Use of Streaming Video Strips at ESL Classrooms

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Nov 5, 2013 (4 years and 7 days ago)

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CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

1

Analysis of Technology Innovation in Education

Use of
Streaming Video
Strips

at ESL Classrooms


Eun
-
Jin

KimHan

I. Introduction

W
ikipedia defines educational Technology as the use of technology to improve
teaching

and learning.
Technolog
y can provide certain
advantages that enable
specific implementations of
new pedagogies.
Moreover, educational
technology provides
tools that help teachers achieve
a higher level of
individualized instruction.

Of
various educational
technologies currently utilized,
I’d like to analyze the use of
streaming video strips

for adult ESL (English as a Second
Language) learners.

II. Overview

When teaching ESL learners, video

(especially video streaming)

can be used
in
various instructional settings such as regular classrooms and distance
-
learning sites in
which information is transmitted to learners who interact with a facilitator (that is,
instructors) via video or online as well as self
-
study situations. Video and
other
multimedia have been used in the ESL classrooms for a long time. Nowadays, teachers
and students can both download the film and video clips related to English language
learning from many well
-
established ESL websites if they have high
-
speed Internet
connections. In addition, videos could be used in ESL instructors' professional
development or with students as ways of presenting content, starting conversations, and
offering more detailed explanations for concepts, especially they are difficult for the
CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

2

students to understand.

Most of all, improvement of Web technology makes it possible for people to
use real
-
time delivery of audio called

streaming


when there is the Internet connection
available.

Many radio stations around the world are now casting th
eir program
s

on the
Internet. Thus, a lot of

special events and conference presentations are being delivered
l
ive

over the Web in streaming format.

Furthermore
, some n
etworks

introduced their
RealAudio/
Real Video

streaming technology

that provides

a signif
icant improvement in
quality

compared to other methods of real time delivery of audio.

Streaming video is the playing of compressed sounds or images as they are
being downloaded by a browser. There are two types of streaming: 1) live streaming
sends the s
ignal as it is happening; 2) stored streaming sends a pre
-
recorded file

(
National Teacher Training Institute
, 2004
)
.
We all know that

a
dvances in computing
and networking technology
make it possible
to deliver sound and video across the
Internet. However
,
according to Cunningham and Francis (2001), there are problems
with using video streaming in the classrooms and other settings: T
here are still many
users with old computers and slow network connections, and care needs to be taken to
ensure that streaming
technology is not used inappropriately and without due regard for
the target audience.

We w
ill discuss how to minimize those

problems here.

III. The Setting

The setting of the use of authentic videos will be English as a Second Language
(ESL) classroom for

adult learners. Teachers will be the ones who majored in Teaching
English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). They will be familiar with a wide
range of resources and technologies so that they can choose, adapt, and use the
resources and technologies
in effective ESL teaching, including ESL curriculum books
CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

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and materials, audiovisual materials and published and on
-
line multimedia materials.
Learners will be adult learners who study English as a Second Language. Subject matter
will be English focusing o
n all four English skills: writing, speaking, listening, and
vocabulary. To begin with, teachers should emphasize conversational English because
most of the students at ESL or EFL classes take the course with the purpose of
communicating efficiently with p
eople who speak in English.

IV. The Technology
-
Integrated Solution

The technology used to provide more teacher
-
student contact in the second
language methods course is web
-
based streaming digital video clips of teacher and
student
ESL best practices that a
re available to students wh
enever they wish to access
them

(Dhonau & McAlpine, 2002
).

However, in order to use video streaming
effectively in ESL classrooms, there are certain rules to adhere.

To begin with, t
he use of video streaming should be limited to

those times
that
no other media will s
atisfy
.
According to Jere Brophy,

teachers generally plan by
concentrating on the content they intend to cover and the steps involved in the activities
their students will carry out, without giving much thought to th
e goals or intended
outcomes of instruction


(1999, p.13). Therefore, sometimes they provide too much for
students to digest. In this respect, less can be better than more for students at times.


Allan

(1985)

note
s

t
hat people tend

to

watch television
and
video

in a passive

manner

because m
ost people u
sually watch television
or video

for relaxation
and do not
feel a need to complete worksheets or write sample

paragraphs about the program
s

they
have seen.

Therefore, ESL teachers make sure to provide

challeng
ing activi
ties and
tasks that require
students

to focus on diffe
rent aspects of the video
.

As
Stempelski and Tomalin (1990
) suggest
,

video can be used to make students
CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

4

aware of non
-
verbal aspects of communication and cross
-
cultural issues
: T
he use of
vide
o to encourage communication
.
Therefore, it would be an effective
language

teaching tool that can be used in the ESL classrooms if it is used in conjunction with
proper activities.

In addition, there are also several
reasons that limiting the amount of str
eaming
video
in the ESL classrooms
should be considered for the effective teaching
. First, not
all
ESL classrooms

have access to a high speed conn
ection. T
o those classes
,
thus,
downloading video may be a tedious

and time
-
consuming

task

because

e
ven s
mall
clips
seem to take
too long
on dial
-
up connections.
One more reason can be
the ‘high
traffic'

on the
Internet
. When the streams are
very
busy, the connection is

not
as reliable.
As

Cunningham and Fr
ancis

claim,
it is really difficult predict whether or not
there is
sufficient bandwidth to en
sure an uninterrupted broadcast

(2001). In addition to the
problems mentioned, quality,
noise, packet loss, retransmission and out
of order packet
delivery
can b
e also issues

that can affect real time streaming over the Internet.


However, regardless of all the possible problems, using video streaming in the
ESL classrooms can greatly benefit if it is utilized appropriately.

There are many
advantages to usin
g str
eaming video in the
ESL classrooms
.


F
irst, streaming media
allows
teachers

to start and stop whenever necessary.
Not only does this
permit

the
teacher to stop and start easily, it also allows the students to do the same thing at their
leisure. This

featur
e can surely

allow

students to review what was missed when they
need it.

Most of all, most ES
L students will have difficulty in
understand
ing

video
streaming in English

when they listen it first time, so they
need to watch and listen to
the video streamin
g as many times as they can.
In this re
gards
,

we can say that

it helps
CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

5

the students take more responsibility for their learning.

Therefore, ESL t
eachers who
have streaming video on the internet
should encourage students to u
tilize

it as a review
tool and r
eference.
As Brophy maintains,

practice is one of the most important yet least
appreciated aspects of learning in classrooms


(1999, p.21).
When

ESL

student
s
watch
video streaming
, pause certain parts and repeat what they heard can

allow

they to
practice
until they are
familiar

with English words or sentences used in a real life setting.

This
feature (stop, go back to a certain
scene, listen, and practice until being familiar
with it) will
give

the
ESL
students the a
dvantage of being able to practice
at th
eir
convenience
.


One more benefit of using streaming video in the ESL classrooms is that it
helps the visual learners to understand contents more easily: listening to and watching
the video will help students to clarify content.

Most of all, teachers shou
ld
make

s
tudents
feel that the video is an integral part of their
English language
learning
experience
.
ESL teachers can also add
an interactive compone
nt to each video clip that
could

allow a
n ESL

student to react to reflective questions about the clips d
irectly on a
computer screen and would email the responses to the
m

(Allen, 1985)
.

ESL t
eachers
should

follow up the video with culminating hands
-
on
activities
,

student
-
centered
projects, and student
-

or teacher
-
designed investigations.

For example, if stud
ents
watched video streaming related to using the post offices in the U.S., they need to visit a
local post office to see how people mail their packages and how to buy stamps there.
ESL students also investigate how much it would cost to send mail to their

respective
countries on the Internet and compare the rates. Teachers could implement various
learning activities after all: Video streaming can

be used in conjunction with field trips,
guest speakers, letter
-
writing projects, and journal writing
.

Videos c
an be stimulating to
CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

6

adult

ESL

learners

since m
any videos are based on stories, which are enjoyed by almost
everyone and particularly favored in some cultures. Videos that use the conventions of
entertainment television (plot, character, development, and r
esolution) may

especially

catch the attention of
adult
learners who do not yet read.

Un
ited Streaming
is the largest
digital video and video clip library available:

http://www.unitedstreaming.com/


V.
Implic
ations

There exists the need for teachers to meld of these two areas: Technology and
ESOL. Teachers in of ESOL students or in ESOL classrooms need to apply strategies,
knowledge and skills to effectively integrate the technology to improve the achievement
of their students. The use of educational technologies can be an effective method to
meet the unique educational challenges of limited English proficient students, assisting
them to effectively communicate with others while developing

primary target langua
ge
skills
.
As Allan points out (1985
)
,

there is no single
proper

way to use video, only
as
many right wa
ys as there are effective uses.

Therefore, ESL teachers focus on
improving their teaching strategies of using technology including video streaming for
e
ffective teaching.

VI.
Conclusion

As we know, s
trea
ming does not require
teachers and students

to have large
hard drives to download clips before playing them
, so it is fairly easy to utilize in ESL
classrooms and students


home if there is an Internet co
nnection. Furthermore, t
here is a
great deal of
streaming audio materials available on the
World Wide
Web
for ESL
students.
According to Allan (1985) video is a good medium

for listening to a foreign
language, because of the aid to understanding given by t
he visuals and the way it
CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

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focuses students' attention.

For English language learners

including ESL students
, video
has the added benefit of providing real lan
guage and cultural information
:
The greatest
benefit of using video streaming could be
the availab
ility of authentic language
materials in a

multimedia format. For
ESL

teacher
s, audio and video are

not

just another
method or medium of teaching, but they are a must in their teaching because

they

provide direct access to the

content
, that is, actual
huma
n communication in all its
linguistic and cultural diversity.
Most of all, it is not hard for ESL teachers to utilize in
order to establish lesson plans based on video streaming related to the contents they
plan to teach.
















CEP 810 (Analysis of Technology)

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Reference

Allan M

(1985) Teaching English with Video London: Longman
.


Brophy, J.

(1999).
Teaching. Educational Practices Series
-
1. International Academy of
Education. International Bureau of Education. pp.1
-
35.

Cunningham D. & Francis, N. (2001).
An Introduction to Streami
ng Video
.

Cultivate
I
nteractive, issue 4, 7 May 2001
,
URL: <http://www.cultivate
-
int.org/issue4/video/>

Dhonau, S. & McAlpine, D. (2002)."Streaming" best practices: Using digital video
-
teaching segments in the FL/ESL methods course. Foreign Language Annals


35(November/December):
pp.
632
-
636.


Haggard, R. L. (2002). Class Delivery via Streaming Audio/Video over the Internet

Retrieved November 2, 2005 from
http://digital5.ece.tntech
.edu/Rlh/Papers/Streaming_AV.htm


Lonergan J (1984) Video in Language Teaching Cambridge: C
ambridge
U
niversity
P
ress.


National Teacher Training Institute

(2004)
.

Why use video in the classroom. Retrieved
November 2, 2005 from
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/ntti/resources/video1.html


Stempleski S & B Tomalin (1990) Video in Action London: Prentice Hall
.


Wikipedia, Retrieved Oct. 26, 2005 from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_technology