LABORATORY INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR
ENG 3731: MATERIALS (AND METHODS
Text compiled by Mr. Md. Rabiul Alam
Laboratory # 1
“Tests on Aggregates”
Fineness Modulus o
f Fine Aggregate”
(b) Fineness Modulus of Coarse Aggregates”
: Tests on Coarse and Fine Aggregates
o obtain the fineness modulus
, and voids ratio
of fine and coarse
Materials and Apparatus:
mple of fine aggregate
sample of coarse aggregates
digital weighing scale
sieve sifter for fine aggregates
sieve sifter for coarse aggregates
various cleaning brushes (point and wire)
Part 1: Sieve Analysis of fine aggregate
Take 500g sample of fine aggregate
(as per CSA code provisions, the
must be completely dry)
. This is determined by weighing the
material on a digital scale.
Also weigh each sieve of the mechanical
er, and the pan, and record the weights.
Place the aggregate in the
top sieve of the well
(sieves used are # 4, # 8, # 16, # 30, # 50 & # 100). This appa
ratus is used
for shaking the aggregate
principle used in
machine) and sieving them
has a bottom pan (to
the material passing # 100 sieve) and a lid t
the sifter du
the test. After p
cing the lid on the sifter, agitate the sifte
r for about 1
n each of the
by weighing each of t
he sieves (along with the retained aggregates
the weight of each sieve
record all the weights of
. To ensure that all materials are
collected, clean each sieve carefully u
sing the proper type of brush. Use
brush for the finer sieves,
copper brush for intermediate
steel wire brush for the coarse sieves.
o verify whether
the sum of wei
retained in all the sieves
pan is equal to the initial weight of
the aggregates taken.
Tabulate the data and determine the percent retained in each sieve. From
these values calculate th
e (cumulative) percentage of material that would
have been retained in the sieve if the whole volume of material was to be
sifted in that sieve alone. Then add the percentage of material retained in
all the sieves and divide by 100 to get the fineness modu
lus. Also prepare
a column to determine the cumulative percentage passing through the
sieve to plot the fineness modulus curve
(as specified in CSA 23.1)
Plot a graph of percent passing by weight vs sieve size, with the limits
specified in CSA standard A23.1 for fine and c
oarse aggregate sizes
All sieves have to be cleaned prior to experiment
(2) See the sample calculations given at the
end of this secti
PART 2: Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate
: Take 5000 grams of coarse aggregates by weighing the material in a
Weigh each of the
, along with
the bottom pan,
and record their weights
the aggregates in the mechanical sifter (sieve sizes used are 1 ½”,
1”, ¾”, ½”, 3/8”, & #4). This apparatus is used for shaking the material
(similar to the principle of
mixing machine) and sieving it.
the aggregates that are retained
in each individua
l sieve, as
mentioned earlier in Part I,
and record the data. To ensure that all
are collected, use the steel bru
sh to clean each sieve.
: Tabulate the data and determine the percent retained, and the percentage
that would have be
en retained in each sieve, if that sieve alone was used
to sieve the whole volume. The fineness modulus is obtained by adding
the percentage of material retained in all the sieves and dividing it by
: Plot a graph of percent passing by weight v
s. sieve sizes.
All sieves have to be cleaned prior to experiment.
and Voids Ratio
Take a bucket (of volume, say, 2.5 litres)
and weigh it
aggregates in the
bucket (whose volume is already determined by
dividing the weight of the volume of water that is contained in the
ed bucket by the weight density of water
. In addition
bucket must be properly dri
re placing fine aggregate in it
) to fill
each time. Rod each portion
The steps are
repeated till the bucket in is
filled with fine aggregates.
aggregate using the tamping rod as a straight edge.
: Determine the weight of
aggregates by weighing the bucket full of
d subtracting the
: Determine the
weight density of
aggregates by dividing the
weight of the aggregates by the volume of the bucket.
Also determine the volume of voids in the fi
ne aggregate, using the
voids in fine aggregates
the procedures given in Part 3
, and obtain the bulk
and voids ratio for coar
5: Sample Ca
lculations for Fineness Modulus,
Bulk Density and Voids Ratio
eve analysis of a 1000
e of fine ag
gregates resulted in the following
the fineness modulus.
Fineness modulus = 308/100 = 3.08
d the volume of voids in a 3 cubic
aggregates, of bulk density
to 102 lbs/(cubic feet). The specific gravity
of particles is 2.65.
% of Voids =
Density of water,
= 62.4 lbs/(cu. ft.)
= 102 lbs/(cu. ft.)
% of void
s = [
Volume of voids =
1.143 cu. yards
= 1.143*27 = 31 cu.ft.
Materials and Apparatus
(Laboratory # 1)
Figure # 1
Figure # 2
Digital weighing scale
Figure # 3
Sieve for fine aggregates
Sieve for coarse aggregates
Labroratory # 2
“Tests on Cement Mortar”
Normal Consistency of Cement Mortar
Setting Time of Cement Mortar
Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar Cubes
(Casting it earlier to test it later)
: Normal Consistency & Se
tting Time and the Determination of
Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar.
To prepare samples of cement mortar specimens for: (1) Determination of
normal consistency and setting time tests; and (2) compressive strength of
mortar cement test.
Digital weighing scale
Moulding tray for cubes
Beaker (for taking water)
Universal Testing Machine
PART I: Normal
Consistency and Setting Time
Obtain 500g sample of Portland cement by weighing on the digital scale.
Obtain 145ml of water in a beaker, which gives a water/cement ratio of
0.290:1 (this ratio may vary between 0.25 to 0.31).
ine both the Portland cement and water in the mixing bowl. Wait
approximately 30 seconds for water absorption.
Start mixing using the mixing machine at a slow speed for 30 seconds.
Turn off the machine for 15 seconds and scrape down the
mortar from the
sides of the bowl using a scraping stick.
Turn on the mixing machine again, for approximately 60 seconds at
Within a minute, remove the mortar from bowl, press the mortar into the
conical ring and put it on t
he Vicat Apparatus, using a rectangular glass
(on bottom), and smooth the top with a trowel.
In the Vicat Apparatus release the large
sized plunger (10 mm) to
penetrate the sample. Find the depth of penetration. If the penetration of
the plunger i
1.0 mm, then the consistency is called the normal
consistency. Otherwise, decrease or increase the percentage of water and
mix the cement and water once again to carry out the above steps till the
normal consistency is obtained.
Once the normal consistency is determined, th
en use the same paste t
determine the initia
and final setting times.
In this case, the
diameter Vicat needle is allowed to penetr
ate the setting c
Start the timer when this cement
When the 1
diameter Vicat needle
penetrates to a d
istance of 25
mm, then the
time taken by the
paste (from its mixing to the
is said t
its initial setting time.
diameter Vicat needle
tes the surface of the
and stops, then th
e time taken from the time of mixing
the paste to this time is called t
he final setting time.
PART II: Compressi
ve Strength of Cement Mortar
Obtain 1375 g sample of sand, 500 g sample of Portland Cement by
weighing material on a digital scale (in this the ratio
of cement to sand is
1:2.5, which can be tried by
at the instructor’s discretion
Obtain 240 ml sample of water in a graduated cylindrical beaker, which is
equivalent to the specified water/cement ratio of 0.48:1 (the ratio can
vary from 0.45 to 0.60 and this ratio can be changed at the instr
Combine the two dry samples (Portland cement and sand) in the mixing
bowl and mix for approximately 5 minutes.
Slowly add water to the mixing bowl and mix the contents until the
desired consistency is achieved.
Remove mixed contents from bowl and place it in even portions in five
cubes in the moulding tray, which has already been wiped on the inside
with the given oil.
Tamp all five cubes to ensure uniform filling of the moulds. Smooth the
top with tr
Cure the specimens for fourteen days in water so that it may attain the
desired design compressive strength.
The cubes are removed from water, area of loading face of cubes
determined, and then placed in between plates of Universal
Apply load to the specimen faces that are in contact with the machine.
Apply load until failure, and note the load.
Compute and record compressive strength of cement mortar.
Laboratory II: Normal Consiste
ncy and Setting Time and the
Determination of Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar.
Digital Weighing Scale
Mold tray for cubes
Universal Testing Machine
Laboratory # 3
“Tests on Concrete”
essive Strength of Concrete Cylinders
(Casting now and Testing later)
Slump of Concrete
Slump Test and Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders
To make and test concrete specimens for: 1) Slump test on co
ncrete; and 2)
Compressive strength tests on cylinders at 7 and 28 days.
Materials and Apparatus:
cylindrical moulds for concrete cylinders (3)
conical hollow cylinder for slump test
sampling and mixing pans
I: Making and Curing of Concrete Compression Cylinder Test Specimens.
Get the weight of material needed for making one concrete cylinder
mm diameter, and 300 mm high
, knowing that the average weight
density of concrete is 2300 kgf/m
(varies between 2,20
to 2,500 kgf/m
for very large
From the ratio of 4:2:1 (by weight) for coarse aggregate: sand: cement
calculate the material required knowing that we need enough concrete for
3 cylinders plus a
n extra 20% for wastage (the ratio of 4:2:1 can be varied
between 3:1 ½ :1 to 6:3:1, at the instructor’s discretion).
calculations with th
before proceeding with the experiment.
amount of water
given that the ratio for cement to water
was specified as 1:0.55 (this ratio can vary between 0.45 to 0
.60, and can
be varied at the instructor’s discretion).
Weigh amount of coarse aggregate,
sand, cement and water needed.
All dry materials are added to the mixer
, one after the other,
. First the coarse aggregate is added to the
mixer and then the sand;
re mixed dry f
or one minute, before cement is added to the
he cement is added and mi
Slowly add water to mixer and mix until the desire
d consistency is
inside of the
the specified mineral
concrete mixture in
the cylinder to
third of its volume,
layer 25 times.
Then fill to
third and once again tamp the layer 25
imes. Finally fill
the remaining portion of t
with concrete and
tamp it once again 25 times
top of mould
and tap the sides to eliminat
Set moulds aside
, and cure them in water, before testing them
Before testing the cylinder
in the universal
testing machine for
, the cylinders must be capped with the
aterial (to load the concr
ver its surface
Part II: Slump Test
Make concrete for the test, as given in Part
sufficient for fill
0 lbs concrete
Carry out step 1 to step 6 as stated above, and fill the hollow conical metal
cone with concrete mixture in 1/3 portions making sure to rod 25 times
for each p
ortion and to tap sides.
Lift metal cone slowly straight up, and measure the vertical distance by
which the to
surface of concrete settles
down, to the nearest
10 mm with respect to the
height of the
lump Test and Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders
Hollow cylindrical mould
Hollow conical mould for slump test
Sampling and Mixing Pans
Laboratory # 4
“Tests on Masonry”
(a) Modulus of Rupture of Brick
(b) Compressive Strength of Brick
(c) Compressive Strength of Concrete Masonry Block
Modulus of Rupture and Compressive Strength of a Brick and
Compressive Strength of a Concrete Masonry Block
To determine: i) the modulus of rupture: (ii) compressive strength of a brick;
and ii) compressive strength
of a concrete masonry block
red clay bricks (2)
masonry block (1)
Universal Testing Machine
Part I: Modulus of rupture of brick
: Measure and record the dimensions and weight of the red clay brick.
Place the brick in the Universal Testing Machine in the three
Place a steel plate on the top of brick and apply load to the upper surface
until rupture (bending fracture).
Observe and record maximum load. Also expla
in the reason for the
characteristic failure, observed during testing.
Part II: Compressive Strength of Masonry Block and Clay Brick
Measure and record the dimensions of masonry block (for both brick and
y block in the University Testing Machine between sheets of
Apply load until failure occurs.
Observe and record maximum load.
4 for the strength test
Brick placed in Universal Testing Machine, in the three
point bending mode
Masonry block placed in Universal Testing Machine
Note: The arrows repr
esent the force applied by testing machine
Laboratory # 5
“Tests on Wood and Wood Fasteners”
(a) Flexural Stress in Wood at Proportional Loads
(b) Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture
(c) Compression Strength of Wood Para
llel to Grain
(d) Pullout Strengths of Steel Fasteners for Wood
Laboratory V: Flexural and Compressive Strength Tests on Wood and Wood
To determine (i) Flexural strength of wood at proportional limit; (ii) Modulus
of rupture (at failure of beam in flexure test); (iii) Modulus of elasticity of
wood (within the proportional limit range); (vi) Compressive strength of
wood at failure; and (v) Pullout strengths of metal fasteners for wood (various
types of nails).
rials and Apparatus:
Test samples of wood and metal fasteners
Universal testing machine
For parts (I), (ii) and (iii):
Strength Tests on wood
Measure dimensions of wood samples.
Position the wood sample on t
he bending supports of the Universal testing
machine, over a span length of 28 inches, and place the deflectometer,
below the center of the beam specimen.
Apply the load at the center of the specimen at equal intervals and at a
uniform rate (75 lb
The load and deflection values are recorded at the above intervals (remove
the deflectometer after the elastic limit of wood has been exceeded).
Continue to apply the load at equal intervals till the specimen fails in
flexure and reco
rd the maximum load and the type of failure in wood.
Plot the load vs. deflection curve and determine the slope of the diagram
), where P is any load within elastic limit and
is the corresponding
deflection (this gives the stiffness of the b
Calculate the flexure strength at the end of the elastic limit of P vs.
Calculate the modulus of elasticity of the wooden beam [y = PL
Calculate the modulus of rupture of wood=
Tabulate the results and present in a report form.
For part (iv)
Compressive Strength of Wood
Measure the dimensions of the wood sample.
Position the wood specimen under the cross
head of testing machine (at
Apply the load till the specime
n fails in compression.
Determine the compressive strength of wood as [Applied Load/(cross
Present the results.
For part (v)
: Pullout Strengths of Wood Fasteners
Insert the steel fasteners (nails) into wood.
Fix the wood onto the test mac
Fasten the nail to the top cross
head of the testing machine and apply
tensile load (to pull out the nail fastener).
Note the maximum load required for pulling out the nail specimen.
Present the results.
Flexural and Compressive Strength Tests on Wood and Wood