Haber

type

cycles, colloids

3. Applications involving freezing point depression, vapor pressure(Raoult’s Law), boiling

point
elevation

Laboratory:

1. Molar Mass of a Solid

Text problems: 9
-
14,15
-
20,27
-
31,39
-
41,47
-
49,59
-
64,71
-
73

Electronic homework:

UT Quest


Equilibrium


Chapter 13

Topics:

1. LeChatelier’s Principle


qualitative shifts in equilibria

2. Mass action
expression, K
eq
, K
p
, K
c


[initial] vs. [equilb.]

3. Minimum energy and maximum randomness considerations

4. Solubility guidelines, K
sp

Laboratory:

1. K
sp

Text problems: 9
-
12,19
-
33,37
-
45,59
-
63

Electronic homework: Equilibrium

(or UT Quest)

Sixth Six Week

Acids and Bases


Chapters 14 & 15

Topics:

1. Review of acid and base behaviors and theories


Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry, Lewis,
amphoprotism

2. K
w
, pH scale revisited, temperature effects on K
w
and K
a

3. Weak acids and weak bases


K
a
and K
b
, hydrolysis b
ehaviors,

neutralization, acid and base
anhydrides, amphoterism

4. Polyprotic acids and polybasic compounds

Laboratory:

1. Behaviors of Buffered Solutions: Buffers and Equilibria

2. Determination of K
a
and Molar Mass (weak acid
/
strong

base titration,

CBL’s

and pH meter)

Text problems:

(Chap 14)15,8
-
13,16
-
23,27
-
38,43
-
45,47
-
59,63,65,75
-
85,100,103
-
110
,
117
-
119

(Chap 15)15,21
-
46,53,55
-
57,55
-
60,79
-
85

Electronic homework: Acids/Bases

(or UT Quest) &
Buffers/Equilibrium

Organic Chemistry


Chapter 22

Topics:

1. H
ydrocarbons


nomenclature alkanes,

alkenes, alkynes, cyclic structures

2. Functional groups


carbohydrates, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids,

Esters, ethers and
nitrogen

bearing
groups (amines, amides, nitros)

Text Problems:

1
-
10,13
-
19

Electronic home
work: Organic Chemistry

(or UT Quest)

Chemistry Review

During the last six weeks students will be given the opportunity to take two practice

exams which will be
graded and reviewed as a class.


AP Chemistry_ School for the Talented and Gifted

CORE LABS

1.
Chromatography


Cations

∙ To become familiar with technique for separating a mixture of transition metal cations

2. Empirical Formula Determination

∙ To determine the empirical formula of two compounds, one by a combination reaction and the other
by a dec
omposition

3. Qualitative Analysis


Cations

∙ To identify the presence of 4 ions from 14 cations

4. Acid/Base Titration

∙ To become familiar with the properties of acids and bases

5. Electrochemical Cells

∙ To measure the relative reduction potentials for

a number of redox couples, develop and
understanding of the movement of electrons, anions and cations, study the factors which affect cell
potentials, and estimate the concentration of ions in solutions using the Nernst equation

6. Calorimetry

∙ To determ
ine the specific heat capacity of a metal and the enthalpy of neutralization for a strong
acid/strong base reaction

7. Hess’s Law

∙ To determine the energy changes associated with various steps of a reaction

8. Determining Molar Volume

∙ To determine the m
olar volume of hydrogen gas

9. Atomic Structure of Hydrogen

∙ To determine the energy, wavelength, and atomic spectral lines for hydrogen when electrons are
excited

10. Molecular Geometry

∙ To use Lewis structures to construct molecular models for
covalently bonded atoms in molecules and
polyatomic atoms

11. Rate Law for Crystal Violet with NaOH

∙ To determine integrated rate law for a reaction

12. Determination of a Rate Law

∙ To determine a rate law for a chemical reaction, determine the effect of

a catalyst on a reaction, and
the effect of temperature change on a chemical reaction

13. Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water

∙ To determine the heat of vaporization of water

14. Molar Mass of a Solid

∙ To determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile, nonelect
rolyte solute by observing the difference
between the freezing points of a solvent and the solvent with the dissolved solute

15. Ksp

∙ To determine the molar solubility of a substance

16. Buffers and Equilibra

∙ To study the effect of
strong

acid and stron
g base addition on the pH of buffered and unbuffered
systems

17. Determination of Ka and Molar Mass



Safety Contract

The chemistry laboratory must be a safe place in which to work and learn about chemistry. In
order to be sure that it is safe, there are c
ertain safety rules that must be followed. Most of these
involve just using common sense. Be sure to know and to follow all of the safety rules.


1. Wear chemical splash goggles at all times while you are in the laboratory. They

must be worn
to cover your
eyes.

2. Wear a chemical

resistant

apron.

3. Wash acid, base, or any chemical spill off of yourself immediately with large

amounts of
water. Notify your teacher of the spill.

4. If chemical substances get in your eye, wash the eye out for 15 minutes. Hold

your eye open
with your fingers while washing it out.

5. Observe the safety alerts in the laboratory directions.

6. Tie long hair back so it cannot catch fire from a Bunsen burner flame. Hair burns

very readily.

7. Wear closed

toed

shoes in the laboratory.

Do not wear bulky clothing.

8. Never eat or drink in the laboratory. Don’t chew on the end of a pen/pencil which

was lying
on the lab bench.

9. Lubricate glass tubing with glycerol or detergent before putting it into rubber

stoppers. Wrap
the tubing in a
towel, and hold it close to the stopper while gently

twisting and inserting it.
Never force it.

10. If you take more of a chemical substance from a container than you need, you

should not
return the excess to the container. This might cause contamination o
f

the substance remaining.
Dispose of the excess as your teacher directs.

11. Never smell anything in the laboratory unless your teacher tells you it is safe. Do

not smell a
substance by putting your nose directly over the container and

inhaling. Instead,
waft the vapors
toward your nose by gently fanning the vapors

toward yourself.

12. Never taste materials in the lab.

13. Never work in the lab alone.

14. Know the location of and the method of operation of safety equipment: fire

extinguishers,
safety showe
r, eye wash, safety blanket, fume hood, emergency

gas cutoff.

15. If you burn yourself on a hot object, immediately hold the burned area under cold

water for
15 minutes. Inform your teacher.

16. Keep the laboratory desk, sink, storage areas, and floor clea
n, dry, and neat.

17. Put lids or caps back on bottles and jars.

18. Clean up spills immediately. If you spill a very reactive substance such as an

acid or base,
notify the people in the area and then obtain assistance from your

teacher. Acid spills should

be
neutralized with baking soda, base spills with

vinegar before cleaning them up.

19. Never heat a closed system.

20. Be sure you have lighted a match before turning on your Bunsen burner.

21. If your Bunsen burner goes out, turn the gas off immediately.

22. When heating a test tube, never point the open end at anyone.

23. Always add acid to water and stir the solution while adding the acid.
Never add

water to an
acid.

24. Report all accidents to your teacher.

25. Clean up broken glass with a brush and du
st pan. Do not use your fingers.

26. Dispose of broken glass in the specified container. Do not mix glass with other

waste.

27. Absolutely no horseplay is allowed in the laboratory.

Please sign below to indicate that you have read
and will adhere to the rules of
Safety in the Laboratory.
Parents will also sign to indicate that they have read

the rules.




________________________________________ ________________

Student Name (printed)




Date



_____________________________________
___

Student Signature



________________________________________ ________________

Parent Name (printed)




Date



________________________________________

Parent Signature





AP CHEMISTRY Summer Assignment


Note:
Students know before they leave for
summer break that they will have AP Chemistry as a course
selection for the next year. Therefore, each student is given a copy of the summer assignment, including
Chem
-
Skill Builder (or UT Quest: login ID & Password), which is due the second day of class w
hen they
return to school.


Zumdahl_
Chapter 1
-
3

Problems


It is recommended each student work the following problems in reviewing chapters 1
-
3.

It is required that students complete the Chem
-
Skill Builder
(or UT Quest)

electronic homework for

Chapter 1

Uni
ts

and Measurements, Chapter 2Elements,

Compounds and Mixtures and

Chapter 3

Molar

Relationships.



There will be a test over these chapters during the second week of school.

CHAPTER 1

42, 44, 58, 66, 69, 72, 74, 82, 88, 89


CHAPTER 2

26, 28, 32, 40, 48, 5
6, 64, 74, 78, 84


CHAPTER 3

24, 38, 48, 52, 56, 66, 70, 76, 78, 84, 90, 96, 100, 104, 112, 118, 124, 130
(the last 5 or

so of these are quite challenging!!)



Chemistry Web Sites to Visit

The College Board

http://collegeboard.org/ap/chemistry/

ChemPlace

http://www.chemplace.com/

Virtual Chemistry Lab

http://neon.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/default.html

Friend’s School Home Page

http://www.bcpl.net/~kdrews/chempage.html

Think Quest. & CheMystery

http://www.thinkquest.org/library/lib/si
te_sum_outside.html?tname=3659&
url=
3659/structures/

ChemTeam

http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/ChemTeamIndex.html

Acid Base Tutorial

http://jeffline.tju.edu/CWIS/DEPT/biochemistry/pH_tutorial/phmenu.html

Electronic Homework

http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/
spain/TitlPage.html

Student Oriented Tutorial page

Erik’s Chemistry

http://members.tripod.com/~EppE/index.htm

Coordination Chemistry Notes

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/1956/chem1_2.html

Statistical
explanation

of “r”

http://webster.unh.edu/~ccobb
/981/class9.html

Gateway to some decent tutorials from a Dallas Community College

Professor

http://edie.cprost.sfu.ca/~rhlogan/
.

More good review, tutorial and notes with some interactive quizzing

pretty

good stuff!

http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/AC
Tnotes.

html

Hodgepodge of Chemistry stuff

this is an index

click on things to view

and evaluate

http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/

Zumdahl Information

http://college.hmco.com/chemistry/general/zumdahl_5e/index.html

Bad Chemistry

common
misconceptions
!

http://www.princeton.edu/~lehmann/BadChemistry.html

Electrochemistry tutorial

http://gaia.fc.peachnet.edu/tutor/electroc.htm

Excellent set of tutorials

http://gaia.fc.peachnet.edu/tutor/

Way too much information on derivatives as they relate to titration c
urves;

for the calculus students you have that need to know!

http://chemlabs.uoregon.edu/GeneralResources/pdf/derivtext.pdf

Some resources

http://www.anachem.umu.se/cgibin/pointer.exe?Demonstrations

Steve Marsden’s Chemistry from
Harvard Westlake

prep scho
ol;

EXCELLENT


http://www.hwscience.com/smarsden/index.html

Vernier

http://www.vernier.com/

TI 83+ tutorial

http://score.kings.k12.ca.us/lessons/ti83tutorial/mainpage.html

TI Graph Link Software

http://education.ti.com/product/accessory/link/down/linkwin.h
tml

TEA Correspondence regarding award money for 3’s or better

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/taa/gted010401.html

TEA Correspondence page

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/taa/sortf.cgi

graphing calculator mandatory on TAAS II math starting in 9th grade

http://www.tea.state.tx.us/taa/stud010522.html

EXCELLENT video clip animation of atomic orbitals and hybridization

http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/OChem/DEMOS/Orbitals.html