Present Challenges in Turkey and the Western Balkans - Citizens ...

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Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Human Security


concepts and
challenges in Turkey and the
western Balkans

hCa

, Istanbul 19
th

February, 2013


Mary Martin


What do we mean by ‘human security’?

2 ways of looking at it

1.


WHO?


People


humanising security


HOW
?


Means
are as important as goals ; human
security as an
approach as well as an end
state


WHAT?


The importance of everyday life; interconnected threats; justice


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. Freedom from Fear, Freedom from Want, and Right to Dignity



Focus on what kind of
humans

as well as what kind of
harms










The European Union and HS


Barcelona Report + a Human Security
Doctrine


which capabilities?


Madrid Report


how to deploy capabilities?


External relations, but internal dilemmas


Post Lisbon Treaty


what role for HS?


In the Neighbourhood


To complement national security and defence


As a domestic policy? Greece, the Balkans?


A framework: 5 principles

1.
Primacy of human rights


Which rights


positive and negative


how are they threatened?


Who should defend them ?


Rule of law , not rule of war/corruption


Focus
on individual need not macro indicators




2. Legitimate
political authority



Aim
is credible and trust
-
worthy institutions


make people feel safe


Focus on creating space for life as usual


Not
necessarily re
-
creating the
state


Local and regional governance


Accountability


External assistance must also be scrutinised

3. Bottom
-
up
approach


Sustainable


outsiders can only help not
deliver


Requires
l
ocal knowledge, representation
participation and accountability
mechanisms


Real empowerment
versus token
capacity
building


Increased roles for women


Attention to youth
, minorities

4. Effective
multilateralism


Commitment to work with
others


Commitment to rules/norms


Should build not erode legitimacy


Synthesis and inter
-
operability
versus
duplication
and rivalry


End to ‘stove
-
pipe’ mentality

5. Regional
focus


Focus on wider connections of conflicts


Existing dialogue emphasises ‘states



How to engage the neighbourhood


Not just as source of threat but also
opportunity
eg

justice, economic initiatives

Policy implications


Stability
or sustainability?


Rule of law


Security @individual level = empowerment


Justice, inclusion



a strong civil society
-

accountability


Macro economic measures
-

GDP/currencies


Plus ....Issues
of crime, jobs, micro credit


‘GOOD’ POLICIES




G
ranular

Leading
to



O
rganic





O
pportunity




D
ignity

The challenges of a human security
approach

addressing complexity


Grey areas


Coping mechanisms
and survival strategies


heroic or harmful?


Presence of ambiguous
and contradictory
markers of human
security


Radical shifts in
perceptions



Dialogues to manage
complexity?




clashes between principles
:


-

the need for trade
-
offs :
eg

human rights
versus

bottom up , universal
norms
vs

particularist

cultures


-
legitimating political
authority : who decides?


-


Choices should be
deliberative and
transparent



The state and HS



Complementary or competitive?


The paradox of HS


challenges the state but
also needs to collaborate with it


Who should deliver HS?


Can the state be co
-
opted ?


Re
-
aligning priorities and powers

Other challenges


Coping with messy
outcomes




Undesirable and
unintended
consequences


No neat edges


systematic not systemic


Ownership of process
and results


Balance between
universal templates
and local translation


Technical assistance or
political intervention?




HS is deeply political


Outcomes are important
as well as process


How to avoid the ‘Twin
Peaks’


No added value


HS as a technology of
governance/
biopolitics


Lessons (not learned) from

the Balkans experience


Legitimacy



De jure

AND
de facto




Legacy


integrated,
sustainable
programmes;
including the private
sector



Coherence


Making multilateralism
effective


stakeholder
identification and
engagement

Agreement on objectives




approaches




narratives


Timeframes



benchmarking evaluation,
accountability

Continuous assessment

HS Challenges in the region




Different levels and
types of vulnerability


Managing the transition


Question of capacity
or will?


Legacy: Security
services; arms


Crime and porous
borders




_________ ____
____________ __________ __
__________



____ ______



___ ___ ______________



_________ ___________



_____ ______ ____



____ _______ _________








Unemployment, and
creating legitimate
occupations


Reshaping the social
safety net and the
political contract


An inclusive society


The affective dimension


hope, optimism,
managing expectations

Some ideas for thematic research



A regional security sector reform programme along HS
lines?


Access to justice


Involve and stimulate the private sector


HS
can also apply to business


What kind of civil society
?


Citizen networks


Dialogue and grass roots representation



Exploiting new technologies


countering
marginalisation




Doing HS


research
methods


Good research is research conducted
with

people rather than
on

people


changing
the perspective of the researcher
to
achieve


a
different ethical
position



a different
kind of knowledge


unleash
social, political processes of change


Participatory Action Research (PAR)


PR/PAR = attempts to address power
imbalances + oppressive social structures


Between researcher and subject


Between outside observer and inside
actor


Between
priveleged

and
underpriveleged
/powerful and powerless

Power of the researcher:


Select who has knowledge


Which type of knowledge to include


Ask questions


Interpret data

Risks to communities?




PR
-
Values the researched community as a vital
part of the research project and its members as
experts of their experiences [ Grant, Nelson,
Mitchell]



‘The role of PR is to enable people to
empower themselves through the
construction of their own knowledge in a
process of action or reflection or
conscientisation
’ [
Freire
]

Doing research as though people
matter


What harms? Which humans?


What’s wrong with surveys?


Need to address power imbalances


A dialogic approach


Open ended conversations


2 level translation


Multidirectional security markers