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National Professional and Competency Profile

International Business and Languages Bachelor’s


International Business

A graduate of the IBL programme is able to professionally develop,
carry out and manage
in particular the commercial processes involved
in international business.

International Communication

A graduate of the IBL programme is capable of professionally handling
international business communications in three modern foreign

tural Awareness

A graduate of the IBL programme has knowledge and insight into the
importance of intercultural differences for the various phases of
international business and can identify with different cultures in order to
support international business

Landelijk Overleg IBL (National Conference IBL, LOO IBL)

Hanneke Barents

Margriet Verbrugge

Pieter van Essen


Croho title


Croho number


Date of submission

17 December 2010

Education Conferenc

Landelijk Overleg International Business and Languages (LOO IBL)

Contact person (e
mail address)

, chairman


secretary and deputy chairman

, treasurer


The title of the course profile is: IBL Shows Its Colours, National Professional and
Competency Profile 2010, International Busin
ess and Languages Bachelor’s

Involvement of the professional field

The first talks at national level with representatives from the professional field took
place between April and December of 2008. A second series of discussions was held in
autumn of 2010, after which the profile was adapted according to the
recommendations given. The following parties were involved in the process:


VNO/NCW, NCW (the Confederation of Netherlands Industry and
Employers), contact person Mr Chiel Renique


MKB Nede
rland, (the Royal Dutch

Association of

Small and Medium Sized
Companies), contact person Mr Chiel Renique


Fenedex, contact person Mr Bart Jan Koopman, managing director


Nima, contact person Ms Froukje Hilarides


DDMA (Direct Dialogue Marketing Association),

contact person Ms D.
Janssen, director of bureau

Exploratory discussions were held at regional level with each university of applied
sciences between April and December 2008. In the autumn of 2010, the universities
presented the 2010 draft version to thei
r work field advisory boards. In total, many
committee members

representatives of various companies relevant for the IBL

have been consulted. Their contributions have also been discussed in the
Landelijk Overleg and were used as a basis to upda
te and make revisions to the
profile. For more details, see appendix 2 of this profile.


Relevant competency documents

New course profile

International Business and Languages IBL Shows Its Colours, National
Professional and Competency Profile 2010

lved universities of applied sciences


Avans University of Applied Sciences


Windesheim University of Applied Sciences


Fontys University of Applied Sciences


Hanze University Groningen


INHOLLAND University of Applied Sciences


Rotterdam University of Applied


HU University of Applied Sciences


HvA University of Applied Sciences


HAN University of Applied


HZ University of Applied


Zuyd University of Applied


NHL University of Applied


Saxion University of
Applied Sciences


Stenden University of
Applied Sciences



We are proud to present the IBL National Course Profile for the International Business and Languages
Bachelor’s programme entitled IBL Shows Its Colours. This document outlines which profile the IBL
grammes in the Netherlands present to its students and teachers and the future employers of IBL
graduates. We have named this document ‘IBL Shows Its Colours’ because it focuses on three main
competency areas that are central to our study programmes:

national Business;

International Communication;

Intercultural Awareness.

By focusing strongly on these areas, our students will develop into world citizens who feel completely
at ease in the world of international business. Because first
year students in o
ur programme cooperate
in international teams during their studies or traineeships abroad, they have the opportunity to develop
into mature employees capable of coping with unexpected situations in a creative, enterprising and
flexible way. Our graduates h
ave knowledge of marketing and export, and are trained to conduct
business effectively in at least three languages.

This profile was developed by collaborating closely with programme managers of the universities of
applied sciences that offer the IBL pro
gramme as well as with representatives from both the national
and regional business community. Although the profile has now been completed, we would like to keep
this co
makership approach going. The IBL programmes are designed to meet the needs of the
fessional field and society, responding to developments, such as part
time or distance learning,
interconnection with the Business Administration Bachelor’s programme as well as any unforeseen

We would like to thank the Sectoral Advisory Bo

for Higher Education in Economics

Management of the HBO Raad (the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences) for its
advice and comments. This IBL profile is completely autonomous from any IBL study programme in the
Netherlands, i
rrespective of which Bachelor’s degree is awarded. We therefore speak of the IBL
competencies and the IBL Body of Knowledge. The language levels in this profile are thus indicative for
all IBL programmes.

When the Landelijk Overleg IBL (National Conferen
ce IBL, further called LOO IBL) or ‘we’ is mentioned,
it always means the professional field and all stakeholders.

Ton Flierman and Annemien van der Veen have co
written this document with the management board
of the LOO IBL.

December 2010









1.1. Conducting int
ernational business



1.1.1. Link between company and international environment



1.1.2. Communicates internationally



1.1.3. Operates in a broad business environment



1.1.4. Is enterprising and innovative



1.2. Professional field, professional roles, professional tasks and professional products



1.2.1. Professional field


1.2.2. Professional roles



1.2.3. Professional tasks



1.2.4. Professional products



1.3. Developments



1.3.1. People and environment, world citizen



1.3.2. Social dig
ital networks



1.3.3. International economy


1.3.4. Attention for Sustainability



1.4. IBL focus: International Business supported by Communication



1.5. Comparable programmes abroad





2.1. Domain competency levels 2005



2.2. The Higher Professional Education Standards
, the Dublin Descriptors and the Higher
Professional Education Qualifications



2.3. Required level of modern foreign languages for the professional practice of IBL






3.1. IBL competencies



IBL Body of Knowledge and Skills



Appendix I: Can Do statements



Appendix II: Interlocutors at universities of applied scien
ces and in professional field





The LOO IBL is a consultative body in which all IBL programmes offered by universities of applied
sciences in the Netherlands are represented. One of the objectives of the LO
O IBL is to position the IBL
programme clearly and unambiguously for all stakeholders.

The Professional and Competency Profile 2010 that you have before you replaces the IBL National
Competency Profile of 2003. The profile has been developed in consultat
ion with representatives from
the professional field, VNO
NCW, MKB Nederland and relevant trade associations such as Fenedex and

The document presents a current overview of the professional and competency profile for all IBL
Bachelor’s programmes, a
nd discusses those aspects that characterise the profession. In addition, it
sketches the social and economic developments that, as far as we are concerned, are important to the
professional practice of IBL today. The document describes both the targeted l
evel and exit
qualifications of the IBL professional. The exit qualifications are listed in the National Professional and
Competency Profile. These qualifications have, on the one hand, been described in as much detail as
possible in order to provide all p
arties involved (both in the educational and professional field) with a
clear idea of the IBL graduate’s professional skills. On the other hand, they allow ample room for
universities to personalise the programme according to their needs. This National Pro
fessional and
Competency Profile forms the basis for the major of each IBL professional Bachelor's degree
programme in the Netherlands. We assume that each programme has a structure of minor and major
courses and that a minor consists of 30 ECs.

The exi
t qualifications in this document are described as competencies, whereby a competency is
understood to be a set of skills that someone must possess in order to carry out a specific task, solve a
problem or deal with a situation in a professional context.

The IBL programme is, for the most part, part of the Bachelor’s of Commerce domain, which includes
programmes such as Commercial Economics, Small Business & Retail Management, Food & Business
and Trade Management Asia. In IBL Shows Its Colours the objecti
ves and competencies drawn up by
the Commerce domain and validated by the professional field in 2005, and the Body of Commerce
Knowledge and Skills which was drawn up in 2008, have been formulated at IBL level. The minimal
language levels to be achieved ar
e higher than those explicitly described in the Commerce domain
competencies and the internationalisation competencies. As of today, the IBL profile IBL Shows Its
Colours is indicative for all IBL programmes.

In the first chapter, we present a picture of
what the IBL Bachelor’s programme entails in terms of
career requirements and possibilities, and discuss the most important job characteristics as well as
core tasks, professional products, professional roles, new developments in the profession, and the
sitioning of IBL compared to the Commerce domain. The second chapter focuses on the specific
Bachelor features of IBL at higher vocational level. Chapter 3 lists the IBL exit qualifications in the form
of IBL competencies and the IBL Body of Knowledge and



1.1. Conducting international business

The Dutch economy traditionally

has a strong international orientation because

of its reliance on
foreign trade. Within this context, the Netherlands is sometimes described as
a transport hub into
Europe. As a European economic community, and due to the introduction of the euro and the opening
of the borders, the Dutch economy today is part of one European economy, with all associated
privileges and limitations. If, for whatever

reason, a single economy from the community faces difficult
times, the entire European economic community comes under pressure. In short, doing business in the
Netherlands used to be and still is international business. In fact, it seems likely that busin
ess in the
modern day world will only become more, rather than less, international. And conducting international
business successfully requires specific skills. We knew that then and we know it now.

When we talk about conducting international business, we

also mean globalisation. On the one hand,
globalisation refers to the increasing economic integration of the world. In other words, the steady
expansion of branches worldwide as well as global dependencies and interrelationships. But the term
n is also used to describe a trend that hits us at various levels, both economically, socially,
politically and personally. The bottom line is

whether it concerns strengthening the international
economic position of China and what this means for, for ex
ample, the Netherlands, the international
debate on global warming, the ease with which we have access to international news on the other side
of the globe, the knowledge economy
oriented international competitive position of the Netherlands,
the ethnic co
mposition of the Dutch population, the international exchange of students, online shopping
for products or services or online gaming with international players

the people of today are world
citizens, businesses operate at global level and want to and mus
t be equipped to deal with international
competition, international sales, the outsourcing and off
shoring of corporate processes, international
purchasing, internationally applicable legislation, the meaning of open borders for required expertise
and inte
rnational communication. Globalisation on the current scale and at the current pace
(communication in real time with every corner of the world) has become possible thanks to
developments in the field of digital communication, technological developments and
, of course, social
political developments. Or put otherwise, thanks to the desire of citizens to become world citizens.

However, even if people have become world citizens and contemporary businesses do business across
the globe, this does not mean that
no communication barriers exist and that business objectives are
instantly clear for all parties involved. Nor does it mean that you can take a product that is successful
in one country and transpose it into another. International business deals may fall a
part due to simple
cultural differences that are not understood by business partners, lack of patience to deal with
legislation, lack of knowledge of labour relationships, etc. In short, successfully conducting business
calls for more than just a broad ran
ge of international business skills. The fact that

in addition to
proficiency in the target language

knowledge of culture and country are important requirements was
already clear to the Dutch when they established a trading post at Deshima in 1647. Dut
ch colonial
companies and the government were also very aware that if they wanted to get things done, insight
into a foreign culture and the ability to communicate with foreign people was essential to achieve
economic success, despite their violent efforts

to secure a monopoly or, for instance, the regional
production of coffee on land where other produce was grown. In an era where the wresting of trade has
been replaced by a free
market economy, these requirements have become of much greater


he title ‘International Business and Languages (IBL) Shows Its Colours’ reflects the knowledge that in
order to conduct business in a global setting, in addition to a broad range of business and commercial
skills, specific communicative and cultural skills

are also essential. Businesses (both small and medium
sized enterprises and multinationals) that want to operate at international level need employees with
excellent knowledge of every aspect of international business. This means that, in addition to a br
range of business skills, future employees will need to also have developed a unique set of
international skills. This is critical for being successful in international business. The IBL Bachelor’s
programme is the


course of study for students wh
o want to become professionals capable of
supporting businesses to achieve their goals in an increasingly global commercial environment,
because it trains students to develop broad business skills as well as international communication skills.

The Inter
national Business and Languages Bachelor's programme is a course that suits contemporary
needs, training students into professionals who are excellent at doing business with business partners
with other cultural backgrounds. IBL graduates do not think twic
e about hopping on a plane to
investigate a problem in another country. They are modern professionals who are fluent in multiple
languages and know how to use modern media to achieve maximum results in a playing field where
direct communication reigns supr
eme. During their studies, they learn how to conduct business in an
ethical manner. They are capable of reinforcing the confidence of potential foreign business partners in
a product or service without ever

losing sight

of what is

in the best


of t
heir company.

In the following paragraphs, we elaborate on what we feel are the most important qualities that an IBL
professional should possess in order to function well in the Dutch business world with its internationally
oriented business mindset.

.1. Link between company and international environment

In the National Course Profile IBL 2003, we characterised the IBL professional as someone who is a link
between his/her company and the international environment, and can provide insight into the inter
of the company or organisation, set goals and translate these goals into plans. He/she makes and
maintains contact with international relations of the company or organisation, specifically in the
following three areas:

International purchasing, sales
and account management

International communications management

Export management, specifically the logistical, financial and insurance
related aspects of
international goods traffic.

The IBL professional translates these contacts into strategic, tactical a
nd operational activities.

We believe that this characterisation is still appropriate as it highlights the specific dynamics of
international business operations. Depending on the environment, the company, the organisation and
the objectives, the IBL prof
essional continually determines which tasks and responsibilities are part of
his/her job in order to support the company or organisation to achieve its international business goals.
The IBL graduate is the employee who conducts research into concrete devel
opments in a foreign
country or region, puts the spotlight on results, thinks through and communicates the consequences of
his/her research and who can influence company policy. The IBL professional recognises developments
in the foreign market, the market

demands and the cultural context in which the company will be
operating and contributes to steering

the company's decision
making process based on this
information. Conversely, the IBL professional brings the products and services of his/her company to
e attention of the foreign environment (external environmental impact). In the first place, this will
include performing research on how the product or service can best be marketed in an international

environment. Another important factor is, of course, th
e question of international communication and
winning the client’s trust.

In this sense, the modern IBL professional can be seen as the link between his/her company and the
international environment. We said this before in 2003 and we are saying it again.

However, compared
to the profession’s definition in 2003, the international business orientation of the IBL professional has
increased in meaning in 2010, and this is in part reflected in the fact that the programme now falls
under the Bachelor’s of Comme
rce domain. The IBL professional focuses on doing business on an
international scale and on the necessary pre
condition to do so

international business
communication. This is how the term ´link´ is to be understood.

1.1.2. Communicates internationally

he above makes clear that an IBL professional has excellent international communication skills, both
written and verbal, and that he/she can use these skills to achieve the company’s commercial goals,
ranging from (internal and external) communications, sa
les, purchasing, and relations management
and development. The IBL professional is also familiar with a broad range of (modern) commercially
oriented communication resources and uses the available resources to achieve the set goals.

Each IBL graduate mus
t therefore master at least three modern foreign languages, one of which must
be English. Why three? Because this enables the IBL professional to conduct business in most of the
markets, at European and global level:

Given the importance of English as worl
d language, each IBL student must have an excellent
command of English (see 2.3);

Research has shown that, in addition to English, the following four languages are important to
the Dutch and European economy: German, French and, to a lesser extent, Spanish

Italian. It is also evident that in the modern day world, the economic importance of in
particular Brazil, Russia, India and China (the BRIC countries) will increase and continue to
increase. Research into the use of modern foreign languages amongst g
raduates has shown,
however, that the daily use of these languages is far less than that of the above
European languages. English, German, French and, to a lesser extent, Spanish and Italian are
still valued as the dominant languages of business.

The LOO IBL does not make any
statements about which of the two modern foreign languages apart from English should be
taken, but does talk about the level of language

proficiency (see 2.3). It is up to the
programmes to provide argumentation for their sel
ection of the two other foreign languages.

The IBL professional operates in various countries and cultures. As a result, he/she has knowledge of
different cultural backgrounds, is able to adapt quickly to foreign cultures, understands the behaviour
of his
/her international business partner and is able to place it in a cultural perspective. The underlying
principle in all this is developing respect for other cultures.

Some of these international skills can be developed through training at a university of
applied sciences
in the Netherlands. However, the LOO IBL noted that a number of skills can only be attained by gaining
experience abroad. It therefore deems it necessary for the development of international business skills
and the international language,
communication and cultural skills this requires, that each student
obtains at least 30 EC at a host institution abroad, either through studying at a foreign university, a
traineeship abroad or other activities that complement the programme, such as joint p
rojects at
internship providers in collaboration with international partners.


1.1.3. Operates in a broad business environment

We have already said that businesses with an international orientation need professionals who can
operate in a broad business en
vironment, in particular individuals with skills in international marketing,
international marketing communication, and international sales and export. From this angle, the LOO
IBL has chosen the following open characterisation for the IBL programmes: the
IBL programmes train
students to work as newly qualified professionals in international business positions. The profession is
very broad in terms of business skills since it offers IBL professionals a broad range of responsibilities
and tasks in internatio
nal projects at internationally oriented firms and organisations located in the
Netherlands and abroad. The main focus of the IBL professional is on business marketing and sales,
and on consumer issues, and to a lesser extent on consumer marketing and cons
umer sales.

1.1.4. Is enterprising and innovative

As mentioned before, the concept doing business on an international scale is as old as trade and
business itself, but what characterises these times is the natural and increasing focus on the world as a
hole (globalisation). What companies and organisations do internationally, what international markets
they enter and how they do so, how they acquire products, what their international aims are and what
they should know about foreign cultures varies per co
mpany and organisation. However, one thing is
certain. It is the IBL professional that plays a role in this dynamic of far
reaching internationalisation.
From the perspective of these developments, especially within small and medium
sized companies, the
ofession of IBL is still pioneering. This is also what various IBL professionals say: IBL professionals
create their own work and context, and help build international positions and also the international
focus of company activities him/herself.

In order

to excel in this profession, professionals must be entrepreneurs at heart, have creative skills,
an enquiring attitude, and be inventive, enterprising and innovative. The IBL programmes aim to
develop students into internationally operating professionals,

who are driven to think and act off the
beaten track in foreign or alien cultural contexts.

1.2. Professional field, professional roles, professional tasks and
professional products

The IBL professional wants to act as a link between the company and the

international environment.
He/she operates in a business
like fashion and has a commercial attitude, excellent international
communication skills, a broad international business orientation and is constantly innovative and
pioneering. In this sense, the I
BL graduate is a professional who adds substance to a company's
international business ambitions, who travels, conducts business meetings on location in the business
partner’s language or a foreign language both parties can express themselves in, and who i
opportunities and brings them to the attention of his/her company. In this paragraph we discuss what
we consider to be characteristic IBL tasks, talk about characteristic professional products and delve
deeper into the different roles of the IBL

1.2.1. Professional field

IBL graduates work for a broad spectrum of commercial businesses, ranging from small and medium
sized companies that (want to) operate internationally to large multinationals. But you also find IBL
graduates in smal
l and large internationally operating organisations in the non
profit sector that need
employees with an international business background. There are opportunities for IBL professionals in

virtually every sector. In addition to IBL graduates with a permane
nt contract, there are also
professionals who work as self
employed entrepreneurs.

IBL professionals in small and medium
sized companies are often generalists with a wide range of
duties. In larger internationally operating companies, sometimes multinatio
nals, they generally have a
more specialist role.

The most common jobs that are held by IBL graduates are:

International purchasing, sales and account management


International sales assistant with the ability to grow into international sales manager


tant account manager with the ability to grow into international account


International purchasing assistant with the ability to grow into head of purchasing


Direct marketing assistant with the ability to grow into direct marketing manager


Country d
esk assistant with the ability to grow into area manager

International communications management


PR/PA assistant with the ability to grow into head of PR and information


External events assistant with the ability to grow into external events manager


ence manager assistant with the ability to grow into conference corporate


Marketing communication assistant with the ability to grow to head of marketing

Export management


Marketing services assistant with the ability to grow
into foreign client manager


Assistant export manager with ability to grow into export manager


Assistant area manager with ability to grow into area manager

1.2.2. Professional roles

IBL graduates fulfil various roles in international business. In practice
, an IBL position comprises
multiple roles. Four typical roles are predominate, namely that of adviser, manager, mediator and
service provider.

The advisory role. Especially at the beginning of his/her career, the IBL graduate will have to
find and claim h
is/her place in the organisation. He/she will provide management with
grounded proposals for international activities based on his/her knowledge and analytical
skills. He/she must be able raise awareness for these proposals and, if necessary, defend and
stify them. He/she may also work as an external international development consultant for a
company or (regional, provincial) service specialised in this area.

The controlling or managing role. When the IBL professional has found his/her place within the
ganisation, he/she will become increasingly responsible for international business activities
and, within this context, shape new processes and activities independently. This will entail
undertaking initiatives, initiating and carrying out research or havi
ng research carried out,
having the guts to develop surprising and creative proposals, estimating investment risks (or
having investment risks estimated), and managing a team of professional employees that
contribute to the process from their own specific

The mediating role. The IBL professional acts as a bridge between the various internal and
external partners who are involved in the international activities. He/she is broadly educated
and is able to assess the different interests and responsib
ilities of all parties in order to
contribute towards the realisation of the (international) objectives. As a mediator, he/she
reads all relevant material, participates in negotiations or leads negotiations, sets up shop in a
region or country, signals pro
blems and finds permanent and structural solutions.


The servicing role. The IBL professional plays a role in providing service to internal and
external stakeholders with regard to the organisation’s international activities. He/she is (in
part) responsible

for customer satisfaction or satisfaction of the parties concerned, acts as
internal and external point of contact, and draws up reports about the organisation’s
international activities.

1.2.3. Professional tasks

The future professional situation of an
IBL graduate is very versatile and may vary per individual.
Having said that, there are specific task sets and responsibilities that apply to all international business
processes even if the situations may differ. With this in mind, the following core task
s can be
distinguished. Each IBL graduate must be able to carry out these tasks independently (especially as an
experienced professional) or be able to contribute to these tasks:

Discuss and generate support for initiatives with an international perspectiv
e (newly qualified

Acquire and serve customers in international markets, carry out the necessary international
(communication) activities associated with this for his/her company (newly qualified

Set realistic targets for the

company's international activities based on market research
(including research into the culture of the target group), and ensure good internal
harmonisation (experienced professional);

Make a proper assessment of the investment risks in terms of finance
, time and effort
associated with the development of specific international activities (experienced professional);

Supervise (on a project basis) foreign partners involved in the company’s international
activities (experienced professional);

Back up the pr
oposed professional products with figures (experienced professional).

1.2.4. Professional products

The professional products an IBL professional produces vary in nature and range from a combination of
services, process results to specific policy products.

The IBL professional’s main products are:

Business communications, both written and verbal, such as quotations in multiple languages,
for example in the case of a tender or international call for tenders, participating in or leading
international business

meetings using modern communication resources, and organising or
taking part in international trade missions which may result in an international contract or
international activities. This also includes the legal aspects of business meetings;

Export polic
y plans, in which (cultural, financial and organisational) objectives, strategy and
conditions are formulated for the export of a product or service;

International marketing plans, which outline the marketing strategy for bringing a product or
service to
a foreign market;

International (marketing) communication plans. This professional product involves formulating
corporate communication policy for foreign markets, both in terms of content and the media
to be used;

International business plans, which indi
cate how to set up a foreign branch, including
objectives, strategies and conditions;

International sales plans, which outline a sales policy to be further developed in account plans.


1.3. Developments

In the introduction we briefly touched upon contempor
ary developments and used globalisation as an

term for a complex series of changes. This globalisation has, however, only just begun. A few
examples: a company sees the rise of the Chinese market, tries to find a market in China itself and
sees th
at China is quickly positioning itself as a leader in the African market; a company takes part in
the debate on global warming and sustainability and looks for solutions in interesting sustainable
products; a company sees new hardware and software appear o
n the market which enable
international networking. Decisions are made that affect future business in a context of international
uncertainty and development. The ability to advise and support a company in making international
business decisions as well as
the ability to position and reposition a company in today’s uncertain,
dynamic, international environment are the cornerstones of the IBL profession. A company’s
international marketing, international positioning and international communication strategy ar
e not set
in stone but are dynamically related to a number of the developments below

1.3.1. People and environment, world citizen

The people of today are world citizens. Their living and working environments have a global reach. We
turn to the Internet

for the latest news, order a virus scanner from the United States, communicate via
mail with a colleague in Britain about an investment in Italy, reset our phone with the help of a call
centre in India, book a weekend getaway to Florence and type away o
n computers that are designed in
Japan, produced in China and run American software:

increasing international mobility, ease of movement, increasing flow of travellers from
and to previously closed
off countries and continents, an ever
increasing dema
nd to visit other
worlds and cultures, and meet foreign cultures. At the same time, people still have the desire
to strengthen their

ties with their region, for example because of the children or other family
members, but also for business reasons (think g
lobal, act local);

People are less attached to companies and act in a more interest
driven manner, they want to
be entrepreneurs or self
employed, which has its risks;

Thanks to modern media it is possible for people to be involved in events across the wor
They are prepared to help people in far away countries

if the information about the disaster is
adequate and convincing;

Consumers are more globally oriented and have no trouble approaching global companies
(Amazon.com, I
store), a good command of the
English language is essential for all citizens;

The ageing of the population, the baby boom generation has worked hard, has a good income,
spends money on travelling, fewer young people have jobs vs. more older people who are
exempt from having to work. Pe
ople reach a higher age, stay healthy and mobile longer than

People try to find

meaning through

involvement in alternative wisdom traditions and religions
(focus on other cultures);

Counter movements, more focus on national orientation, focus on mo
nocultures and small
scale environments are popular in this day and age. Anti

We no longer live in monocultural societies but, with a few exceptions, in multicultural
societies. This means all citizens need to develop new intercultural skill
s in order

to be more
tolerant of others.


These trends come from discussions with work field advisory committees and specific research projects
carried out by educational programmes.

The study of Herman Konings, Latte Macchiato, Trends voor het
volgende decennium, 20
09 (ISBN 978
2) was also used.


In today’s society, citizens have to be more internationally oriented and interculturally aware than ever
before. The IBL professional incorporates these themes into the international business activities of


1.3.2. Social digital networks

Following the concept of global citizenship, the future society is one where social digital networks have
a large role in both personal and business life.

People are part of a network that is used to permanen
tly interact with others via various social
media (hardware and software). This opens up new network environments and experiences;

Services are developed and communication takes place via these networks. These networks
may even contribute to the developmen
t of a new economy. The acquisition of products via
digital media is becoming an increasingly important component of the economy (as opposed
to people, shops, shop counters). Products that support and refine these digital networks rank
high in the top 10.
This calls for a different approach to transactions of payment, delivery of
goods, the international 24
hour economy, service provision, etc. An IBL professional must
have knowledge of these new forms of doing business and, when necessary, be able to apply


Knowledge is acquired directly through the Internet

paper products (newspapers, books) will
be partially replaced by digital products (TomTom gps, Google Maps). International knowledge
exchange, ease of cooperation and knowledge acquisition throug
h open sources is becoming
increasingly important;

Augmented reality

in marketing/advertisements

is made mobile and is gaining

Business to business marketing, consumer marketing and consumer communication via
traditional media will continue t
o play a role, but at the same time digital media are gaining in
importance. Cross media

a service or experience distributed across various media platforms
using a variety of media forms

is used to support business objectives. Knowledge and
specific pr
oducts are freely available on the Internet in a commercial environment that
encourages the purchase of related items;

Phone, i
Pad, Blackberry, Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, digital photography, games,
Android, just to name a few, are contemporar
y products and services that are essential to
these social digital networks;

From fixed mono connections (Telephone) to wireless multi connections;

Traditional media, such as printed books, newspapers, magazines, brochures and
advertisements via radio and
television will stay a strong force.

The IBL professional has the knowledge to combine traditional media and social digital networks and
can use these networks (or advise on their use) for international business communication, and market
and marketing comm

1.3.3. International economy

As mentioned above, today's economy is a world economy, a complex interrelated network of
international relations, dependencies and partnerships which, generally, connects people, regions,
cultures and countries i
n a profound way (mutual economic dependency):

The leading role of western economies will in some areas be taken over by emerging
economies, such as Brazil, Russia, India, China and Africa. Economies will become completely

The Netherlands is f
aced with growing international competition. Products and services must
meet international quality standards in order to be competitive or have a place on the

international market. In Europe, European product, service and work regulations are
sometimes mor
e influential than national regulations. The European Economic Community has
no borders and is a free trade area. European cultures are increasingly hybrid (one European
context with multiple cultural regions). Along with these changes

are shifts in compet
European regions that were formerly competitors now help each other;

Development aid for developing economies has evolved over the years and is now strongly
oriented towards sustainable economic development, microcredit, loans, co
investment, etc.

Permanent innovation of services and products is a condition for economic success.
Consequently, up
date customer service provision and quality play a large role in durable
economic development. Employees are expected to have an innovative spirit and
must be able
anticipate changes and respond to them proactively;

Knowledge of the business partner’s language and culture and cultural empathy are important
aspects of international business. Foreign parties are now also familiar with a global approach.
re and more parties are highly educated, sometimes at western universities. Especially at
the level of consumer demand, it is relevant to have insight into more local and regional
characteristics and cultural differences;

Working and studying abroad and ‘i
mporting’ employees from other countries has become
commonplace. It is increasingly normal for employers and entrepreneurs to operate in
international environments and international teams;

It is important for companies and organisations to be fully

interlocutors with
knowledge of all social, political, cultural and business aspects;

The outsourcing of production to cheap production countries and countries focused on service
outsourcing will remain. However, counter movements geared towards the envir
onment and
fighting exploitation, etc. will emerge. Organisations that operate at international level must
therefore have employees with excellent communication skills and purchasing skills;

In large companies, the importance of shareholders in terms of st
rategic decision
making has
increased. This has an effect on the product and the contextual embedding (short
financial results are sometimes prioritised over sustainability and continuity


These developments call for a broad range
of international business skills, such as a sound knowledge
of international economic developments, knowledge of import and export regulations as well as
international communication skills (both language skills and cultural competency). The IBL professiona
should possess all these skills.

1.3.4. Attention for Sustainability

Consumers are becoming increasingly interested in sustainability and companies are held
accountable for their actions in terms of the environment, child labour, international working
onditions and ethical compliance. Is social entrepreneurship ethical entrepreneurship?;

Sustainability regulations vary per country; knowledge of regulations is essential for

The focus of products and services is not just on current prices, but

also on costs and
environmental pollution in the future.

More and more stakeholders (customers, suppliers, shareholders, government, citizens) are
demanding quality from organisations. These expectations are not limited to the quality of
products or servi
ces. Modern stakeholders increasingly expect companies to have a sound
personnel policy, to have a reliable management and to behave in a responsible manner in
relation to people, society and the environment. Also the manner in which organisations
ate with their stakeholders calls for discretion and quality.

The IBL professional is expected to be aware of these demands and be able to respond to them.


1.4. IBL focus: International Business supported by Communication

The IBL profile is the basic mode
l for all IBL programmes. The profiles are, pursuant an agreement
made in the General Meeting of the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences,
formally defined by the Board of the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Scienc
es. Other
documents, such as the profile of the Commerce domain and Dedicated to Quality, have been used to
compile the IBL profile. These means that these much more extensive documents compared to the IBL
documents are no longer relevant.

In 2005, a set o
f Commerce domain competencies was drawn up which applies to all programmes in
the Commerce domain
. These competencies include eight domain
specific competencies and two
competencies that apply to all universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. T
hese eight
competencies have all been worked out at three levels. It has been agreed that each programme in the
Commerce domain must take these Commerce competencies as a basic principle. The level at which
students are required to master these competencie
s has also been determined per programme.
Meanwhile, the IBL competencies have been specified in more detail, expanded (see chapter 3) and
modified in this profile. Despite the fact that new IBL competencies have been formulated, the diagram
below still il
lustrates well the differences between the programmes.

As you can see, the main difference between the IBL programme and the other programmes in the
domain is the level of competency 7: Communication. Competency 7 states: Communicate in multiple

with awareness of cultural differences,

both internal and external, national and international. Having said that, the focus of the programme is
not on languages, but on conducting international business. Languages are a means to ac
hieve a
business or commercial goal. Students of the other programmes in the domain take only one or two
modern foreign languages at basic level (level 1), whereas the IBL student is suitably equipped to


Domeincompetenties en Illustraties Commerce (Domain Competencies and Illustrations Commerce), version
December 2005.


communicate at a high level and in a professional ma
nner in three modern foreign languages (level 3).
This language competency has been described and worked out in a separate appendix to the document
Domeincompetenties Commerce 2005 (Domain Competencies Commerce 2005), in accordance with the
Common European

Framework of Reference (CEFR). Our vision on the language level required of the
IBL student is described in paragraph 2.3.

Furthermore, the IBL student develops broad business skills, whereas Commercial Economics focuses
on marketing and Small Business
& Retail Management on sales, predominantly in a national context.
The programmes Food & Business and Trade Management Asia have a more specialist, international

In 2010, the LOO IBL stated that the above competencies did not adequately desc
ribe the profession of
IBL. In chapter 3, we have listed the IBL competencies that are indicative for all programmes as of

1.5. Comparable programmes abroad

There is no comparable programme in Europe like the International Business and Languages
gramme. That is to say, no other European programme has such a strong focus on
international business communication. There are, of course, comparable international business
programmes and institutions. Our IBL programmes are looking for European partner in
where exchange students can enrol in business programmes. We are not looking for student
exchange programmes that offer exchange at programme level, but at course level. The
examination boards decide which foreign courses can be taken by student
s at international
partners of universities and colleges as part of their regular curriculum.

As all IBL programmes belong to one or more international networks, a wide variety of
partnerships exists. A lot of international students are interested in tak
ing an IBL programme.
Generally, student exchange takes place within the international networks of the university or
faculty where the programme is taught. A necessary condition for two
way student exchange is
that the curriculum courses of the IBL program
me must be English spoken. Almost all IBL
programmes feature English language courses, partly because cooperation with international
fellow students is seen as an important part of this internationally oriented programme.



All the IBL professional qualification programmes start at Bachelor level. Below we will elaborate
what this exactly means and discuss the level of language proficiency required of IBL students.
Different reference systems apply to the IBL profession
al Bachelor’s programme, each of which
determine the level students must reach in the development

of the competencies.

2.1. Domain competency levels 2005

In 2005, eight Commerce domain competencies were formulated at three levels. For each domain
cy, we specified the level at which the IBL student is required to master the competency. The
diagram in paragraph 1.4 shows which agreements were made. As mentioned before, we have
incorporated the Commerce domain competencies that apply to IBL in the IBL

exit qualifications
described in chapter 3.

2.2. The Higher Professional Education Standards, the Dublin
Descriptors and the Higher Professional Education Qualifications

On 15 July 2010, the New Assessment

Frameworks for the Higher Education Accreditati
on System were
. One difference compared to the assessment frameworks of February 2003

which is
relevant to determining the level of the Bachelor’s degree

is that in the new frameworks the exit
qualification are no longer linked to the Dubl
in descriptors. In the previous accreditation system,
educational programmes based their vision on the targeted level on the following Dublin descriptors:
knowledge and insight, knowledge and insight put into practice, judgement, communication, and
g skills.

In addition to these Dublin descriptors, the so
called ten generic higher education qualifications (the
Franssen Committee Frameworks) were also used to set a standard for professional Bachelor’s
programmes. These ten generic qualifications wer
e important because they provided a framework for
expressing the unique qualities of higher professional education (as opposed to an academic study
programme). The educational programmes that used the ten higher professional education
qualifications as a s
tarting point had to show how these qualifications related to the Dublin descriptors
by means of self

The debate on the new shared standards for Bachelor’s studies is now in full swing. So far it has been
agreed that the higher professional
education programmes must at least account for the four standards
that have been formulated by the HBO Raad (the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied
Sciences) in the document Dedicated to Quality
. These four standards are: a sound theoretic
al basis,
a critical mind, professional expertise, and professional ethics and social orientation. These standards
are not new; some parts were taken from the Dublin descriptors and the ten generic higher
professional education qualifications. The LOO IBL
says the following about the four standards:

A sound theoretical basis


NVAO (the

Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders),
Assessment Frameworks

for the
Accreditation System
, 15 July 2010.


Accreditation Framework



Programmes in Dutch Higher Education
, 14 February 2003.


HBO Raad, Dedicated to Quality, August 2009, paragraph 2:

study and standards.



IBL is a programme that requires its students to have a sound basic knowledge. The
IBL programme therefore meets the Body of Knowledge and Skills Commerce

formulated in 2008, but with
its own interpretation. The IBL Body of Knowledge and
Skills describes the required theoretical basis for each of the eight Commerce domain
competencies. As far as theoretical basic knowledge is concerned, IBL emphasises
knowledge and insight into business

and environment analysis, strategy and policy
development, planning and execution, sales, communication and finance. In addition,
IBL expects graduates to have thorough language knowledge and proficiency in order
to perform in an international business en
vironment. This is described in the
competency communication (see paragraph 3.1). Paragraph 3.2 contains the IBL
Body of Knowledge.

A critical mind


The ability to analyse and research problems plays an important role in the
professional practice of IBL and

therefore also in the programme. Some of the core
tasks of the IBL graduate include the ability to perform practice
based research and
communicate about the results. Research within IBL is generally related to the
realisation of a company's international
business objectives. For example, an
international market exploration or specific market research, an investigation of
cultures or countries, an international trend survey, etc. The development of these
forms of research must be embedded in the IBL Bachelo
r’s programme.


The LOO IBL stresses the importance and meaning of teacher participation in
lectorates and knowledge circles. Participating in international networks will bring
applied research to a higher level.

Professional expertise


The LOO IBL considers

well developed judgement skills and, based thereon,
performance skills to be the core of professional expertise. The IBL professional must
be able to assess an international situation, context or wide variety of problems
concerning internationalisation ba
sed on (limited) available or retrievable
information. He/she also has the ability to justify his/her judgement. Reaching a
judgement involves determining, deciding and interpreting what the situation,
context or problem is, and determining the appropriate

course of action based on
that information, using a plan or action list which he/she carries out, initiates or
coordinates. The IBL education programmes focus on the development of the
necessary skills to be able to assess, decide and act independently in

international contexts.

Professional ethics and social orientation


The IBL professional will be faced with a broad range of ethical international
problems, such as how to implement laws and regulations (adequately), shifting
norms in what is consi
dered to be ethical practice, sustainability, employment
conditions, etc. For this reason, the programme’s set of competencies includes the
competency: develop a professional attitude with room for normative
aspects, respect for others, a professi
onal code and ethical principles in order to act


Raad, Body of Knowledge

and Skills HEO (Higher Economic Education), Commerce Domain, 23 June


2.3. Required level of modern foreign languages for the professional
practice of IBL

In the first paragraph, we discussed the particular focus of the IBL Bachelor’s programme in detail and
stressed that in order for a company to be successful in international business, a substantial level of
international communication

is required. The chapter on developments discussed current developments
in communication media. We said that in order for th
e IBL professional to add value to a company,
he/she must have excellent international communication skills and be capable of dealing with different
cultures. In addition, we indicated that the IBL graduate is fluent in three modern foreign languages.


far as proficiency in modern foreign languages is concerned, the IBL programmes apply the
European level standard of competency. This means that each IBL programme must use the Common
European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) as a standard to i
ndicate the levels of their
educational programmes
. We have chosen this framework because it is clear and applicable in terms
of foreign language proficiency. We will also follow the levels in this framework because the framework
is accepted and internati
onally applied, which makes international comparison possible. The so
CEFR framework consists of six levels of language proficiency, ranging from A1 and A2 (basic
knowledge) to C2 (high level of language proficiency only to be obtained by a highly q
ualified native

With this in mind, the LOO IBL has selected the following levels of proficiency (taking into account the
fact that the IBL programme is a four
year programme of higher education for students of economics,
in which business knowle
dge plays a key role). These levels are higher that those of other Commerce
domain programmes.

The student has acquired a command of English at C1 level for reading and listening skills. C1
is generally the highest attainable level for non
native speakers.

For a detailed description of
this level, please refer to the diagram below; for spoken interaction, speaking and writing, the
student has acquired at least level B2.

The student has acquired a command of the second and third modern language at B2 level f
reading and listening skills; for spoken interaction, speaking and writing, the student has
acquired at least level B1;




Council of Europe, Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR)


Specifically, the levels are defined as follows (Common Reference Levels: global scale)

Proficient User


Can understand with ea
se virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from
different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent
presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiatin
g finer
shades of meaning even in more complex situations.


Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can
express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can
se language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce
clear, well
structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational
patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.

Independent Use


Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including
technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and
spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native sp
eakers quite possible without strain for
either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a
topical issue giving the advantages and Independent disadvantages of various options.


Can understand the m
ain points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in
work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area
where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics

which are familiar or of
personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give
reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.

Basic user


Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related
to areas of most immediate
relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment).
Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information
on familiar and routine matters
. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background,
immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.


Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the
satisfaction of needs of a concrete ty
pe. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and
answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things
he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is
repared to help.

The above framework describes in general terms the level of proficiency to be attained by the students
in each of the three modern foreign languages. These general guidelines still have to be developed into
concrete skills. The LOO IBL
has once again taken the Common European Framework (CEFR) as a
reference. In the CEFR, the language levels are expressed into specific language skills, the so
Can Do statements
. The LOO IBL has used these Can Do statements as a starting point and a
them to a business environment. These Can Do statements will serve as a basis for all IBL programmes
to set the required level of language proficiency. It goes without saying that it is up to the programmes
to determine how to set up their curricula

in order to achieve this.


Common European Framework of Reference for Lan
guages (CEFR), chapter 3.


Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), chapter 4.



The IBL exit qualifications consist of a set of IBL competencies plus the IBL Body of Knowledge.
Mastery of the IBL Body of Knowledge is necessary for mastering the competen

The IBL profile IBL Shows Its Colours describes the common basis of the IBL programmes. The
educational programmes have been given the freedom to add substance to the remaining part of their
programmes. If desired, other frameworks may be used. Most

IBL programmes have chosen
related courses to complete their curricula or for their free elective courses. Their IBL
diploma therefore includes a Bachelor’s of Commerce degree. Some programmes have chosen
related courses to complete the
ir curricula or for their free elective courses. These
programmes award a Bachelor's of Business Administration degree with their IBL diploma (and not also
a Bachelor's of Commerce degree).

3.1. IBL competencies

Based on the above considerations, the LOO I
BL concludes that three key areas of competence exist
within the professional practice of IBL. The title of the National Professional and Competency Profile,
IBL Shows Its Colours, refers to these three areas of competence, each of which have their own col
and accents, and all together add colour to IBL. These three areas of competence are:

Competencies based on which the IBL professional is able to conduct international business:
international business is the core of professional practice;

based on which the IBL professional is capable of international communication
are an integral and conditional component of international business;

Competencies based on which the IBL professional is able to deal with different cultures,
intercultural aware
ness, are

just like international communication

an integral and
conditional component of international business.

The LOO IBL has taken these three core categories as basic principle. Within this basic principle, the
profession determinations, developm
ents and national domain competencies have been further divided
into sub
competencies. The explanation between brackets in the descriptions below indicates to which
Commerce domain it relates. We have also specified the required level of performance or wha
t level

skill is needed. The detailed descriptions of the sub
competencies correspond with descriptions of
the domain competencies. Some of the elaborated Commerce domain competencies have been
combined or drawn into a more international framework. The
competencies below are the leading
competencies for all IBL programmes.


International Business

A graduate of the IBL programme is able to professionally develop, carry out and manage in
particular the commercial processes involved in international busines

Initiate and create (contemporary) products and
services for large or small international markets
(= Domain Competency Commerce 1, level 2).


Signal and identify new developments, taking
customers and competitors into account.
Translate these developme
nts (or have these
developments translated) into products or


Develop creative ideas and concepts.
Translate these concepts into products or
services in a team, and organise the
production of these goods and services.


Implement, interpret, assess

and evaluate
(international) market research (= Domain
Competency Commerce 2, level 2).


Formulate a hypothesis and research
question(s) from a given context;


Write a research plan containing justifications
for your choice of qualitative or quantitative



Create a questionnaire based on a set of
research questions.


Carry out the research, using standard
methods for that specific type of research;


Process the data, applying simple statistics
using a statistical package and drawing


te a report containing graphic
representations and justifying research results
to client;


Evaluate the research.

International market analysis and competition
analysis. Determine, on the one hand, what the
strengths and weaknesses of an organisation are
ased on analysis of internal processes and
culture, as part of the value chain, and on the
other hand, determine what the chances and
threats are on the international market based on
relevant national and international trends (=
Domain Competency Commerce
3, level 3).


Analyse: Create and execute, in a team, a
SWOT analysis from a given context, an
international market analysis plan from one or
multiple contexts and an analysis of the
organisation’s ability to compete on an
international scale;


Assess: Dr
aw conclusions and assess strategic
options for the national and/or international
market based on the analysis of available and
possibly incomplete information, and indicate
contradictions of interest.


Determine investment risks/market chances
and advise o
n investment of money, time,
energy in international situations that are very
unpredictable or controllable;


Report and with conviction present the results
and justify the analysis, including justification
for the approach and giving advice on what to
do s


Develop a marketing policy for a company
operating nationally or internationally and be able
to support the choices made (= Domain
Competency Commerce 4, level 2).


List several options based on a SWOT analysis
that has been executed for a



Structure the options and reduce to a realistic
set of priorities.


Formulate several marketing targets for short
and long term, using SMART.


Design a marketing plan for realising these
targets, including the organisational and
financial consequenc
es, giving explicit account
of the use and meaning of contemporary
media tools for the company’s international
浡rk整ing a捴iviti敳e

Set up, execute and adjust various plans on
internationalisation from a marketing policy point
of view (= Domain Competenc
y Commerce 2,
level 3).


Determine and analyse, independently, the
changes for all functional areas of the
organisation working from a complex
marketing problem.


Develop, set up and support a plan
independently (for communications,
international purchasin
g and/or sales, import
and export, distribution, organisation) based
on a complex marketing problem.


Write a fully international business plan, in a
team, giving account of issues concerning
sustainability, quality assurance, and
corporate social responsib
ility and
international regulations for import and


Present the analysis and conclusions with
conviction to management and other target
groups in order to receive permission and
support for execution.


International Sales and International Account

Management. Develop, maintain and improve
business relationships for purchasing, sales and
service, and selling products and/or services with
the help of modern media (such as customer
relationship management, CRM) (= Domain
Competency Commerce 6, level 2


Differentiate between consumer groups in
terms of prospects and suspects. Distinguish
and describe the groups of buyers and attune
the (marketing) communication to these
groups of buyers;


Set up an international account profile and
effective purchasing

and sales strategy;


Put together a sales file for the target country
with all relevant information;


Sell and effectively negotiate in a three
modern foreign languages;


Design an effective purchasing and sales
organisation and maintain your own relations


Handle written communication for purchasing
and sales;


Take advantage of opportunities to extend
limits and build new relationships that may
lead to a transaction, contract or business

International Communication

A graduate of the I
BL programme is capable of professionally handling international business
communication in three modern foreign languages.

Communicate in three modern foreign languages
with awareness of cultural differences, internal
and external, national and internatio
nal (=
Domain Competency Commerce 7, level 3: higher
level for three modern foreign languages than in
Domain Competencies Commerce).


Command of English at C1 level for reading
and listening skills. For spoken interaction,
speaking and writing, the minimu
m level to be
obtained is B2. Command of the second and
third modern language at B2 level for reading
and listening skills, for spoken interaction,
speaking and writing, the minimum level to be
obtained is B1;


Advise on aspects of the culture, society and
behavioural patterns in countries and regions
where these foreign languages are official
and/or used;


Advise on adequately approaching differences
in corporate cultures in countries or regions
where these foreign languages are official
and/or used.



an international company, an international
business unit, business processes or an
international project in the field of international
purchasing and sales, and international
communication (= Domain Competency
Commerce 8, level 2).


Handle a simple confl
ict situation in an
(international) team and/or project group;


Deal with unexpected events that hinder the
project group/team/department and respond
adequately with the help of others;


Lead a simple business unit or project in a
oriented manner, ass
isted by a


Formulate and set long term goals in
consultations with the project group/team and
run interim feasibility checks;


Estimate the value of the contribution of an
employee or project group member and
provide the project group with feedb

Interpersonal, social and communication skills (=
Domain Competency Commerce 9, level 3).


Working in a team in a professional
environment and contributing ideas towards
goals and organisational structure calls for:
multidisciplinarity and interdisci
customer focus, collegiality, management
skills (the social part of the competency);


Communicate internally at all levels, and
communicate effectively in the customary
language used in terms of professional tasks.
This includes drawing up and wr
iting plans
and memoranda, providing information,
consulting with other parties, generating
support, encouraging, motivating, convincing
and communicating decisions.



Intercultural Awareness

A graduate of the IBL programme has knowledge and insight into

the importance of intercultural
differences for the various phases of international business and can identify with various cultures
in order to support international business processes.

Personal professional international skills. The
profession of an IB
L graduate is in part
characterised by frequent visits abroad for shorter
or longer periods, and by him/her representing
the interests of the company on site indirectly
(promotion, research) or by working in direct
contact with the client. He/she must be a
ble to
operate in all international regions where the
company is represented. This demands various
more specific, personal, professional skills from
the IBL graduate (= new competency, only for


Interest in other cultures and ability to
empathise wit
h other cultures (cultural


Entrepreneurial initiative and wish to travel in
order to solve important problems and issues


Ability to deal with insecurity, be socially
resilient and have the courage to be in an
environment/situation th
at is new to him/her.
By this we mean that an IBL professional will
often find him/herself in an unfamiliar foreign
context and therefore must be able to deal
with the insecurities and questions that come
with this context;


Adapt to the international envir
onment in
which he/she is to operate. Respect foreign
norms and values, and act in accordance with
a code of conduct;


Bridge differences that arise from cultural
background in each phase of business
relations and show sufficient backbone, both
ly and morally;


Ample knowledge of the company’s products
and 獥rvic敳 in order to 捯浭uni捡c攠睩wh
for敩gn buy敲s and 獵ppli敲献


managing competency (intrapersonal or
professional) (= Domain Competency Commerce
10, level 3).


Manage and regulate o
wn development with
respect to learning, working in a result
oriented way, taking initiatives and operating
independently, flexibility;


Think about, reflect on and take responsibility
for own actions (indicates commitment and
critical self


elop a professional attitude with room for
cultural aspects, respect for
others, a professional code and ethical
principles in order to act professionally;


Contribute to the further professionalisation
of the sector, and contribute to publication
congresses, etc.


3.2. IBL Body of Knowledge and Skills

The knowledge basis for the competencies described in paragraph 3.1 is the IBL Body of Knowledge
and Skills IBL (IBL BoKS). The IBL BoKS differs from the general Commerce BoKS.

The knowledge r
equired for each of these competencies consists of three elements:


Basics: basic knowledge that each of our graduates should have.


Visions: theories and concepts that determine the direction to be taken within Commerce.


Trends: current developments and
insights within Commerce.

Below is a detailed overview of the basics per competency and of the most important visions and
trends. The basics are the fundamental areas of expertise. Linked thereto are the most important
theories, models and literature that

the students are required to become familiar with.


This is an IBL BoKS, which is not the same as featured on the website of the HBO


Competency 1

Initiate and create products and services, independently and on his/her own initiative

Area of expertise




Innovation and product

Innovation, product a
nd market development,
brainstorming and screening techniques, feasibility

Levitt Product Life Cycle, Rogers Innovation Adoption

Braindrain, innovation arrangements, the Innovation
Platform, innovation of business processes and
maintenance t
hrough ICT, internationalisation

Marketing (in particular
market knowledge and
knowledge of buyers)

economics, trends, consumer behaviour, internal
and external analysis (including sector analysis, buyer
analysis, competition analysis), indicators

bell Business Definition Model, Ansoff's Growth
Strategies, Balanced Scorecard (BSC), DESTEP factors,
Kotler´s Strategic Options, Porter’s Five Forces Model

Individualisation, ageing of the population


Company cultures, leadership styles,
structures, writing business plans, presenting and

Belbin, Personal Balanced Scorecard, STAR(R), Quinn

Labour shortage, outward movement of capital,
strengthening of the knowledge economy

Strategic management
and organisation

inistrative organisation, organisational science, HRM,
ICT, project management

PRINCE2, Mintzberg, SWOT

Lean organisation

‘War for talent’

Financial management

Financial administration, cost accounting, financing,
investment analysis

Logistics and purc


and outsourcing, procurement strategy, SCM

Make or buy, Value Chain Porter, Kraljic

Law/legal affairs

Company law (incl. labour legislation), contract law,
commercial law (incl. trademark law, copyright law, patent



cy 2

Implement, interpret, assess and evaluate market research

Area of expertise




Research design

Formulate hypothesis and research question

Draw up conceptual model based on hypothesis and
research question

Insight into methods and
techniques, select and
justify use of method/technique

Draw up an estimate

Tender assessment

Naresh K.Malhotra, Alvin C.Burns/Ronald F. Bush,

Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S.

Desk research

Search for and use relevant data sources: literature,

professional journals, CBS data, sector
publications, websites, e
news , e

Online search strategies, online catalogues, newsgroups,

Qualitative methods of
data gathering

Draw up and use qualitative research instruments, such as
vation forms, interview forms, focus groups

New media and market research, such as Blauw’s online
user forum, eyeball tracking

Quantitative methods of
data gathering

Draw up and use quantitative research instruments,
such as questionnaires for surveys

lculate sampling size

Analysis of research

Knowledge statistics: reliability intervals for averages
and fractions (translate sample result to population),
tests for averages and fractions, chi
square tests (to
establish a relationship between


variables), regression and correlation (to establish a
relationship between


quantitative variables)

Knowledge of statistical software such as Data
Entry, SPSS

Predictive analytics: data mining (black box packages and
multivariate testing
), text mining, web mining

Interpretation and

Written and verbal reporting, including (statistical)
justification, conclusions, recommendations and
advice on subsequent steps based on research

Evaluate the conducted research


ncy 3

Determine what the strengths and weaknesses of an organisation are based on an analysis of internal
processes and culture, and by recognising chances and threats on the local, national or international
market on the basis of relevant trends

Area of




Analysis of external

Macro environment analysis, market analysis, buyer
analysis, sector analysis, competition analysis, distribution
analysis, stakeholder analysis

Porter, Hamel
Prahalad, Ansoff, Frambach & Nij
PMT Abell & Hammond, Hofstede´s Cultural Dimensions,
benchmarking, Kotler´s Competitive Behaviour, Goor´s
Sector Analysis

Globalisation, digitalisation (incl. Internet marketing),

sustainable entrepreneurship, company take

Analysis of internal


Organisational audit, marketing and sales audit,

financial audit, logistics audit, operational audit,
purchasing audit, research/development and technology

The Mc Kinsey 7 S Framework, Caluwé´s Cultural

Mintzberg, Custom Re
lation Management, Porter’s value
chain, BCG matrix, marketing and management
information systems, INK/EFQM analysis

Speed to market, just in time, global sourcing,
outsourcing, learning organisation, entrepreneurship,
network environment, serial entrepren
eurship (small is

SWOT analysis

Determine chances and threats from external analysis,
determine strengths and weaknesses within internal
environment, investment decisions, select options

Confrontation matrix, ethical feasibility (in Dutch: the

FOETSJE model)

Competency 4

Develop a marketing policy (company policy) for a company operating nationally or internationally and
be able to substantiate and justify the choices made

Area of expertise




Marketing planning

ing management

Describe goals using the SMART model, distinguish
between company objectives and marketing objectives,
marketing planning cycle, oversee consequences of
policy, budgeting techniques, positioning, branding

Model Abell & Hammond, Porter’s Gene
Strategies, Treacy & Wiersema’s Value
Disciplines Model, Ansoff’s Growth Strategies

Portfolio strategies: BCG and GE matrix, SDP
model, CRM skills model, SERVQUAL model,
Gate model

‘Environmental sensibility’ is becoming increasingly

e speed with which information spreads and the more
and more limited influence of organisations on those
information flows

Corporate Social Responsibility

There is an increasing focus on social issues, such as the
effect of the environment on the ethical a
spects of
marketing practices

Marketing Accountability

In order to reinforce the leading role of marketing in
organisations, it is essential to make (financial)
accountability of policy and results transparent

Formulation of strategic

Mission st
atement and vision, targets and objectives,
competition strategy, consolidation strategies, growth

Policy making Ansoff, Porter, Johnson & Scholes, Treacy
& Wiersema


Competency 5

Set up, execute and adjust plans from a marketing (company po
licy) policy point of view

Area of expertise




Creation and

Business plan, commercial plan, project plan, business
administration, change management, internal
communication, estimate, budget, time management

oel Gritt, de Caluwé

based creation

Chain integration

Evaluation of

Business economic criteria, management information,
information skills, financial management, statistics,
commercial calculations, quality management

Key performance

indicators, effectiveness, efficiency,
adaptivity, Decision Support System, CRM, Balanced
Scorecard, INK, PDCA cycle, strategic control,
productivity control, profitability control, control of sales
shares, revenue, dividend, market shares and distributio
shares, cash flow development, account and brand
development, response from competitors, cost and yield
calculations, customer satisfaction, break
even analysis
for actions, post calculations, effects of actions, business
intelligence, MIS/DSS, DPP/DAP,
Trinity model


Adjustment of plans

Strategic and operational adjustment

Action plans, decision calculations, predictions,
contingency plans

Competency 6

Develop and maintain business relationships for purchasing, sales and service

of expertise




Sales & relationship

(Large/key) account management, sales techniques,
sales processes, CRM systems and applications,
customer satisfaction, Incoterms, networks and ethics

marketing, search engine marketing,

web marketing,
DM, Treacy and Wiersema, Peppers and Rodgers, Value
Chain Porter, Category Management, Sellogram, Mbo
systems, customer pyramids

Customer pyramids, loyalty programmes


Communication planning, communication plan, PR,

corporate communication, (inter)cultural context,

communicating in a marketing context, listening skills,
discussion techniques and negotiating, modern foreign

Virtual communities, Hofstede’s Allemaal
anders denkenden; omgaan met
len (Dissidents everywhere;
dealing with cultural differences)

Common European Framework Language

Second Life, the Internet and websites as means of
communication, branding, search engines, e

Organisational structures,
cultures and

Value chains, problem solving units, decision

Porter, Mintzberg, Hamel and Prahalad, Howard and Seth

Online payment options

Purchasing management

Purchasing processes, control of integral goods flow,
supplier management, sourcing st

procurement, Kraljic

Make or buy, outsourcing, e

Data management

Customer status, relationship status, effectiveness of
implemented policy

Peelen, analytical CRM

Click analysis


Competency 7

Communicating in multiple languages with
awareness of cultural differences, internal and external,

nd international

Area of expertise




Internal communication

Dutch C2 level

(highly qualified native

English (mandatory) C1/B2
level (higher level than oth
Commerce programmes)

Two other modern foreign
languages B2/B1 level (higher
level than other Commerce

Intercultural awareness in

professional contexts



Instructions, manuals, circulars,

Internet information, promot
ion material, research
results, memos/notes



Short messages via broadcasting system, product
presentations, corporate presentations

(vocabulary and grammar is language specific as



Short messages,
consultation with colleagues,
meetings, small talk, receiving and referring
customers, business contacts via telephone


in writing

Standard forms, memos and notes

(vocabulary and grammar is language specific as

Visions = acts in pro
fessional contexts

European Framework

Language activities in professional context

ERK = European Frame of Reference

In relation to described language levels (A1

C2) for
modern foreign languages in the European language

European language por
tfolio + European Passport


n English
language International Business and Languages programmes, Dutch has the status of modern foreign language.

In this case, C2 level is not obligatory.

Dutch has the status of
second or third modern foreign language with the required language levels


External communication

Dutch C2

(highly qualified native

English (mandatory) C1/B2
level (higher level than other
Commerce programmes)

Two other modern foreign
languages B2/B1 level (higher
level than other

Cross cultural awareness in

professional contexts



Standard letters, complex correspondence, e
Internet information



Product presentations and corporate presentations

y and grammar is language specific as



Speaking with conviction, products presentations and
corporate presentations, negotiating skills,
purchasing and sales talks, networking, maintaining


in w

mail, standard letters, complex correspondence,
target group
oriented writing, reporting

(vocabulary and grammar is language specific as

Visions = acts in professional contexts

European Framework

Language activities in professional contex

ERK = European Frame of Reference

In relation to described language levels (A1

C2) for
modern foreign languages in the European language

European language portfolio + European Passport

Demand for non
European languages such as Chinese
and J


Competency 8

Lead a company, a business unit, business processes or a project

Area of expertise




Project management

Action plan, project organisation, team roles, project

Monitor progress and quality

Steven Covey,
The 7 Habits of Highly Successful

Peter Senge, The 5th discipline, The Art & Practice
of The Learning Organization

Quinn, Faerman, Thompson, McGrath: Becoming a
Master Manager

Meredith Belbin’s Team Roles

From hierarchical organisation to network

From positional leadership to assigned authority

Increasing average level of education

Short cycles, flexibility and globalisation

Management techniques

Chair a meeting, provide instruction to participants, give
and receive feedback, conflict m
anagement, (multicultural)
codes of conduct, personal leadership (self
leadership styles

Hersey & Blanchard: Situational Leadership

Human Resources

Recruitment and selection, personnel management
(review cycle)


Appendix I:

Do statements









I can understand familiar
words and very basic
phrases concerning myself,
my family and immediate
concrete surroundings
when people speak slowly
and clearly.

I can understand phrases
and the hig
hest frequency
vocabulary related to areas
of most immediate
personal relevance (e.g.
very basic personal and
family information,
shopping, local area,
employment). I can catch
the main point in short,
clear, simple messages and

I can unders
tand the main
points of clear standard
speech on familiar matters
regularly encountered in
work, school, leisure, etc. I
can understand the main
point of many radio or TV
programmes on current
affairs or topics of personal
or professional interest
when the

delivery is
relatively slow and clear.

I can understand extended
speech and lectures and
follow even complex lines
of argument provided the
topic is reasonably familiar.
I can understand most TV
news and current affairs
programmes. I can
understand the ma
jority of
films in standard dialect.

I can understand extended
speech even when it is not
clearly structured and
when relationships are only
implied and not signalled
explicitly. I can understand
television programmes and
films without too much

I h
ave no difficulty in
understanding any kind of
spoken language, whether
live or broadcast, even
when delivered at fast
native speed, provided. I
have some time to get
familiar with the accent.


I can understand familiar
names, words and very
e sentences, for
example on notices and
posters or in catalogues.

I can read very short,
simple texts. I can find
specific, predictable
information in simple
everyday material such as
prospectuses, menus and
timetables and I can
short simple
personal letters.

I can understand texts that
consist mainly of high
frequency everyday or job
related language. I can
understand the description
of events, feelings and
wishes in personal letters.

I can read articles and
reports concerned wit
contemporary problems in
which the writers adopt
particular attitudes or
viewpoints. I can
understand contemporary
literary prose.

I can understand long and
complex factual and
literary texts, appreciating
distinctions of style. I can
understand speciali
articles and longer
technical instructions, even
when they do not relate to
my field.

I can read with ease
virtually all forms of the
written language, including
abstract, structurally or
linguistically complex texts
such as manuals,
specialised articl
es and
literary works



Spoken interaction

I can interact in a simple
way provided the other
person is prepared to
repeat or rephrase things
at a slower rate of speech
and help me formulate
what I'm trying to say. I
can ask and answer simple
ons in areas of
immediate need or on very
familiar topics.

I can communicate in
simple and routine tasks
requiring a simple and
direct exchange of
information on familiar
topics and activities. I can
handle very short social
exchanges, even though I
usually understand
enough to keep the
conversation going myself.

I can deal with most
situations likely to arise
whilst travelling in an area
where the language is
spoken. I can enter
unprepared into
conversation on topics that
are familiar, of personal
terest or pertinent to
everyday life (e.g. family,
hobbies, work, travel and
current events).

I can interact with a degree
of fluency and spontaneity
that makes regular
interaction with native
speakers quite possible. I
can take an active part in
n in familiar
contexts, accounting for
and sustaining my views.

I can express myself
fluently and spontaneously
without much obvious
searching for expressions. I
can use language flexibly
and effectively for social
and professional purposes.
I can formulat
e ideas and
opinions with precision and
relate my contribution
skilfully to those of other

I can take part effortlessly
in any conversation or
discussion and have a good
familiarity with idiomatic
expressions and
colloquialisms. I can
express mys
elf fluently and
convey finer shades of
meaning precisely. If I do
have a problem I can
backtrack and restructure
around the difficulty so
smoothly that other people
are hardly aware of it.

Spoken production

I can use simple phrases
and sentences to desc
where I live and people I

I can use a series of
phrases and sentences to
describe in simple terms
my family and other
people, living conditions,
my educational background
and my present or most
recent job.

I can connect phrases in a
simple way i
n order to
describe experiences and
events, my dreams, hopes
and ambitions. I can briefly
give reasons and
explanations for opinions
and plans. I can narrate a
story or relate the plot of a
book or film and describe
my reactions.

I can present clear,
led descriptions on a
wide range of subjects
related to my field of
interest. I can explain a
viewpoint on a topical issue
giving the advantages and
disadvantages of various

I can present clear,
detailed descriptions of
complex subjects
g sub
developing particular points
and rounding off with an
appropriate conclusion.

I can present a clear,
description or argument in
a style appropriate to the
context and with an
effective logical structure
which helps the recipi
ent to
notice and remember
significant points.




I can write a short, simple
postcard, for example
sending holiday greetings.
I can fill in forms with
personal details, for
example entering my
name, nationality and
address on a hotel
ation form.

I can write short, simple
notes and messages. I can
write a very simple
personal letter, for
example thanking someone
for something.

I can write simple
connected text on topics
which are familiar or of
personal interest. I can
write personal le
describing experiences and

I can write clear, detailed
text on a wide range of
subjects related to my
interests. I can write an
essay or report, passing on
information or giving
reasons in support of or
against a particular point of
. I can write letters
highlighting the personal
significance of events and

I can express myself in
clear, well
structured text,
expressing points of view
at some length. I can write
about complex subjects in
a letter, an essay or a
report, und
erlining what I
consider to be the salient
issues. I can select a style
appropriate to the reader
in mind.

I can write clear, smoothly
flowing text in an
appropriate style. I can
write complex letters,
reports or articles which
present a case with an
tive logical structure
which helps the recipient to
notice and remember
significant points. I can
write summaries and
reviews of professional or
literary works.


Appendix II: Interlocutors at universities of applied sciences and
in professional field

nterlocutors in the professional field


MKB Nederland

Federatie voor de Nederlandse Export (FENEDEX)

Raamweg 14

2596 HL Den Haag

Managing director: Mr B.J.Koopman

Dutch Dialogue Marketing Association (DDMA)

W.G.Plein 507

1054 SJ Amsterdam

rector of bureau: Ms D. Janssen


Assering 188

1187 KL Amstelveen

Managing director: Mr Frank van Delft

Contact person: Ms Baukje Hilarides

Overview of representatives of universities of applied sciences

Volgt nog Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen




Windesheim University of Applied Sciences

Mr Wilmer



Mr N. Duinhof

STP Innovations

Managing director

Ms A. van de Belt


Marketing manager

Mr F. Kouwe

Chamber of Commerce

International trade


Ms Van de Leur



Mr T. Jansma


Chartered accountant

Ms T. Huf


Sales office manager

Hanze University Groningen

Mr G. Bosch

George Bosch Consult

employed entrepreneur

Mr F. Alting

COC Gron


Mr K. de Boer

Rabo Midden

Marketing consultant

Ms Michelle ter Weele

Rodenstock Benelux

Marketing project manager

Mr G. Dop

Romi Smilfood BV

Marketing manager

Mr R. Schomaker


Export manager


Eddy Blaauwbroek

Van de Wind… Marketing

Managing director/owner

HvA University of Applied Sciences

Mr B.M. Jongeneel


Senior account manager

Ms M. Vorster

Hamilton Bright BV

General manager

Ms E. van Aken

Albert Heijn

Media manager

Y. Egels


Communications manager

Mr R. B. Hamerslag


ING Pension communication manager

Ms Van Ham

VNU Media


Avans University of Applied Sciences

Ms C. van Kakerken


Interim professional M & C

Mr S. Klu

D&M Holdings

Commercial manager

Ms L. Hamers

Atos Consulting

Senior business consultant

Mr R. van Muijen

Bread and Things

Managing director/owner

Mr R. Adams

Six Fingers

Managing director

Ms P. Opheij


port assistant

Mr H. van Collenburg


Sales & Marketing director

INHOLLAND University of Applied Sciences (Alkmaar, Amsterdam/Diemen, Rotterdam

Mr A. Faasse


Operational support manager Benelux

Mr P. van Hoof

Sound of data

Sales manager

Ms M. Huizer

Shell Chemicals Europe BV

Customer centre manager

Mr A. Langeler

Maersk Line

Manager Out
Fleet Centre

Ms T. Mol

ABN AMRO Rotterdam Nd

Business partner private individuals

Ms K. van der Steen

B&S Global

Marketing assistant & student

Mr M. Dom

SNS Reaal

Sales manager

Mr M. Frijters

Sony Benelux BV

Key account manager

Ms S. Ekel

New Cheese

Brand builder/interim manager

Mr S. Montijn



Mr I. Heemkerk


Marketing executive

Mr J. Deeterink


Business account manager

Mr Hamburger

Turien & Co

Commercial manager

Mr R. Hoekstra

Chamber of Commerce

Sr. adviser international trade

Mr L. Keizer

Gimme Concepts

Managing dir

Mr G. Meijering

Syngenta Seeds


Ms W. de Wit

Corus Staal N.V.

Controlling/Marketing recruiter

Mr Y. van Zanten

Innocent Drinks

Head of Marketing Benelux

Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences

Mr F.H. Geukes Foppen

yme Europe

VP Critical Operations

Mr J.C. Pappe

ITIM International

Interim director

Mr R. Jacobson


retired financial manager Unilever NV

Mr J. Elias


Chairman of the Advisory Council of


Mr Ph. Dubbeling

Jawema BV

Managing director/owner

Ms Y. Chung


Account manager

Ms A. Delcour

Intertoys Holland BV

Junior Buyer Far East

Ms J. Chan

Sinova Man. Cons.

Managing director/owner

Mr C. Dekker

Euro Senko BV

Quality manager

Ms M. Ruben

rt of Rotterdam

Business manager

Ms J. Ritfeld

Embassy of the USA

Commercial adviser

Mr R. Hagendijk

DSV Solutions

Freight and Distribution manager

Mr S.W.A. Lak

Port of Rotterdam

Chairman and commissioner

Mr M. Veldhuizen

Cap Gemin
i Ned. BV

Vice President Practice Leader
Public & Health

Mr H. de Kort


Utrecht University of Applied Sciences

Mr J.C. van Dam

Nederlandse Export Combinatie

Managing director

Mr G.F. Gülker



Deputy director

Ms J. Kaljee

Octalix BV

Supply chain manager

Mr J.N. Kras

Flora Culture Int. BV

Managing director

Mr G.L.F.M. Mutsaerts

Wonderfeel BV

Managing director

HZ University of Applied Sciences

Ms Besems

Knowledge Centre Art Touris
m Breda/Vlissingen Project team

Ms Van der Velde


Area manager

Mr Lommen

Lambweston Meijer

Retail sales manager

Mr Van de Woestijne

Lambweston Meijer

Custom service manager

Mr Louweret

Bison International BV

area manager

Mr Minnard

Doens Foof Ingredients

Vice president

Mr Van Vuuren

employed entrepreneur

Zuyd University of Applied Sciences

Mr J.W. Bertens

Former member of European Parliament

Ms E Urlings


Personnel manager

Mr G.H
.J. Schuivens

Harte Hanks CRM

Mr F.J.M. Aretz

BCT The Document Store

Channel manager

Mr H.J.C.J.A. Hox


Commercial director

Mr A.J.C. Assink

Chamber of Commerce

International business manager

Ms T. Rohs

Commercial Laminati
ng Solutions Group

Product manager

NHL University of Applied Sciences

Ms L. Bosma

Kaasmakerij Henri Willig

Sales & marketing manager

Mr W. Al

Unique Multilingual Serv.

International consultant

Mr Backx

HZPC Holland BV

General manager


E. Stienstra

employed entrepreneur

Mr W. de Haan

Add Export Import Cons.



Saxion University of Applied Sciences

Mr H.W. Lammers

Garden Impressions BV

General manager

Mr E. Nijsink

Into telecom BV

Independent consultant

r B. Prins

Prins Marketing Cons.

employed entrepreneur

Mr G. Baartman

Heutink BV

Head of field staff

Ms M. van Oort

Wehkamp BV

Manager Brand Dev. & Offline M & C

Mr J.P. van Haaps

ELCO Rendamax BV

Former general manager

Ms M. Zeil

Zorggroep Solis


Mr E. During


Commercial manager

Mr R. Lucassen

Chamber of Commerce

Stenden University of Applied Sciences

Mr Finke

Antro groep BV

Managing director

Ms R. Biemans

Fresenius HemoCare BV

ustomer Service account coordinator

Mr E. Zwols

Kentford BV

Project manager

Mr C. Van der Blij

Röchling Eng. Plastics KG

Project manager

Ms Anje Dijk

University of Groningen

Director of Language Centre

Mr André Aarntzen

University of Twente

mnus and Master’s student