B U I L D I N G & P OR T I N G OP E R A T I N G S Y S T E MS
WHAT IS A TOOL CHAIN?
set of software utilities
used to perform
a blanket term for a
collection of programming tools
by the GNU Project. Used for OS and
FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
sual development tools available on
a GNU/Linux workstation is a
one platform while building
applications for another
are generally used. They run on your
workstation but generate code for
used to build the normal
of a workstation
used to build a
on your workstation but generates
binaries for the target
used to build a
runs on your target and
generates binaries for the
used to build on architecture
that runs on
architecture B and generates
binaries for architecture C
The most common solution in embedded
WHAT IS IT COMPOSED OF?
set of tools to generate and manipulate binaries
for a given CPU architecture.
The main ones are:
A utility for creating, modifying and
extracting from archives.
Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols.
Converts addresses into filenames and
between the applications
and the kernel
Provides the well
to ease application
Several C libraries are available:
The choice of the C library must be
made at the time of the cross
the GCC compiler is compiled
against a specific C library.
The C library and compiled programs
needs to interact with the kernel
system calls and their
Therefore, compiling the C library
requires kernel headers, and many
applications also require them.
and a few other directories
corresponding to the ones visible in
in the kernel sources
: GNU C Compiler, the famous free software
Can compile C, C++, Ada, Fortran, Java,
C++, and generate code
for a large number of CPU architectures, including
, CRIS, FRV, M32, MIPS,
MN10300, PowerPC, SH, v850, i386, x86_64, IA64,
Available under the GPL license, libraries under
The debugger on GNU/Linux,
available for most embedded architectures.
Console interface or GUI available, also
Can be used to control the execution of a program,
set breakpoints or change internal variables. Can
also see memory images, useful if system crashes.
Ensure you can access
the serial port (/
to change rights
most commonly used, usually
installed in distribution, Others include UUCP cu and
used after every tool if built from scratch
Brings all of the tools together, and makes use
of them to build the project
that dictates the build
Generated files depend on source files, if a
source file is updated so is the generated file!
Likewise, if a source is not updated, and the
generated file already exists... It isn’t re
ets, allow for install and clean etc..
Tip: Use SVN/Configuration facility
WHERE DOES IT FIT IN?
Basic example of a typical self
CROSS DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT
In today’s embedded development or development as
a whole, is
that developers develop & write code
on the devices themselves.
Because of this, it means there is a need for cross
development environments which differ dependent on
the target hardware.
Android, iOS, Windows, all have
different cross development environments
enable programmers to develop for there chosen
When developing system software for embedded devices,
one of the important facts is figuring out how to the code on
the board, and proceeding with the code execution.
The deployment of code on devices can be achieved in
many ways which depends on the target product device that
the build was built for and its on board features.
With most of ‘OUR’ late embedded development
experiences, it was achieved by populating an micro SD card
with kernel/boot loader images along with file systems which
are recognized by the boards CPU’s and booted accordingly.
Errors downloading from git repositories
Bad or corrupt repos
Year 2, Configuring Puppeteer boards
Virtual USB COM port
Micro SD Cards & Reader
Loading Kernel Images, boot loaders & File systems
Build root is a set of Makefiles and patches which
make it easy to generate a complete embedded
It is very useful for people working with embedded
systems using various CPU architectures:
Automating the build process for your chosen
embedded system & easing the cross compilation
MAJOR BUILD ROOT
THE “MAKE” COMMAND
The ‘Make’ Utilities purpose is to determine automatically which
pieces of a large program need to be recompiled & then issue
certain commands to recompile them.
requires Makefiles to be written, which describes
relationships amongst files in your program
stating commands for
updating each file.
Once a Makefile exists, each time source files are changed the
simple shell command
performs all necessary recompilations,
executing commands in the Makefile to update one or more target
Few Make Options: (
k and many more)
The GNU implantation of the
command was written by Richard
Stallman and Roland McGrath.
Embedded systems development relies on debuggers
talking to chips to perform operating like single stepping &
break pointing. Debugging stages may be performed at
different levels, depending on facilities that are available
to the debugger.
It can be achieved in two ways ,
by Running pieces of software through
tools viewing the code running on the processor. Allowing
the starting or stopping operations , which can be done
Using serial ports (RS232/USB COM PORT) and
JTAG(Joint Test Action Group) hardware interfaces.
uses JTAG as the transport
mechanism to access on
chip debug modules
inside the CPU. These modules let developers
debug the software directly at machine instruction
Most Digital electronic products today's such as
wireless access point
have no other debug or test interfaces.
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT KIT (SDK)
Set of software development
tools that allows for the creation of
for a certain software
package, software framework,
hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating
system or similar platform
A software engineer typically receives the SDK from the target system
Providers of SDKs for specific systems or subsystems may sometimes
substitute a more specific term instead of
. For instance, both
and Apple provide
driver development kits
Microsoft Windows SDK, Platform SDK and .NET Framework SDK
specializes in developing applications for
Windows Server 2003.
.NET Framework SDK
dedicated to developing applications for
.NET Framework 1.1
is the successor of the two and
supports developing applications for
Windows Server 2008,
.NET Framework 3.0,
Framework 3.5, and
.NET Framework 4.0.
THE WINDOWS SDK CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING
For Win32 development:
For .NET (managed code) development:
14 Reference Assemblies supporting .NET, Tablet PC,
, MMC, etc.
70 .NET 2.0 Tools + 10 .NET 3.0 Tools + 35 .NET 4.0 Tools
For Visual Studio 2005/2008/2010 integration
Utilities to enable Visual Studio 2005/2008 to easily use Windows
SDK headers and libraries
Visual Studio 2005/2008 Wizards for creating Windows Media
Latest version of JDK ( Java Development Kit)
SDK Starter Package (it includes only the core SDK Tools)
Android SDK and AVD Manager (a tool included in the SDK
starter package) to download essential SDK components into
your development environment.
ANDROID SDK AND ECLIPSE
ANDROID SDK TOOLS
emulation tool that you can use to design,
debug, and test your applications in an actual Android run
Hierarchy Viewer (
Lets you debug and optimize an Android application's user interface.
Lets you quickly analyse your application's layouts in order to optimize
them for efficiency.
Helps you create a disk image that you can use with the emulator, to
simulate the presence of an external storage card (such as an SD card).
Runs on your emulator or device and generates pseudo
of user events such as clicks, touches, or gestures, as well as a number of
level events. You can use the Monkey to stress
that you are developing, in a random yet repeatable manner.
ANDROID SDK TOOLS
Provides an API for writing programs that control an Android
device or emulator from outside of Android code.
Shrinks, optimizes, and obfuscates your code by removing unused
code and renaming classes, fields, and methods with
semantically obscure names.
Lets you access the SQL
data files created and used by
Provides a graphical viewer for execution logs saved by your
files by ensuring that all uncompressed data starts
with a particular alignment relative to the start of the file. This
should always be used to align .
files after they have been