Exploring Teachers Self-Efficacy toward the Web Pedagogical

linerdeliciousSecurity

Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

73 views


1

Exploring Teachers


Self
-
Efficacy
toward

the Web Pedagogical
Content Knowledge

in Taiwan


Min
-
Hsien Lee

National Taiwan Normal University

Chin
-
Chung Tsai

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

Chun
-
Yen Chang

National Taiwan Normal University






Please
address

all correspondence to:

Min
-
Hsien Lee

National Taiwan Normal University

Department of Earth Sciences

No. 88, Sec. 4, Ting
-
Chou Rd.,

Wunshan District, Taipei, Taiwan 11677

Tel: 886
-
2
-
2
730
-
3219

Fax: 886
-
2
-
2
730
-
3
222

E
-
mail:
minhsien@mail.nctu.edu.tw





Paper presented at the


Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association


New York City, March 24

28, 2008


2

Exploring Teachers


Self
-
Efficacy
toward

the Web Pedagogical
Content K
nowledge

in Taiwan

The major purpose of this study is to
investigate

the teachers


self
-
efficacy toward Web
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (WPCK). The Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale
(WPCKS) was developed to
explore

teachers


self
-
efficacy toward WP
CK and to additionally
assess

their attitudes toward the Web
-
based instruction. The p
articipants
in this study
were
558 teachers from elementary school to high school in Taiwan
.

Both exploratory and
confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the WPCKS has

satisfactory validity and
reliability measures. The
result
s suggested the shortage of teachers


general knowledge about
Web
-
related pedagogy. The correlations between teachers


self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK,
their attitudes regarding the Web
-
based instruc
tion, and their background variables (i.e., age,
years of teaching, Web experience, and experience of Web
-
related instruction) were also
examined.



Over the past decades,
one of the important issues for educational reform and
innovations

is the

integra
tion of technology into education
(e.g., AAAS, 1998).
S
everal
studies in the area of educational technology have proposed the “Technological Pedagogical
Content Knowledge” (TPCK)

by building on Shulman’
s
idea

of “pedagogical content
knowledge”

to
elaborate

teachers


technology
integration
into pedagogy (e.g.,
Mishra &
Koehler, 2006
).

They suggested

while technology is integrated into the instruction, the
technological pedagogical

content knowledge is required.

However,
Web is a special but
highly important
technology for contemporary education. T
he TPCK
, discussing

technology


in general,

may not
be sufficient

for provid
ing

particularly
adequate
information to improve teacher preparation and professional development wh
en

the
Web

is
integrated into instructi
on.

Therefore,

this study

suggest
s

that
teachers may require the Web

Pedagogical Content
Knowledge

(WPCK)
,
as extended from the ideas of

PCK (Shulman, 1986) and TPCK
(Mishra & Koehler, 2006), to teach with the
Web
, shown in Figure 1.

As shown in
F
igure 1,

we suggest

that teachers should combine the web knowledge with
their original PCK to WPCK while teaching with the
Web
.
The
F
igure 1

(a)

represents the
Web knowledge and Shulman’s (1986) PCK framework. The
F
igure 1
(b)
illustrates our
WPCK framework.
Howev
er, a
ccording to
the F
igure 1

(b)
,
this study

highlight
s

the
knowledge which
combines

web knowledge
with

pedagogical content knowledge
,

shown
as
the

shadow part

(i.e.,
Web Content Knowledge

(WCK),

Web Pedagogical Knowledge

(WPK),
and

Web Pedagogical Conten
t Knowledge
(WPCK
)
).



3


F
IGURE

1
.

The framework of Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge.


In recent two decades, educational researchers have highlighted the significance of the
teachers’ self
-
efficacy (Tschannen
-
Moran
et al.,

19
98). The teacher’s

self
-
efficacy


has
conceptualized as
the

perceptions of their own competence and ability of teaching to facilitate
students’ knowledge, values and behaviors (e.g., Guskey & Passaro, 1994; Tschannen
-
Moran
et al.,

1998; Tschannen
-
Moran &
Woolfolk
-
Hoy, 2001).
As the growing development of the
Web
-
based

instruction, the studies emphasizing the teachers’ self
-
efficacy toward the
Web

instruction may be important as well.
Furthermore, a
n investigation

about teachers’
self
-
efficacy

toward

the WP
CK may
provide noteworthy information on

how to improve
teacher e
ducation and teacher profession
al development.
For the reason
, the major purpose of
this study is to explore teachers’ self
-
efficacy toward the
Web

instruction, in particular,
toward their kn
owledge of Web pedagogical content.



Accordingly
, the main
objectives

of this study
included
:

1.

Develop

a new questionnaire, based on our framework of WPCK, to assess a group of
teachers’ self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK.

2.

Explore the correlations between te
achers’ self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK, their
attitudes regarding the Web
-
based instruction, and their background
variables
(i.e., age,
years of teaching,
Web

experience, and experience of
Web
-
related
instruction
).


Method

and Data sources

Participants

The
p
articipants
in this study
were
558

teacher
s
(
60 percent females
)

from elementary
school
s

to

high school
s

in Taiwan.
The teachers ranged in age from 22 to 65 years old

with an
average
age

of about 34 years old
, and their teaching experiences

ranged from
1

to 40 years
with an average of about 9 years.

W

C

P

P
edagogical
-
Content
Knowledge


(a)

W
eb
-
P
edagogical

Knowledge

W

C

P

W
eb
-
P
edagogical

-
Content Knowledge



(b)

W
eb
-
Content
Knowledge


4

Instrument

The
Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge Survey (WPCKS) was developed to

assess
teachers’ self
-
efficacy toward the web pedagogical content knowledge, and
was created based
on our WPCK framework
(Figure

1b)
including the Web knowledge, the W
eb
-
Content
knowledge
, the Web
-
Pedagogical knowledge
, and the Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content knowledge.

This study

used
the

two scales

(i.e., one for
general

use of the Web and the other for using
Web for
communicative
purpos
e)

identified by Peng
et al.

(2006)
to represent teacher’s
self
-
efficacy toward the We
b.
T
he items of the
WC
,
WP
, and
WPC

scales were developed
by
two
steps
.

First, we consult
ed

the teacher’s requirements regarding the
Web
-
based

instruction

with
two

expert
s

in the field of
Web
-
based learning
,

and two in
-
service teachers
who had

develop
ed and practiced the
Web
-
related instructional materials
.

Second
,

we
develop
ed the
items based on
both the
suggestions

from

above consultation and
from

the characterizations

o
f our WPCK framework
.

Furthermore
, it is also important to investigate teachers’ attitudes
toward Web instruction
,

which may play a potential role on WPCK
.

Thus, we
designed

a
scale

to
assess teacher attitude toward th
e
Web instruction.
T
otally, the WPCKS
originally
consisted of the
six scales
, is presented below:

1.

Web
-
general
:
measuring teachers


confidence in their knowledge about their use of the
Web in general, such as use of Web
-
related tools
, e.g., Be able to click
the hyperlink to
connect
to an
other W
ebsite.

2.

Web
-
communicative
:
assessing teachers


confidence in their knowledge relative to
Web
-
based communication or Web
-
based interaction
, e.g., B
e able to read others


messages
in a

chatroom.

3.

Web
-
Pedagogical

(WP)
:
evaluating teachers


confidence in their
knowledge about the
existence, components and functions of the Web as they
are
use
d

in educational settings
,
e.g., Be able to use the Web to enhance students’ learning motivation
.

4.

Web
-
Content (WC)
:
measuring teachers


confidence in their knowledge about th
e
manner in which the Web and content can
mutually

reinforce each other
, e.g.,

Be able to
search for various
material
s

on the Web

to be integrated into

course content.

5.

Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content (WPC)
:
surveying teachers


confidence in their knowledge
about h
ow to
identify

appropriate

online learning activities to fit the needs of a particular
course and the
practice

of appropriate pedagogies to support online activities
, e.g., Be
able to

use Web resource
s

to guide students


learning activities
for

a certain c
ourse unit.

6.

Attitudes toward Web
-
based instruction (Attitudes)
:
measuring the extent of teachers


agreement regarding the usage of Web
-
based instruction
, e.g.,

Web
-
based
teaching can
enhance

students’
learning motivation.

T
he first five scales were

present
ed
with bipolar strongly unconfident/strongly confident
statements in a six
-
point Likert mode
.
Moreover,

the items of
Attitudes

scale were
presented
with bipolar strongly
disagree
/strongly agree

statements in a six
-
point Likert mode

as well
.



5

Results

F
acto
r analysis for WPCKS


To validate the
WPCK
S, an exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation was
performed to clarify the structure of the
WPCKS
.
T
he
participant
s’
responses

were grouped
into the following
five

factors, which were:
Web
-
general
,
W
eb
-
communicative
,
Web
-
Content

(
WC
),
Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content

(
WPC
),

and
Attitudes
. A

total of 3
0

items were retained in
the final version of the
WPCK
S (shown in
T
able
1
), and the total variance explained is
7
8
.
3
4%.
A

confirmatory factor analysis

further
rev
eal
ed the construct validity and the
structure of the WPCKS. As a result, all of the factor loadings and the
t
-
values of the 30 items
on the five scales of WPCKS showed significance at the 0.05 level
.

The fitness of items for
each scale of the WPCKS (Chi
-
s
quare per degree of freedom = 3.85, RMSEA = 0.071, GFI =
0.85, NFI = 0.98, NNFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98) indicated a sufficient fit and also confirmed the
questionnaire’s structure.

The reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) coefficients for these factors were 0.94, 0.
96, 0.94,
0.95, 0.92, respectively, and the overall alpha was 0.96, suggesting that these factors had
highly sufficient reliability in assessing the teachers’ self
-
efficacy regarding the WPCK and
their attitudes toward Web
-
based instruction.

The final vers
ion of the WPCKS is presented in
the
A
ppendix.

T
ABLE

1

The exploratory factor analysis, and reliability of the WPCKS

Item

Factor 1

Factor 2

Factor 3

Factor 4

Factor 5

Factor 1: Web
-
general

alpha=0.94

A1

0.83





A2

0.80





A3

0.83





A4

0.82





A5

0.71





A6

0.75





A7

0.77





Factor 2: Web
-
communicative
alpha=0.96

B1


0.87




B2


0.91




B3


0.90




B4


0.85




Factor 3: Web
-
Content (WC)
alpha=0.94

C1



0.68



C2



0.78



C3



0.76




6

C4



0.67



C5



0.61



Factor 4: Web
-
P
edagogical
-
Content (WPC)
alpha=0.95

D1




0.68


D2




0.67


D3




0.68


D4




0.75


D5




0.78


D6




0.83


D7




0.85


D8




0.81


Factor 5: Attitudes toward Web
-
based instruction
alpha=0.92

E1





0.72

E2





0.82

E3





0.81

E4





0.7
7

E5





0.78

E6





0.80

% of variance

18.24

12.42

11.64

20.47

15.57

Notes:
N

= 558, overall


= 0.96, total variance explained is 78.34%

Correlation analyses for WPCKS


As shown in
T
able
2
, teachers’ attitudes toward Web
-
based instruction had sign
ificantly
positive relations to their responses of the WPCKS

(
p

< 0.01)
.
T
he significant
ly positive

correlations between

Attitudes

toward Web
-
based instruction
and the
other

four
scales of
WPCKS

showed

partial evidence about

the
criterion
-
related
validity
of WPCKS.

TABLE 2

The correlations between teachers’ responses to WPCKS and their background variables.


Attitude toward
Web
-
based
instruction

Age

Years of
teaching
1

Web
experiences

experience of
Web
-
related
pedagogical practice

Web
-
general

0.46
**

-
0.32
**

-
0.28
**

0.22
**

0.20
**

Web
-
communicative

0.27
**

-
0.45
**

-
0.44
**

0.30
**

0.20
**

WC

0.60
**

-
0.22
**

-
0.20
**

0.22
**

0.37
**

WPC

0.61
**

-
0.16
**

-
0.15
**

0.33
**

0.44
**

Attitude toward
Web
-
based instruction

1

-
0.06

-
0.04

0.19
**

0.30
**

**
p

< 0.01

1

represents th
e teaching experience



7

Further,
t
his study explore
d

the correlations

between the teachers’
age, teaching
experiences,
Web

experiences

(i.e., the
teachers’
self
-
report of
the length of time using the
Internet per week)
,
experiences of
Web
-
related

teaching

p
ractice

(i.e., one additional
Likert
item of assessing actual experiences of Web
-
related instruction
)
,
and their responses to
WPCKS.

As shown in Table
2
, both the participants’ age and teaching experiences had
significantly negative relations to their self
-
efficacy regarding the Web
-
general knowledge,
Web
-
communicative knowledge, Web
-
Content knowledge, and Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content
knowledge (
p

< 0.01). The results seem
ed

to

reveal

that teachers with more years of teaching
had low
er

confidence
not only
in usi
ng the Web
,

but also in knowing
less about
how to
integrate the Web into instruction.

Table
2

also
showed
that
both
the
teachers’ experiences of
Web

use and
Web
-
related
pedagogical practice

had significantly positive relations to their
responses to WPCKS
(
p

<
0.01).
The results indicate
d

that teachers with rich
er

experience
s

of
Web

usage and
Web
-
related instruction tended to have relatively
stronger

self
-
efficacy regarding the WPCK
,
and display more

positive

attitudes toward Web
-
based instruction.



Discus
sions and
Educational Importance

Windschitl (1998) found that a large amount of research on Web
-
based instruction had
been principally emphasized the technological aspect of classroom implementation.
Researchers often focused on the development of the Web
-
related instructional materials.
However, it is equally important to recognize teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge while
integrating the Web into instruction. Chou and Tsai (2002) have argued that the time for
researchers to ask whether or not Web
-
base
d curricula should be created or used has passed,
and they have claimed that the most important thing should be working toward developing
effective Web
-
based curricula that can benefit all students. Moreover, this study further
asserted that researchers an
d educators should emphasize teachers’ Web Pedagogical Content
Knowledge (WPCK) for effective teaching with the Web. Accordingly, this study proposed a
framework regarding teachers’ essential knowledge about WPCK while integrating the Web
technologies into

their pedagogical practice. Furthermore, because of the growing attention to
teacher self
-
efficacy in educational research (e.g., Guskey & Passaro, 1994;
Tschannen
-
Moran
et al.,

1998; Tschannen
-
Moran & Woolfolk
-
Hoy, 2001), this study aims to
investigate t
he teachers’ self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK.

T
he final

WPCK survey was

comprised of

five scales, including

Web
-
general,



Web
-
communicative,



Web
-
Content (WC),



Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content (WPC),


and

Attitudes.


Although our WPCK framework initially propos
ed that teachers might
require

Web knowledge (i.e., general and communicative), Web
-
Pedagogical knowledge,
Web
-
Content Knowledge, and Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content Knowledge while integrating Web
technologies into their teaching, the
results

indicat
e that the WP

scale was not maintained in

8

the WPCK survey. This result may stem from the teachers


lack of general

knowledge about
Web
-
related pedagogy. This
impl
ies that the teachers may not have a clear awareness
of

the
significance of Web
-
related Pedagogical Knowled
ge in their conceptual framework of
Web
-
based instruction. Moreover, the result
s

of
the
present study may also imply that
educators and researchers tend to mostly emphasize the development of Web
-
related learning
materials,
but

to

some extent, they do not
pay
enough
attention to

the relevant web
pedagogical knowledge in teacher training program
s
. Teacher
training

programs can develop
related training programs for teachers to enhance their Web
-
Pedagogical knowledge. For
example, teacher education may add som
e professional courses about e
-
learning theories so
that inexperienced teachers can gain adequate knowledge about how to teach with the Web
for particular educational purposes. Furthermore, researchers may conduct an experimental
study which tries to
impro
ve

the Web
-
Pedagogical knowledge in teacher education to
document the progressive development of WPCK.

Based upon

the results of correlation analysis, teachers with more
experiences of
Web

use and

of

Web
-
related instruction
tended

to
hold
high self
-
effica
cy toward the WPCK.
However, teachers with more age or teaching
experiences

were likely to hold low
er

self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK.
In
conventional

instructional setting
,
researchers

ha
ve

foun
d

that
senior
teachers

tend
ed

to
possess

higher self
-
efficacy t
oward the
ir teaching

than junior
ones

(e.g.,
Tschannen
-
Moran
et al.,

1998)
.

And, van Driel
et al.

(1998) had identified the
teaching experience as the major source of
developing
PCK. However, this study ha
s found
that, in the Web
-
based instruction, senior
teachers tended to hold
lower self
-
efficacy toward
the WP
CK than junior ones.
It is, thus, concluded that

senior

teachers

may have relatively
high self
-
efficacy toward PCK
,

but have relatively low self
-
efficacy regarding the WPCK.
Nevertheless,
teachers wi
th more experiences of
Web
-
related instruction tended to perceive
higher self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK than those with
less experience
.
T
his study
further
provide
d

an empirical
support

to verify the relations between the
Web
-
related teaching
experiences an
d the self
-
efficacy toward the WPCK
,

which parallel
to
the literature
s

of those
relations
in traditional instructional setting

(Tschannen
-
Moran
et al.,

1998)
.

Teacher
education may
base on

this finding
to

enrich

the
Web
-
related instructional experiences
fo
r

teachers
, especially
for

senior teachers
.

Furthermore, the results of this study suggested that Web
-
based instruction tended to be
widely embraced by Taiwanese teachers of different teaching experience; however, senior
teachers seemed to perceive lower
self
-
efficacy regarding the TPCK
-
W than
junior

ones. In
other words, teachers may highly support the Web
-
based instruction, but they may not have
sufficient confidence in integrating the Web into pedagogical practice, especially for the
senior ones. Accord
ingly, teacher education may provide much more
opportunities

for
teachers to enrich their TPCK
-
W, such as workshop, or advanced
training

programs.



9

With the rapidly developing of the Web
-
related instruction, future research in the area of
Web
-
based instruc
tion may need to stress WPCK in order to determine appropriate strategies
for Web
-
based instructional practice. The WPCK framework may allow researchers and
educators to analyze the possibly progressive development of Web integration in the area of
teacher

education and teacher professional development.

In addition
, the WPCK survey was
initially

developed
in

this study. Further development
of
the
WPCK survey (including retesting of the WP scale and
modif
ication of the
questionnaire items)

is

an
important

ar
ea

for follow
-
up study.


R
EFERENCE LIST

AAAS (1998).
Blueprints for reform.

(New York, Oxford University Press).

Chou, C., & Tsai, C.
-
C. (2002). Developing web
-
based curricula: issues and challenges.
Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34
, 623
-
636.

Guskey, T. R
., & Passaro, P. D. (1994). Teacher efficacy: A study of construct dimensions.
American Educational Research Journal, 31
, 627
-
643.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A
framework for teacher knowledge.
Teachers

College Record, 108
, 1017
-
1054.

Peng, H., Tsai, C.
-
C., & Wu, Y.
-
T. (2006). University students’ self
-
efficacy and their
attitudes toward the Internet: the role of students’ perceptions of the Internet.
Educational
Studies, 32
, 73
-
86.

Shulman, L. S. (1986)
. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching.
Educational
Researcher, 15
(2)
, 4
-
14.

Tschannen
-
Moran, M., Woolfolk
-
Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its
meaning and measure.
Review of Educational
R
esearch, 68
, 202
-
248.

Tschannen
-
Moran,
M., & Woolfolk
-
Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Toward the
understanding of a multi
-
faceted construct.
Teaching and Teacher Education, 17
,
783
-
805.

van Driel, J. H., Verloop, N., & de Vos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers’ pedagogical
content knowle
dge.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35
, 673
-
695.

Windschitl, M. (1998). The WWW and classroom research: what path should we take?
Educational Researcher, 27(1)
, 28
-
33.


APPENDIX


The questionnaire items on the TPCK
-
W survey (final version)

Web
-
ge
neral

A1.

Be able to click
the hyperlink to connect
to an
other Website.

A2.

B
e able to key in the Website
address

to connect
to a
particular Website.


10

A3.

B
e able to print out the content of
a

Website.

A4.

B
e able to search
for

information on the Web using
keyword
s
.

A5.

B
e able to download picture
s

from

the Web.

A6.

Be able to use the Web search engine
s
.

A7.

B
e able to copy text on the Web into the

Word

.

Web
-
communicative

B1.

B
e able to read others


messages
in a

chatroom.

B2.

B
e able to set
a

nickname by
your
self
in an

online chatroom.

B3.

B
e able to talk to others one
on

one
in an

online chatroom.

B4.

Be
able to provide information or respon
d

to someone else on
a

BBS (
Bulletin Board
System
)
.

Web
-
Content

C1.

Know that

Web

technology can
provide

various mat
erials to enrich
course content.

C2.

Know how to search
online resources

for course content.

C3.

Know how to select proper content from
Web

resources.

C4.

Be able to search relat
ed online materials for

course
content.

C5.

Be able to search for various
mat
erial
s

on the Web

to be integrated into

course content.

Web
-
Pedagogical
-
Content

D1.

Know how to apply teaching modules
on

the Web
in
to courses.

D2.

Be able to use Web technology to enhance teaching.

D3.

Be able to use the Web to enhance students’ learning

motivation.

D4.

Be able to select
proper existing

Web
-
based

courses to
assist

teaching.

D5.

Be able to apply
Web

technology to use
multiple teaching
strategies

on a particular
course unit
.

D6.

Be able to guide students

to apply Web resource
s

to

learn a ce
rtain
course unit
.

D7.

Be able to

use Web resource
s

to guide students


learning activities
for

a certain course
unit.

D8.

Be able to use
Web

technology to suppo
r
t
teaching for the content of a particular course
unit
.

Attitude toward Web
-
based instructio
n

E1.

Web

technology can be actually used
on

teaching

practice
.

E2.

The characteristics

of

the
Web
can help
instruction.

E3.

Web

technology can enhance
teaching skill
s.

E4.

Web
-
related

resources can enrich
course content
.

E5.

Web
-
based
teaching can
enhance

students’
learning motivation
.

E6.

Web
-
based
teaching is
a

future trend in education.