Definition - ACS205

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Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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CANKAYA UNIVERSITY

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE
COURSES

-
ENGLISH UNIT
-


VOCABULARY PRESENTATION


FOR ENG 205 COURSE

WEEK 9&10


Disasters


CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

1. SPECULATION

I.
Work in small groups. What can cause a bridge to
collapse. Make a list.

p.39




Earthquakes


Fire


Floods


Design


Poor maintenance





VOCABULARY






truss (n):


Definition :
a support for a roof or bridge that is usually made
of stone or brick.


In

architecture

a

truss

is a

structure

comprising one or more
triangular units constructed with straight members whose
ends are connected at joints

(e.g. of a bridge)

CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

TRUSS


girder

(n)
:

Definition :
a long thick piece of steel or concrete, etc.
which supports a roof, floor, bridge or other large
structures.
Girder is the term
for
the main horizontal
support of a structure
.



CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

GIRDER


gusset plate

(n)
:

Definition :
A rectangular or triangular steel plate that
connects members of a truss of a bridge



CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


bearing

(n)
:

Definition :

The part of an arch or beam that rests on a
support.

CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

BEARING


collapse

(v)/(n)
:

collapse

(v)


definition :
to fall down suddenly because of pressure or having
no strength or support

Synonyms


:
be demolished





collapse (n)

definition :
when a person or structure becomes too weak to
stand and suddenly falls

Synonyms


:
downfall


Ex:

Thousands of buildings collapsed in the earthquake.


Ex:

Many people died because of the collapse of the old building.

CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


buckle

(v)

/ buckling (n)

buckle (v)

Word Formation :
buckled(adj)

Definition :
to bend or become bent, often as a result of force,
heat or weakness or
due to compression


Synonyms


:
bend

Antonym



:

straighten


buckling (n)

Definition :
temporary bending due to compression


Ex:

The intense heat from the fire had caused the factory roof to
buckle.


Ex:

buckling of a column supporting a compressive load




CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


compression

(n)
:

compression (n)

Word Formation :
compress (v), compressed (adj),
compressible (adj)

Definition :
the action of compressing or being compressed; a
force that tends to shorten or squeeze something, decreasing
its volume.

compress (v)

Definition :
to press something into a smaller space


Ex:

The bridge bended because of compression.

Ex:

compressed air


CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


tension

(n)
:

Word Formation :
tensional (adj)

Definition :
a pulling or stretching force

*compressional stress, is the opposite of tensional stress.

Synonyms


:
tightness


Ex:

Every bridge needs tensional stress in order to

stay straight.


CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

Two Forces of a Bridge:


Tension and Compression


Tension
:

What happens to a rope during a game of tug
-
of
-
war?
It undergoes tension from the two opposing teams pulling on it.
This force also acts on bridge structures, resulting in tensional
stress.



Compression
:

What happens when you push down on a spring
(arch)? You compress it, and by squishing it, you shorten its
length. Compressional stress, therefore, is the opposite of
tensional stress.



Tension

and
Compression

are present in all bridges, and as
illustrated, they are both capable of damaging part of the
bridge as varying load weights and other forces act on the
structure. It's the job of the bridge design to handle these
forces without buckling or snapping.



Buckling

occurs when compression overcomes an object's ability
to endure that force.



corrode

(v)

/ corrosion (n)

corrode (v)

Word Formation :
corrosive (adj)

Definition :
If metal corrodes, or if something corrodes it, it
is slowly damaged by something such as rain or water

Synonyms


:
erode


corrosion (n)

Definition:

be
ing

slowly destroyed, e.g. by a chemical



Ex:

Steel tends to corrode faster in a salty atmosphere, such
as by the sea.


Ex:

Corrosion of a bridge is one of the most important
reasons of its collapse.

CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


thermal shock

(
n
)
:

Definition :
a fluctuation in temperature causing stress in
a material. It often results in fracture, esp in brittle
materials such as ceramics




Ex:

A bridge collapse can be caused by a thermal shock
in an extremely hot or cold day.


CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


wear

(n)
:

Word Formation :

Definition :
Gradual impairment or
diminution(reduction) resulting from use or
attrition/corroding;
removal of the surface material by
rubbing

Synonyms


:
corrosion, erosion


Ex:

It is

obvious from the wear (the surface damage) of
the bridge that it was built many years ago.


Ex:

I've only worn the shirt a couple of times and it's already
showing

signs of

wear

(=

damage)
.


CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


fracture

(n)
:

Word Formation :
fracture (v)

Definition :
a break or

crack

in something hard

Synonyms


:
break


Ex:

Immediate maintenance is needed to mininize the
risk of fracture in the

bridge.



CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

fracture


metal fatique

(n)
:

Definition :
a weakness which develops in metal
structures which are used repeatedly and which caused by
continued loading



Ex:

Metal
fatigue

can be observed in bridges especially when
there is a localized structural damage caused especially by
extreme conditions of use.

CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


contract

(v)
:

Word Formation :
contraction (n)

Definition :
to become smaller

or narrower
, e.g. from
cooling


Synonyms


:
shorten

Antonym



:
lenghten, extend





Ex:

Metal contracts as it cools.



CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT


rust

(v)
:

Word Formation :
rust (n)

Definition :
to become or cause something to become
covered with rust

rust (n):

a reddish brown substance that forms on the
surface of iron and steel as a result of decay caused by
reacting with air and water


Ex:

Older cars will begin to rust.


Ex:

Years of being left out in the rain had rusted the metal
chairs.


CANKAYA UNIVERSITY
-

OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES
-

ENGLISH UNIT

1. SPECULATION

II.
With your group discuss these photographs showing
the I
-
35W bridge before and

after its collapse.
Discuss the possible causes of collapse.


p.39



1. SPECULATION

III.
After the collapse of the I
-
35W bridge, some
technical experts called a radio phone
-
in show and
suggested possible causes. Listen and tick the
speculations that are mentioned.

Track33/p.40



1.
compression



6. impact

2.
bomb




7. buckling

3.
thermal shock



8. fracture

4.
corrosion




9. metal fatigue

5.
wear




10. tension
















1. SPECULATION

IV.
Match these phrases with words or phrases in Exercise III
which hav
e
the same or similar meaning.

p.40


a.
damage caused by continued loading


b.

temporary bending due to compression

c.

striking it with a hard force over a short period

d.
expanding or contracting suddenly because of extreme heat
or cold

e.
disintegration caused by chemical reaction with oxygen and
water

f.

breaking into two or more pieces

g.
removal of surface material by rubbing or friction

h.
a pulling or stretching force


9

7

6

3

4

8

5

10

1. SPECULATION

V.


In pairs, talk about some dangerous or unusual
events which have happened to you in your work or
in your life. Speculate about the possible causes of
the events.

p.40

2. INVESTIGATION

I. Match these words in the box with the labels 1
-
6


p.41

1.



2.


3.


4.


5. 6.



deck

truss

girder


gusset
plate

bearing

pier



ACTION

YES

NO

1. bridge inspected every year


2. corrosion discovered in bearings

3. corroded bearings repaired or replaced


4. cracks found in girders


5. cracks in girder drilled to prevent
spreading


6. support struts added to cracked girders


7. signs of metal fatique discovered


8. bridge closed after metal fatique
discovered


9. steel reinforcement carried out on
bridge

10. design error in gusset plates
discovered before collapse


11. undersized gusset plates replaced
with larger ones


2. INVESTIGATION

Track 34

/ p.41



































II.
Listen to th
e
interview between an
investigator and the
company that
managed the
collapsed bridge. Put
a tick in the correct
boxes.




Exercises I&II






p.42