SIID Projec Workshp - Rajeswari S. Raina - Systems of Innovation ...

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Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Rainfed

agriculture:
policy learning for
inclusive innovation

Paper presented at the SIID Project Workshop,

NIIM, Zhejiang University

Hangzhou, China

22
-
24 February 2012

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

India
-
China:

poverty amidst plenty


India
-
China: 49
-
51% of global chronic
poverty, 55 % of global extreme poverty
(McKay and
Baulch
, 2004)


India
-
China


PERSISTENT RURAL poverty
(
Glauben

et al, 2012; Planning Commission, 2010)


-

Regional differentiation


higher
dependence on agrarian incomes


India


higher probability to remain poor
for longer


MESSAGES
-

INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT


22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

SIID Module 2 A



analysis based on evidence of exclusion and
innovation
-


From secondary data


the
rainfed

farming
states , plantations and Northeastern states


Rainfed

farming innovation systems
-

2
chronic poverty states


AP and MP


2
districts Low
-
Low and Low
-
High (rainfall and
irrigation) intensity


From case analyses


Private groundwater
sharing project (
Kadiri
,
Anantapur



AP),
Chetna

organics (
Adilabad
-

AP), pulse
production systems in tribal villages (
Dewas



MP), organic
kodu

rice systems (East
Nimad



MP).

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Rainfed

agriculture



spaces of exclusion

Comparing persistent poverty India
-
China


-

remote rural
-

rainfall matters
-

private
investment mobilization

Regional differences between


Zhejiang
-
Hubei
-

Yunnan


Haryana
-
Andhra Pradesh
-
Madhya Pradesh

Farm + non
-
farm income streams

Options for escape from poverty


innovation capacities


22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Nothing new(s)!

Groundnut farmers' suicide worries
agri

dept


TNN

Jun 13, 2011, 12.23am IST

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011
-
06
-
13/hyderabad/29652421_1_groundnut
-
farmers
-
groundnut
-
crop
-
private
-
moneylenders


ANANTAPUR: Even as the
kharif

season has started
with the timely rainfall in the drought
-
hit
Anantapur

district, the recent incidents of
suicides of groundnut farmers are ringing alarms
among the agriculture department officials....


22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS


Agriculture
-

declining contribution to national GDP

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Figure 2: Capital formation in agriculture
and allied sectors

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Crop

Area (Million Hectares)

Production (Million tonnes)

Yield (Kg/hectare)

Area under Irrigation
(%)

1960
-
61

198
0
-
81

2000
-
01

2008
-
09

1960
-
61

1980
-
81

2000
-
01

2008
-
09

196
0
-
61

198
0
-
81

200
0
-
01

200
8
-
09

196
0
-
61

198
0
-
81

200
0
-
01

200
7
-
08

Food
grain

115.58

126.
67

121.0
5

122.83

82.02

129.59

196.81

234.47

710

102
3

162
6

190
9

19.1

29.7

43.4

46.8

Rice

34.13

40.1
5

44.71

45.54

34.58

53.63

84.98

99.18

101
3

133
6

190
1

217
8

36.8

40.7

53.6

56.9

Wheat

12.93

22.2
8

25.73

27.75

11.00

36.31

69.68

80.68

851

163
0

270
8

290
7

32.7

76.5

88.1

90.9

Coarse
cereals

44.96

41.7
8

30.26

27.45

23.74

29.02

31.08

40.04

528

695

102
7

145
9

7.7

9.2

12.5

14.2

Total
Pulses

23.56

22.4
6

20.35

22.09

12.70

10.63

11.08

14.57

539

473

544

659

8.0

9.0

12.5

16.2

Major
Oilseeds

13.77

17.6

22.77

27.56

6.98

9.37

18.44

27.72

507

532

810

100
6

3.3

14.5

23.0

27.1

Cotton

7.61

7.82

8.53

9.41

5.60

7.01

9.52

22.28

125

152

190

403

12.7

27.3

34.3

35.1

Sugarcan
e

2.42

2.67

4.32

4.42

110.0
0

154.25

295.96

285.03

455
49

578
44

685
77

645
53

69.3

81.2

92.1

93.5



All
-
India Area, Production and Yield of Major Crops and proportion of area Irrigated over time






(
Source:: Agricultural Statistics at a glance)

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

States

Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient

GIA/GCA and Value of Output

NIA/NSA and Value of Output

Cropping Intensity and Value of Output

1980
-
83

2003
-
06

1980
-
83

2003
-
06

1980
-
83

2003
-
06

Andhra Pradesh

0.73

0.46

0.77

0.60

0.67

0.43

Gujarat

0.69

0.03

0.71

0.11

0.70

0.27

Karnataka

0.00

0.26

-
0.09

0.25

0.16

0.48

Madhya Pradesh

& Chattisgarh

0.23

0.27

0.24

0.35

0.03

0.28

Maharashtra

0.43

-
0.22

0.46

-
0.12

0.12

0.69

Orissa

0.55

0.68

0.54

0.70

0.70

0.09

Rajasthan

0.52

0.68

0.64

0.67

0.41

0.47

Tamil Nadu

0.14

0.15

0.35

0.22

0.16

0.21

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

State
-
wise proportion of area under dominant crops
and fertilizer
use
(
Source: DES, 2010;
Beiintemma

et al, 2008)

Assured irrigation


defining the
socio
-
technological paradigm


AP and MP


two states


two districts
each of LH and LL (rainfall
-
irrigation)


Over 90 % public investment


in
irrigation


LH and LL districts alike


low public
investment


LH districts


high private investment


LL districts


non
-
farm livelihoods emerge

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Innovation systems


4
rainfed

agriculture districts


Excluded from mainstream public sector
agricultural S&T, administrative and
investment support


Differential private investment patterns


3 distinct combinations of farm
-
non
-
farm
livelihoods


-
farm + migration


-
farm + rural enterprises


-
farm + education/services


22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Anantapur




private groundwater sharing

Innovation


technological +institutional
changes (40 households primary survey)


Persistent poverty


kharif

assurance


Groundwater norms


Protective irrigation


Farmers
-
water owners
-
WASSAN in resource
constraint + threat contexts


Investment and infrastructure development


Legal and institutional


Scaling
-
up: line Department


22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS

Institutional innovations


transformative potential for
inclusion


State / line department


enabling or
scaling
-
up


Mainstream innovation system
components
-

legal and institutional
changes


Agricultural administration


Central,
State, District, Block levels


Policy making


learning constraints in
macro
-
economic, planning and investment

22
-
24 Feb 2012

R. S. Raina, SIID Project
-
CPR,
CSIR
-
NISTADS