SECTION 2 JARFSTD A

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Nov 14, 2013 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
1


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ to JAR
-
FSTD A.005

Terminology, Abbreviations

See JAR

FSTD A.005


1

Termi nol ogy


1.1

In addi ti on to the pri nci pal terms defi ned i n the requi rement i tsel f, addi ti onal terms used
i n the context of JAR

FSTD A and JAR
-
FSTD H have the fol l owi ng meani ngs:


a

Acceptabl e Change.

A change to confi gurati on, software etc., whi ch qual i fi es as a
potenti al candi date for al ternati ve approach to val i dati on.


b

Ai rcraft Performance Data.

Performance data publ i shed by the ai rcraft manufacturer i n
documents such as the A
eropl ane or Rotorcraft Fl i ght Manual, Operati ons Manual, Performance
Engi neeri ng Manual, or equi val ent.


c

Ai rspeed.

Cal i brated ai rspeed unl ess otherwi se speci fi ed (knots).


d

Al ti tude.

Pressure al ti tude (metres or feet) unl ess speci fi ed otherwi se.


e

A
udi ted Engi neeri ng Si mul ati on.

An ai rcraft manufacturer’ s engi neeri ng si mul ati on
whi ch has undergone a revi ew by the appropri ate regul atory Authori ti es and been found to be
an acceptabl e source of suppl emental val i dati on data.


f

Automati c Testi ng.

Fl i g
ht Syntheti c Trai ni ng Devi ce (FSTD) testi ng wherei n al l sti mul i
are under computer control.



g

Bank.

Bank/Rol l angl e (degrees)


h

Basel i ne.

A ful l y fl i ght
-
t est val i dated producti on ai rcraft si mul ati on. May represent a
new ai rcraft t ype or a maj or deri va
ti ve.


i

Breakout.

The force requi red at the pi l ot’ s pri mary control s to achi eve i ni ti al movement
of the control posi ti on.


j

Cl osed Loop Testi ng.

A test method for whi ch the i nput sti mul i are generated by
control l ers whi ch dri ve the F
STD

to fol l ow a pr
e
-
def i ned target response.


k

Computer Control l ed Ai rcraft.

An ai rcraft where the pi l ot i nputs to the control surfaces
are transferred and augmented vi a computers.


l

Control Sweep.

A movement of the appropri ate pi l ot’ s control from neutral to an
extrem
e l i mi t i n one di recti on (Forward, Aft, Ri ght, or Left), a conti nuous movement back
through neutral to the opposi te extreme posi ti on, and then a return to the neutral posi ti on.


m

Converti bl e FSTD
. An FSTD i n whi ch hardware and software can be changed so
that
the FSTD becomes a repl i ca of a di fferent model or vari ant, usual l y of the same type ai rcraft.
The same FSTD pl atform, cockpi t shel l, moti on system, vi sual system, computers, and
necessary peri pheral equi pment can thus be used in more than one si mul a
ti on.


n

Cri ti cal Engi ne Paramet er.

The engi ne parameter whi ch i s the most appropri ate
measure of propul si ve force.


o

Dampi ng (cri ti cal ).

The CRI TICAL DAMPING i s t hat mi ni mum Dampi ng of a second
order system such that no overshoot occurs i n reachi ng a

steady state val ue after bei ng
di spl aced from a posi ti on of equi l i bri um and rel eased. Thi s corresponds to a rel ati ve Dampi ng
rati o of 1:0


p

Dampi ng (over
-
damped).

An OVER
-
DAMPED response i s that Dampi ng of a second
order system such that i t has more Da
mpi ng than i s requi red for Cri ti cal Dampi ng, as descri bed
above. Thi s corresponds to a rel ati ve Dampi ng rati o of more than 1:0.


q

Dampi ng (under
-
damped).

An UNDER
-
DAMPED response i s that Dampi ng of a second
order system such that a di spl acement from the

equi l i bri um posi ti on and free rel ease resul ts i n
SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
2


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

one or more overshoots or osci l l ati ons before reachi ng a steady state val ue. Thi s corresponds
to a rel ati ve Dampi ng rati o of l ess than 1
:
0.


r

Dayl i ght Vi sual
. A vi sual system capabl e of meeti ng, as a mi
ni mum, system bri ghtness,
contrast rati o requi rements and performance cri teri a appropri ate for the l evel of qual i fi cati on
sought. The system, when used i n trai ni ng, shoul d provi de ful l col our presentati ons and
suffi ci ent surfaces wi th appropri ate textural

cues to successful l y conduct a vi sual approach,
l andi ng and ai rport movement (taxi ).


s

Deadband.

The amount of movement of the i nput for a system for whi ch t here i s no
reacti on i n the output or state of the system observed.


t

Di stance.

Di stance i n Na
uti cal Mi l es unl ess speci fi ed otherwi se.


u

Dri ven
.

A state where the i nput sti mul us or vari abl e i s ‘ dri ven’ or deposi ted by
automati c means, general l y a computer i nput. The i nput sti mul us or vari abl e may not
necessari l y be an exact match to the fl i ght
test compari son data


but si mpl y dri ven to certai n
predetermi ned val ues.


v

Engi neeri ng Si mul ati on
. An i ntegrated set of mathemati cal models representi ng a
speci fi c ai rcraft confi gurati on, whi ch i s t ypi cal l y used by the ai rcraft manufacturer for a wi de
range of engi neeri ng anal ysi s tasks i ncl udi ng engi neeri ng desi gn, devel opment and
certi fi cati on: and to generate data for checkout, proof
-
of
-
match/val i dati on and other trai ni ng
FSTD data documents.


w

Engi neeri ng Si mul ator.

The term for the ai rcraft man
ufacturer’ s si mul ator whi ch
typi cal l y i ncl udes a ful l
-
scal e representati on of the si mul ated ai rcraft fl i ght deck, operates i n
real ti me and can be fl own by a pi l ot to subj ecti vel y eval uate the si mul ation. It contai ns the
engi neeri ng si mul ati on model s, whi
ch are al so rel eased by the ai rcraft manufacturer to the
i ndustry for FSTDs: and may or may not i ncl ude actual on
-
board system hardware i n l i eu of
software model s.



x

Engi neeri ng Si mul ator Data
. Data generated by an engi neeri ng si mul ati on or
engi neeri n
g si mul ator, dependi ng on the ai rcraft manufacturer’ s processes.


y

Engi neeri ng Si mul ator Val i dati on Data.

Val i dati on data generated by an engi neeri ng
si mul ati on or engi neeri ng si mul ator.



z

Entry i nto Servi ce.

Refers to the ori gi nal state of the co
nfi gurati on and systems at the
ti me a new or maj or deri vati ve ai rcraft i s fi rst pl aced i nto commerci al operation.


aa

Essenti al Match.

A compari son of t wo sets of computer
-
generated resul ts for whi ch the
di fferences shoul d be negl i gi bl e because essenti a
l l y the same si mul ati on model s have been
used. Al so known as a vi rtual match.



bb

FSTD Approval.

The extent to whi ch an FSTD of a speci fi ed Qual i fi cati on Level may be
used by an operator or t rai ni ng organi sati on as agreed by the Authori t y. It takes a
ccount of
di fferences between ai rcraft and FSTDs and the operati ng and trai ni ng abi l i ty of the
organi sati on.


cc

FSTD Data.

The vari ous types of data used by the FSTD manufacturer and the
appl i cant to desi gn, manufacture, test and mai ntai n the FSTD.


dd

FSTD Eval uati on
. A detai l ed apprai sal of an FSTD by the Authori t y to ascertai n
whether or not the standard requi red for a speci fi ed Qual i fi cati on Level i s met.



ee

FSTD Operator
. That person, organi sati on or enterpri se di rectl y responsi bl e to the
autho
ri ty for requesti ng and mai ntai ni ng the qual i ficati on of a parti cul ar FSTD.


ff

FSTD Qual i fi cati on Level.

The l evel of techni cal capabi l i ty of a FSTD.


gg

Fl i ght Test Data.

Actual ai rcraft data obtai ned by the ai rcraft manufacturer (or other
suppl i er
of acceptabl e data) duri ng an ai rcraft fl i ght test programme.


SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
3


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

hh

Free Response.

The response of the ai rcraft after compl eti on of a control i nput or
di sturbance.


i i

Frozen/Locked.

A state where a vari abl e i s hel d constant wi th ti me.


j j

Fuel used.

Mass of fuel used (ki l os or pounds)


kk

Ful l Sweep.

Movement of the control l er f rom neut ral to a stop, usual l y the aft or ri ght
stop, to the opposi te stop and then to the neutral posi ti on.


l l

Functi onal Performance.

An operati on or performance that
can be veri fi ed by obj ecti ve
data or other sui tabl e ref erence materi al that may not necessari l y be fl i ght test data.


mm

Functi ons Test.

A quanti tati ve and/or qual i tati ve assessment of the operati on and
performance of an FSTD by a sui tabl y qual i fi ed eval
uator. The test can i nclude veri fi cati on of
correct operati on of control s, i nstruments, and systems of the si mul ated ai rcraft under normal
and non
-
normal condi ti ons. Functi onal performance i s that operati on or performance that can
be veri fi ed by obj ecti ve
data or other sui tabl e reference materi al whi ch may not necessari l y be
Fl i ght Test Data.


nn

Grandfather Ri ghts.
The ri ght of an FSTD operator to retai n the Qual i fi cati on Level
granted under a previ ous regul ati on of a JAA member state. Al so the ri ght of a
n FSTD user to
retai n the trai ni ng and testi ng/checki ng credi ts whi ch were gai ned under a previ ous regul ati on
of a JAA member state.


oo

Ground Effect.

The change i n aerodynami c characteri sti cs due to modi fi cati on of the
ai r fl ow past the ai rcraft caused

by the presence of the ground.


pp

Hands
-
off Manoeuvre.

A test manoeuvre conducted or compl eted wi thout pi l ot control
i nputs.


qq

Hands
-
on Manoeuvre.

A test manoeuvre conducted or compl eted wi th pi l ot control
i nputs as requi red.


rr

Heavy.

Operati on
al mass at or near maxi mum for t he speci fi ed fl i ght condi tion.


ss

Hei ght.

Hei ght above ground = AGL (meters or feet)


tt

Hi ghl i ght Bri ghtness.

The maxi mum di spl ayed bri ghtness
,

whi ch sati sfi es the
appropri ate bri ghtness test.


uu

Ici ng Accountabi l i t
y.
A demonstrati on of mini mum requi red performance whi l st
operati ng i n maxi mum and i ntermi ttent maxi mum i ci ng condi ti ons of the appl i cabl e
ai rworthi ness requi rement.Refers to changes from normal (as appl i cabl e to the i ndi vi dual
ai rcraft desi gn) i n takeoff
, cl i mb (enroute, approach, l andi ng) or l andi ng operati ng procedures
or performance data, i n accordance wi th the AFM/RFM, for fl i ght i n i ci ng condi ti ons or wi th i ce
accumul ati on on unprotected surfaces.


vv

Integrated Testi ng
. Testi ng of the FSTD such th
at al l ai rcraft system models are acti ve
and contri bute appropri atel y to the resul ts. None of the ai rcraft system model s shoul d be
substi tuted wi th model s or other al gori thms intended for testi ng only. Thi s may be
accompl i shed by usi ng control l er di spl ac
ements as the input. These control l ers should
represent the di spl acement of the pi l ot’ s control s and these control s shoul d have been
cal i brated.


ww

Irreversi bl e Cont rol System.

A control system i n whi ch movement of the control surface
wi l l not backdri v
e the pi l ot’ s control on the fl i ght deck.


xx

Latency.

The addi ti onal ti me, beyond that of the basi c percei vabl e response ti me of the
ai rcraft due to the response ti me of the
FSTD
.


yy

Li ght.

Operati onal mass at or near mi ni mum for the speci fi ed fl i ght

condi ti on.


zz

Li ne Ori ented Fl i ght Trai ni ng (LOFT).

Refers to ai rcrew trai ni ng whi ch i nvol ves ful l
mi ssi on simul ati on of situati ons whi ch are representati ve of l i ne operati ons, wi th speci al
emphasi s on si tuati ons whi ch i nvol ve communi cations, managemen
t and l eadershi p. It means
‘ real
-
ti me’, ful l
-
mi ssi on trai ni ng.

SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
4


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007


aaa

Manual Testi ng.

F
STD

testi ng wherei n the pi l ot conducts the test wi thout computer
i nputs except for i ni ti al setup. Al l modul es of the si mul ati on shoul d be acti ve.


bbb

Master Qual i fi ca
ti on Test Gui de (MQTG).

The Authori ty approved QTG whi ch
i ncorporates the resul ts of tests wi tnessed by the Authori ty. The MQTG serves as the
reference for future eval uati ons.


ccc

Medi um.

Normal operati onal wei ght for fl i ght segment.


ddd

Ni ght Vi sua
l.

A vi sual system capabl e of meeti ng, as a mi ni mum, the system bri ghtness
and contrast rati o requi rements and performance cri teri a appropri ate for the l evel of
qual i fi cati on sought. The system, when used i n t rai ni ng, shoul d provi de, as a mi ni mum, al l
fea
tures appl i cabl e to the t wi l i ght scene, as defi ned bel ow, wi th the excepti on of the need to
portray reduced ambi ent i ntensi ty that removes ground cues that are not sel f
-
i l l umi nati ng or
i l l umi nated by own shi p l i ghts (e.g. l andi ng l i ghts).


eee

Nomi nal.

No
rmal operati onal wei ght, confi gurati on, speed etc. for the fl ight segment
speci fi ed.


fff

Non
-
normal Control.

A t erm used i n reference to Computer Control l ed Ai rcraft. Non
-
normal Control i s the state where one or more of the i ntended control, augmentati
on or
protecti on functi ons are not ful l y avai l abl e.

(NOTE: Speci fi c terms such as ALTERNATE, DI RECT, SECONDARY, BACKUP, etc, may be
used to defi ne an actual l evel of degradati on).


ggg

Normal Control
. A term used i n reference to Computer Control l ed Ai rc
raft. Normal
Control i s the state where the i ntended control, augmentati on and Protecti on Functi ons are ful l y
avai l abl e.


hhh

Obj ecti ve Test (Obj ecti ve Testi ng).

A quanti tati ve assessment based on compari son
wi th data.


i i i

One Step.

Refers to the degr
ee of changes to an ai rcraft that woul d be al l owed as an
acceptabl e change, rel ati ve to a ful l y fl i ght
-
test val i dated si mul ati on. The i ntenti on of the
al ternati ve approach i s t hat changes woul d be l i mi ted to one, rather than a seri es, of steps
away from t
he basel i ne confi gurati on. It is understood, however, that those changes whi ch
support the pri mary change (e.g. wei ght, thrust rati ng and control system gai n changes
accompanyi ng a body l ength change) are consi dered part of the ‘ one step’.


j j j

Operator.

A person, organi sati on or enterpri se engagi ng i n or offeri ng to engage i n an
ai rcraft operati on.


kkk

Power Lever Angl e.

The angl e of the pi l ot's pri mary engi ne control l ever(s) on the fl i ght
deck. Thi s may al so be referred to as PLA, THROTTLE, or POWE
R LEVER.


l l l

Predi cted Data
. Data deri ved from sources other t han type speci fi c ai rcraft fl i ght tests.


mmm

Pri mary Reference Document.

Any regul atory document whi ch has been used by an
Authori ty to support the i ni ti al eval uati on of a FSTD.


nnn

Proof
-
of
-
Match (POM).

A document whi ch shows agreement wi thi n defi ned tol erances
between model responses and fl i ght test cases at i denti cal test and atmospheri c condi ti ons.


ooo

Protecti on Functi ons.

Systems functi ons desi gned to protect an ai rcraft from exc
eedi ng
i ts fl i ght and manoeuvre l i mi tati ons.


ppp

Pul se Input.

An abrupt i nput to a control fol l owed by an i mmedi ate return t o the i ni ti al
posi ti on.


qqq

Qual i fi cati on Test Gui de (QTG).

The pri mary reference document used for the
eval uati on of an FST
D. It contai ns test resul ts, stat ements of compl i ance and other i nformati on
to enabl e the eval uator to assess i f the FSTD meet s the test cri teri a descri bed i n thi s manual.


rrr

Reversi bl e Control Syst em.

A
partially powered or unpowered
control system i
n whi ch
movement of the control surface wi l l backdri ve the pi l ot’ s control on the fl i ght deck

and/or affect its
feel characteristics
.

SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
5


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007


sss

Roboti c Test.

A basi c performance check of a system’ s hardware and software
components. Exact test condi ti ons are
defi ned to al l ow for repeatabi l i t y. The components are
tested i n thei r normal operati onal confi gurati on and may be tested i ndependentl y of other
system components.


ttt

Si desl i p.

Si desl i p Angl e (degrees)


uuu

Snapshot.

A presentati on of one or more va
ri abl es at a gi ven i nstant of ti me.


vvv

Statement of Compl i ance (SOC).

A decl arati on that speci fi c requi rements have been
met.


www

Step Input.

An abrupt i nput hel d at a constant val ue.


xxx

Subj ecti ve Test (Subj ecti ve Testi ng).

A qual i tati ve assess
ment based on establ i shed
standards as i nterpreted by a sui tabl y qual i fi ed person.


yyy

Throttl e Lever Angl e (TLA).

The angl e of the pi l ot’ s pri mary engi ne control l ever(s) on
the fl i ght deck.


zzz

Ti me Hi story.

A presentati on of the change of a vari ab
l e wi th respect to ti me.



aaaa

Transport Del ay.

The tot al F
STD

system processi ng ti me
required for
an i nput si gnal from
a pi l ot pri mary fl i ght control
until

the moti on system, vi sual system, or i nstrument response. It i s
the overal l ti me del ay i ncurred
from si gnal i nput unti l output response. It does not i ncl ude the
characteri sti c del ay of the ai rcraft si mul ated.


bbbb

Twi l i ght (Dusk/Dawn) Vi sual.

A vi sual system capabl e of meeti ng, as a mi ni mum, the
system bri ghtness and contrast rati o requi rements a
nd performance cri teri a appropri ate for the
l evel of qual i fi cati on sought. The system, when used i n trai ni ng, shoul d provi de, as a mi ni mum,
ful l col our presentati ons of reduced ambient i ntensi ty (as compared wi th a dayl i ght vi sual
system), suffi ci ent to co
nduct a vi sual approach, l andi ng and ai rport movement (taxi )


cccc

Update.

The i mprovement or enhancement of an FSTD.


dddd

Upgrade.

The i mprovement or enhancement of an FSTD for the purpose of achi evi ng a
hi gher qual i fi cati on.


eeee

Val i dati on Data.

Data used to prove that the FSTD performance corresponds to that of
the ai rcraft.



ffff

Val i dati on Fl i ght Test Data
. Performance, stabi l i ty and control, and other necessary
test parameters el ectri cal l y or el ectroni cal l y recorded i n an ai rcraft usi ng a c
al i brated data
acqui si ti on system of suffi ci ent resol uti on and veri fi ed as accurate by the organi sati on
performi ng the test to establ i sh a reference set of rel evant parameters to whi ch l i ke FSTD
parameters can be compared.


gggg

Val i dati on Test.

A test b
y whi ch FSTD parameters can be compared wi th t he rel evant
val i dati on data.


hhhh

Vi sual Ground Segment Test.

A test desi gned to assess i tems impacti ng the accuracy
of the vi sual scene presented to the pi l ot at a deci si on hei ght (DH) on an ILS approach.


i i i i

Vi sual System Response Ti me.

The i nterval f rom an abrupt control i nput to the
compl eti on of the vi sual di spl ay scan of the fi rst vi deo fi el d contai ni ng the resul ti ng di fferent
i nformati on.


j j j j

Wel l
-
Understood Effect.

An i ncremental change to a co
nfi gurati on or system whi ch can
be accuratel y model l ed usi ng proven predi cti ve methods based on known characteri sti cs of the
change.






SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
6


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007


ACJ FSTD A.005 (continued)


2

Abbrevi ati ons


A

=

Aeroplane

AC

=

Advisory Circular

ACJ

=

Advisory Circular Joint

A/
C

=

Aircraft

A
d

=

Total initial displacement of pilot controller (initial displacement to final resting
amplitude)

AFM

=

Approved Flight Manual

AFCS

=

Automatic Flight Control System

AGL

=

Above Ground Level (metres or feet)

A
n

=

Sequential amplitude of ov
ershoot after initial X axis crossing, e.g. A1 =
1st

overshoot.

AEO

=

All Engines Operating

AOA

=

Angle of Attack (degrees)


BC

=

ILS localizer back course


CAT I/II/III

=

Landing category operations

CCA

=

Computer Controlled Aeroplane

cd/m
2

=

Candela/met
re
2
, 3.4263 candela/m
2

= 1 ft
-
Lambert

CG

=

Centre of gravity

cm(s)

=

Centimetre, centimetres

CT&M

=

Correct Trend and Magnitude


daN

=

DecaNewtons

dB

=

Decibel

deg(s)

=

Degree, degrees

DGPS

=

Differential Global Positioning System

DH

=

Decision Height

DME

=

Distance Measuring Equipment

DPATO

=

Defined Point After Take
-
off

DPBL

=

Define Point Before Landing


EGPWS

=

Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

EPR

=

Engine Pressure Ratio

EW

=

Empty Weight


FAA

=

United States Federal Aviation Administration (U.S
.)

FD

=

Flight Director

FOV

=

Field Of View

FPM

=

Feet Per Minute

FTO

=

Flying Training Organisation

ft

=

Feet, 1 foot = 0.304801 metres

ft
-
Lambert

=

Foot
-
Lambert, 1 ft
-
Lambert = 3.4263 candela/m
2


g

=

Acceleration due to gravity (metres or feet/sec
2
), 1g

= 9.81 m/sec
2

or 32.2

feet/sec
2

G/S

=

Glideslope

GPS

=

Global Positioning System

GPWS

=

Ground Proximity Warning System


H

=

Helicopter

HGS

=

Head
-
up Guidance System


IATA

=

International Air Transport Association

ICAO

=

International Civil Aviation Organ
isation

IGE

=

In Ground Effect

ILS

=

Instrument Landing System

IMC

=

Instrument Meteorological Conditions

in

=

Inches 1 in = 2.54 cmIOS

=

Instructor Operating Station

IPOM

=

Integrated proof of match


IQTG

=

International Qualification Test Guide (RAeS Doc
ument)


JAA

=

Joint Aviation Authorities

SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
7


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

JAR

=

Joint Aviation Requirement

JAWS

=

Joint Airport Weather Studies


km

=

Kilometres 1 km = 0.62137 Statute Miles

kPa

=

KiloPascal (Kilo Newton/Metres2). 1 psi = 6.89476 kPa

kts

=

Knots calibrated airspeed unle
ss otherwise specified, 1 Knot = 0.5148 m/sec or 1.689
ft/sec


lb

=

Pounds

LOC

=

Localizer

LOFT

=

Line oriented flight training

LOS

=

Line oriented simulation

LDP

=

Landing Decision Point


m

=

Metres, 1 Metre = 3.28083 feet

MCC

=

Multi
-
Crew Co
-
operation

M
CTM

=

Maximum certificated take
-
off mass (kilos/pounds)

MEH

=

Multi
-
engine Helicopter

min

=

Minutes

MLG

=

Main landing gear

mm

=

Millimetres

MPa

=

MegaPascals [1 psi = 6894.76 pascals]

MQTG

=

Master Qualification Test Guide

ms

=

Millisecond(s)

MTOW

=

Maxim
um Take
-
off Weight


n

=

Sequential period of a full cycle of oscillation

N

=

NORMAL CONTROL Used in reference to Computer Controlled Aircraft

N/A

=

Not Applicable

N1

=

Engine Low Pressure Rotor revolutions per minute expressed in percent of maximum

N1/N
g

=

Gas Generator Speed

N2

=

Engine High Pressure Rotor revolutions per minute expressed in percent of maximum

N2/Nf

=

Free Turbine Speed

NAA

=

National Aviation Authority

NDB

=

Non
-
directional beacon

NM

=

Nautical Mile, 1 Nautical Mile = 6

080 feet = 1

85
2m

NN

=

Non
-
normal control a state referring to computer controlled aircraft

NR

=

Main Rotor Speed

NWA

=

Nosewheel Angle (degrees)


OEI

=

One Engine Inoperative

OGE

=

Out of Ground Effect

OM
-
B

=

Operations Manual


Part B (AFM)

OTD

=

Other Training Device


P0

=

Time from pilot controller release until initial X axis crossing (X axis defined by the
resting amplitude)

P1

=

First full cycle of oscillation after the initial X axis crossing

P2

=

Second full cycle of oscillation after the initial X axis crossing

PANS

=

Procedure for air navigation services

PAPI

=

Precision Approach Path Indicator System

PAR

=

Precision approach radar

Pf

=

Impact or Feel Pressure

PLA

=

Power Lever Angle

PLF

=

Power for Level Flight

Pn

=

Sequential period of oscillation

POM

=

Proof
-
of
-
Match

PSD

=

Power Spectral Density

psi

=

pounds per square inch. (1 psi = 6∙89476 kPa)

PTT

=

Part
-
Task Trainer


QTG

=

Qualification Test Guide




R/C

=

Rate of Climb (metres/sec or feet/min)

R/D

=

Rate of Descent (metres/sec or feet/min)

RAE

=

Royal Aer
ospace Establishment

SECTION 2









JAR

FSTD A


JAA LO

2
-
B
-
8


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

RAeS

=

Royal Aeronautical Society

REIL

=

Runway End Identifier Lights

RNAV

=

Radio navigation

RVR

=

Runway Visual Range (metres or feet)


s

=

second(s)

sec(s)

=

second, seconds

sm

=

Statute Mile 1 Statute Mile = 5280 feet = 1609m

SOC

=

Statement of Compliance


SUPPS

=

Supplementary procedures referring to regional supplementary procedures


TCAS

=

Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System

TGL

=

Temporary Guidance Leaflet

T(A)

=

Tolerance applied to Amplitude

T(p)

=

Tolerance applied
to period

T/O

=

Take
-
off

T
f

=

Total time of the flare manoeuvre duration

T
i

=

Total time from initial throttle movement until a 10% response of a critical engine
parameter

TLA

=

Throttle lever angle

TLOF

=

Touchdown and Lift Off

TDP

=

Take
-
off Decision Poi
nt

T
t

=

Total time from Ti to a 90% increase or decrease in the power level specified


VASI

=

Visual Approach Slope Indicator System

VDR

=

Validation Data Roadmap

VFR

=

Visual Flight Rules

VGS

=

Visual Ground Segment

Vmca

=

Minimum Control Speed (Air)

Vmcg

=

Minimum Control Speed (Ground)

Vmcl

=

Minimum Control Speed (Landing)

VOR

=

VHF omni
-
directional range

Vr

=

Rotate Speed

Vs

=

Stall Speed or minimum speed in the stall

V1

=

Critical Decision Speed

VTOSS

=

Take
-
off Safety Speed

Vy

=

Optimum Climbing Spee
d

Vw

=

Wind Velocity


WAT

=

Weight, Altitude, Temperature


1st Segment

=

That portion of the take
-
off profile from lift
-
off to completion of gear retraction (JAR 25)

2nd Segment

=

That portion of the take
-
off profile from after gear retraction to end of c
limb at V2 and
initial flap/slat retraction (JAR 25)

3rd Segment

=

That portion of the take
-
off profile after flap/slat retraction is complete (JAR 25)


JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
9


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No. 1 to JAR
-
FSTD A.015 (acceptable means of compliance)

FSTD Qualification


Application and Insp
ection

See JAR

FSTD A.015


1

Letter of Appl i cati on



A sampl e of l etter of appl i cati on i s provi ded overl eaf.












JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
10


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No 1 to JAR FSTD A.015 (conti nued)


LETTER OF APPLI CATI ON FOR INITI AL JAA EVALUATI ON OF A FLI GHT
SIMULATI ON
TRAINI NG DEVICE (except

BITD).


Part A


To be submitted not less than 3 months prior to requested qualification date










(Date)


PRINCIPAL I NSPECTOR

(JAA NAA OFFICE)

(Address)…………………………………………….


………………………………………………………….


(Ci ty)………………………………………………….


(Country)……………………………………
……….



Type of FSTD


Ai rcraft
Type/Cl ass

Qual i fi cati on Level Sought

Fl i ght Si mul ator

FFS


A

B

C

D

Fl i ght Tr ai ni ng Devi c e

FTD


1

2


Fl i ght and Navi gat i on Pr oc edur es
Tr ai ner

FNPT


I

II

I I MCC

Bas i c I ns t r ument Tr ai ni ng Devi c e

BI TD




Dear

,


..........
..……....... (Name of Appl i cant).................…........ requests the eval uati on of i ts Fl i ght
Si mul ati on Trai ni ng Devi ce for JAR
-
FSTD A qual i fi cati on. The ..…...(FSTD Manufacturer
Name) FSTD wi th i ts ...……….... (Vi sual System Manufacturer Name, i f appl i
cabl e) Vi sual
System i s ful l y defi ned on page .......….... of the accompanyi ng Qual i fi cati on Test Gui de (QTG)
whi ch was run on.....…... (date)..…...... at .......(pl ace).......


Eval uati on i s requested f or the fol l owi ng confi gurati ons and engi ne fi ts as

appl i cabl e:

e.g. 767 PW/GE and 757RR

1……………..

2…………….

3…………….


Dates requested are:……………………….. and the FSTD wi l l be l ocated at
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

The QTG will be submitted by……(Date)………… and in any event not l ess than 30 days
bef
ore the requested evaluation date unless otherwise agreed with the Authori ty.


Comments:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………….


Si gned


………………………

Pri nt name……………..

posi ti on/appoi n
tment hel d……………….

e mai l address…………….

tel ephone number…………

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
11


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No 1 to JAR FSTD A.015 (continued)


Part B


To be completed with attached QTG results












(Date)………….




We have compl eted tests of the FSTD and decl are that i t meets al l appl i cabl e r
equi rements of
the JAR

FSTD A (Aeropl ane) except as noted bel ow. Appropri ate hardware and software
confi gurati on control procedures have been establ i shed and these are appended for your
i nspecti on and approval.


The fol l owi ng MQTG tests are outstandi ng:


Tests

Comments



















(Add boxes as requi red)


It i s expected that they wi l l be compl eted and submi tted 3 weeks pri or to the eval uati on date.



Si gned



………………………



Pri nt name…..............................

posi ti on/appoi ntment hel d…………
…….

E
-
mai l address…………….

Tel ephone number…………






JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
12


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No 1 to JAR FSTD A.015 (continued)


Part C


To be completed not less than 7 days prior to initial evaluation












(Date)…………





The FSTD has been assessed by the fol l owi ng eval uati on team:



.........................


(name)

.................


Qual i fi cati on

.....................




.........................


(name)

.................


Qual i fi cati on

.....................




.........................


(name)

.................


Qual i fi cati on

.....................




.........................


(name)

.................


Pi l ot’ s Li cence Nr................



.........................


(name)

..................


Fl i ght Engi neer’ s Li cence Nr (i f appl i cabl e)

..



Thi s team attest(s) that i t conforms to the aeropl ane fl i ght deck c
onfi guration of ..........(Name
of FSTD operator)..........(type of aeropl ane) aeropl ane and that the si mulated systems and
subsystems functi on equival entl y to those i n that aeropl ane. Thi s pi l ot has al so assessed the
performance and the fl yi ng qual i ti es o
f the FSTD and fi nds that i t represents the desi gnated
aeropl ane.


(Addi ti onal comments as requi red)


………………………………………………………….



…………………………………………………………….


…………………………………………………………….





Si gned



………………………



Pri nt name…..............................

posi ti on/a
ppoi ntment hel d……………….

E
-
mai l address…………….

Tel ephone number…………









JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
13


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No. 1 to JAR
-
STD 1A.015 (continued)

2

Composi ti on of Eval uati on Team

2.1

To gai n a Qual i fi cati on Level, an FSTD i s eval uat ed i n accordance wi th a structured
routi ne conducted by
a techni cal team whi ch i s appoi nted by the Authori ty. The team normal l y
consi sts of at l east the foll owi ng personnel:

a.

A techni cal FSTD i nspector of the Authori ty, or an accredi ted i nspector from another
JAA Authori ty, qual i fi ed i n al l aspects of fl i ght
simul ati on hardware, soft ware and computer
model l i ng or, excepti onal l y, a person desi gnated by the Authori ty wi th equi val ent qual i fi cati ons;
and

b.

One of the fol l owi ng:

i.

A fl i ght i nspector of the Authori ty, or an accredi ted i nspector from another JAA

Au
thori ty, who i s qual i fi ed i n fl i ght crew t rai ni ng procedures and i s hol di ng a
val i d t ype rati ng on the aeropl ane (or for BI TD, cl ass rated on the cl ass of
aeropl ane) bei ng si mul ated; or

i i.

A fl i ght i nspector of the Authori ty who i s qual i fi ed i n fl i ght cre
w trai ni ng
procedures assi sted by a Type Rati ng Instructor, hol di ng a val i d type rati ng on
the aeropl ane (or for BITD, cl ass rated on the cl ass of aeropl ane) bei ng
si mul ated; or, excepti onal l y,

i i i.

A person desi gnated by the Authori ty who i s qual i fi ed i n
fl i ght crew trai ni ng
procedures and is hol di ng a val i d type rati ng on the aeropl ane (or for BITD,
cl ass rated on the cl ass of aeropl ane) bei ng si mul ated and suffici entl y
experi enced to assi st the techni cal team. Thi s person shoul d fl y out at l east part
of
the functi ons and subj ecti ve test profi l es.


Where a desi gnee i s used as a substi tute for one of the Authori ty’ s i nspectors, the other person
shal l be a properl y qual i fi ed i nspector of the Authori ty or an accredi ted i nspector from another
JAA Authori t y.

Fo
r an FTD l evel 1 and
FNPT Type I
, one sui tabl y qual i fi ed Inspector may combi ne the functi ons
i n a. and b. above.

For a BITD this team consists of an Inspector from a JAA National Aviation Authority and one from
another JAA National Aviation Authority, incl
uding the manufacturer‘s Authority if applicable.

2.2

Addi ti onal l y the fol l owi ng persons shoul d be present:

a.

For FFS, FTD and FNPT a type
or class rated
Trai ni ng Captai n

from the FSTD operator or
mai n FSTD u
s
ers.

b.

For al l types, suffi ci ent FSTD suppo
rt staff to assi st wi th the runni ng of tests and
operati on of the i nstructor’ s stati on.

2.3

On a case
-
by
-
case basi s, when an FFS i s bei ng eval uated, the Authori t y may reduce
the eval uati on team to an Authori t y fl i ght i nspector supported by a type rated tra
i ni ng captai n
from a mai n fl i ght si mul ator user for eval uati on of a speci fi c fl i ght si mul ator of a speci fi c FSTD
operator, provi ded:

a.

Thi s composi ti on i s not bei ng used pri or to the second recurrent eval uati on;

b.

Such an eval uati on wi l l be fol l owed by a
n eval uati on wi th a ful l authori ty eval uati on
team;

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
14


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No. 1 to JAR
-
STD 1A.015 (continued)

c.

The Authori ty fl i ght i nspector wi l l perform some spot checks i n the area of obj ecti ve
testi ng;

d.

No maj or change or upgradi ng has been appl i ed si nce the di rectl
y precedi ng eval uati on;

e.

No rel ocati on of the FSTD has taken pl ace si nce the l ast eval uati on;

f.

A system i s establ i shed enabl i ng the Authori ty to moni tor and anal yse the status of the
FSTD on a conti nuous basi s;

g.

The FSTD hardware and software has bee
n worki ng rel i abl y for the previ ous years.
Thi s shoul d be refl ected i n the number and ki nd of (techni cal l og) di screpanci es and the resul ts
of the qual i ty system audi ts.


JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
15


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No. 2 to JAR
-

FSTD A.015 (explanatory material)

FSTD Evaluations

See JAR

FSTD A
.015


1

General


1.1

Duri ng i ni ti al and recurrent FSTD eval uati ons i t wi l l be necessary for the Aut hori ty to
conduct the Obj ecti ve and Subj ecti ve tests descri bed i n JAR

FSTD A.030 and JAR

FSTD
A.035, and detai l ed i n ACJ No 1 to JAR
-
FSTD A.030. There wi l l
be occasi ons when al l tests
cannot be compl eted


for exampl e duri ng recurrent eval uati ons on a convert i bl e FSTD


but
arrangements shoul d be made for al l tests to be compl eted wi thi n a reasonabl e ti me.


1.2

Fol l owi ng an eval uati on, i t i s possi bl e that a n
umber of defects may be i denti fi ed.
General l y these defects shoul d be recti fi ed and the Authori ty noti fi ed of such acti on wi thi n 30
days. Seri ous defects, whi ch affect fl i ght crew t rai ni ng, testi ng and checki ng, coul d resul t i n an
i mmedi ate downgradi ng o
f the Qual i fi cati on Level, or i f any defect remai ns unattended wi thout
good reason for peri od greater than 30 days, subsequent downgradi ng may occur or
the FSTD
Qualification could be revoked
.


2

Ini ti al Eval uati ons


2.1

Obj ecti ve Testi ng


2.1.1

Obj ecti ve

Testi ng i s centred around the QTG. Before testi ng can begi n on an i ni ti al
eval uati on the acceptabi l i ty of the val i dati on tests contai ned i n the QTG shoul d be agreed wi th
the Authori ty wel l i n advance of the eval uati on date to ensure that the FSTD ti me es
peci al l y
devoted to the runni ng of some of the tests by the Authori ty i s not wasted. The acceptabi l i ty of
al l tests depends upon thei r content, accuracy, compl eteness and recency of the resul ts.


2.1.2

Much of the ti me al l ocated to Obj ecti ve Tests depends

upon the speed of the automati c
and manual systems set up to run each test and whether or not speci al equi pment i s requi red.
The Authori ty wi l l not necessari l y warn the FSTD operator of the sampl e val i dati ons tests whi ch
wi l l be run on the day of t he eva
l uati on, unl ess speci al equi pment i s requi red. It shoul d be
remembered that the FSTD cannot be used for Subj ecti ve Tests whi l st part of the QTG i s bei ng
run. Therefore suffi ci ent ti me (at l east 8 consecutive hours) shoul d be set asi de for the
exami nati on

and runni ng of the QTG. A useful expl anati on of how the val i dati on tests shoul d
be run i s contai ned i n the ‘ RAeS Aeropl ane Fl i ght Si mul ator Eval uati on Handbook’ (February 95
or as amended) produced i n support of the ICAO Manual of Cri teri a for the Qual i f
i cati on of
Fl i ght Si mul ators and JAR

FSTD A.


2.2

Subj ecti ve Testi ng


2.2.1

The Subj ecti ve Tests for t he eval uati on can be found i n ACJ No 1 to JAR
-
FSTD A.030,
and a suggested Subj ective Test Profi l e i s descri bed i n sub
-
paragraph 4.6

bel ow.


2.2.2

Essenti a
l l y one worki ng day i s requi red for the Subj ecti ve Test routi ne, whi ch
effecti vel y deni es use of t he FSTD for any other purpose.


2.3

Concl usi on


2.3.1

To ensure adequate coverage of Subj ecti ve and Obj ecti ve Tests and to al l ow for cost
effecti ve recti fi cat
i on and re
-
test before departure of the i nspecti on team,
adequate time (
up to
three consecuti ve days) shoul d be dedi cated to an i ni ti al eval uati on of an FSTD.


3

Recurrent Eval uati ons


3.1

Obj ecti ve Testi ng

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
16


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No. 2 to JAR
-
FSTD A.015 (continued)


3.1.1

Du
ri ng recurrent eval uati ons, the Authori ty wi l l wi sh to see evi dence of the successful
runni ng of the QTG bet ween eval uati ons. The Authori ty wi l l sel ect a number of tests to be run
duri ng the eval uati on, incl udi ng those that may be cause for concern. Agai n

adequate
noti fi cati on woul d be gi ven when speci al equi pment i s requi red for the test.


3.1.2

Essenti al l y the ti me taken to run the Obj ecti ve Test s depends upon the need for speci al
equi pment, i f any, and the test system, and the FSTD cannot be used for S
ubj ecti ve Tests or
other functi ons whi l st testi ng i s i n progress. For a modern FSTD i ncorporati ng an automatic
test system, four (4) hours woul d normal l y be requi red. FSTDs that rel y upon Manual Testi ng
may requi re a l onger peri od of ti me.


3.2

Subj ecti v
e Testi ng


3.2.1

Essenti al l y the same subj ecti ve test routi ne shoul d be fl own as per the profi l e descri bed
i n sub
-
paragraph 4.6 bel ow wi th a sel ecti on of the subj ecti ve tests taken from ACJ No 1 to
JAR
-

FSTD A.030.


3.2.2

Normal l y, the ti me taken f or recur
rent Subj ecti ve Testi ng i s about four (4) hours, and
the FSTD cannot perform other functi ons duri ng thi s ti me.


3.3

Concl usi on


3.3.1

To ensure adequate coverage of Subj ecti ve and Obj ecti ve Tests duri ng a recurrent
eval uati on, a total of 8 hours shoul d be
al l ocated, (4 hours for a BITD). However, i t shoul d be
remembered that any FSTD defi ci ency that ari ses duri ng the eval uati on coul d necessi tate the
extensi on of the eval uati on peri od.


3.3.2

In the case of a BITD, the recurrent eval uati on may be conducted
by one sui tabl y
qual i fi ed Fl i ght Inspector onl y, i n conj uncti on wi th the vi si t of any Regi stered Faci l i ty or
i nspecti on of any Fl i ght Trai ni ng Organi sati on, usi ng the BI TD.


4

Functi ons and Subj ecti ve Tests


Suggested Test Routi ne


4.1

Duri ng i ni ti al and
recurrent eval uati ons of an FSTD, the competent Authori ty wi l l
conduct a seri es of Functions and Subj ecti ve Tests that together wi th the Obj ecti ve Tests
compl ete the compari son of the FSTD wi th the t ype or cl ass of aeropl ane.


4.2

Whereas functi ons tests v
eri fy the acceptabi l i ty of t he si mul ated aeropl ane systems and
thei r i ntegrati on, Subj ecti ve Tests veri f y the fi tness of the FSTD i n rel ati on to trai ni ng, checki ng
and testi ng tasks.


4.3

The FSTD shoul d provi de adequate fl exi bi l i ty to permi t the accompl i s
hment of the
desi red/requi red tasks whi l e mai ntai ni ng an adequate percepti on by the fli ght crew that they
are operati ng i n a real aeropl ane envi ronment. Addi ti onal l y, the Instructor Operati ng Stati on
(IOS) shoul d not present an unnecessary di stracti on fro
m observi ng the acti vi ti es of the fl i ght
crew whi l st provi di ng adequate faci l i ti es for the tasks.


4.4

Secti on 1 of JAR


FSTD A sets out the requi rements, and the ACJs i n Secti on 2 the
means of compli ance for qual i fi cati on. However, i t i s i mportant that b
oth the competent
Authori ty and the FSTD operator understand what t o expect from the routi ne of FSTD Functi ons
and Subj ecti ve Tests. It shoul d be remembered that part of the Subj ecti ve Tests routi ne for an
FSTD shoul d i nvol ve an uni nterrupted fl y
-
out (exc
ept for FTD l evel 1) comparabl e wi th the
durati on of typi cal trai ni ng sessi ons i n addi ti on to assessment of fl i ght freeze and

ACJ
No. 2 to
JAR
-
FSTD A.015 (continued)

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
17


Complete re
-
issue


Adopted at JAAC 06
-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ
No. 2 to
JAR
-
FSTD A.015 (continued)



reposi ti oni ng. An exampl e of such a profi l e i s to be found i n sub
-
paragraph 4.6 (4.7
for BI TD)
bel ow. (A useful expl anat i on of Functi ons and Subj ecti ve Tests and an exampl e of Subj ecti ve
Test routi ne check
-
l i st may be found i n the RAeS Ai rpl ane Fl i ght Si mul ator Eval uati on
Handbook Vol ume II (February 95 or as amended) produced i n support o
f the ICAO Manual of
Cri teri a for the Qual i fi cati on of Fl i ght Si mul ators and JAR

FSTD A.


4.5

JAA Regul atory Authori ti es and FSTD operators who are unfami l i ar wi th the eval uati on
process are advi sed to contact a sui tabl y experi enced JAA Authori t y
.


4.6

Typi cal

Test Profi l e for a FSTD A.






































Note:

(1) The Typical Test Profile (approximately 2 hours) should be flown at aeroplane masses at, or close to, the maximum
allowable mass for the ambient atmospheric conditions. Those ambi
ent conditions should be varied from Standard
Atmosphere to test the validity of the limits of temperature and pressure likely to be required in the practical use of the
FSTD. Visual exercises only apply to FSTDs fitted with a visual system.


(2) Flight wi
th AFCS


(3) Manual handling qualities are purely generic and should not provide negative training



TAXI
CX
INSTRUMENT
DEPARTURE
5,000
R/W TURNS
etc...
R-CLIMB
PERF
ENG
SLAMS
FL070
ENG OUT
CLIMB
V+TRIM
±20 KT
CABIN
DEPRESS
(WARN
MASKS)
FL180
ENG
S/DOWN
FL050
ENG-OUT
EN-RTE
CLIMB
PERF
RELIGHT
FL140
(WINDMILL
OR INTERNAL)
FL350
(CAB PRESS)
FL150
CRUISE
TRIMS
MMO
(WARN
CONTROLS)
APU
FUNCTION
FL290
ENG
S/DOWN
ENG
RELIGHT
HIGH SPEED
DESCENT
VMO
(WARN
CONTROLS)
STALLS
FL100
L/G & FLAPS
HYDRAULIC
NON NORMAL
RAT
INSTRUMENT
ARRIVAL
ILS
NORMAL
G/A
VISUAL CCT
LEFT/RIGHT
ILS
NORMAL
LAND
1
1
2
2
3
3

JAR
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FSTD A


SECTION 2



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-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007



4.7

Typi cal Subj ecti ve Test Profi l e for BI TDs (approxi matel y 2 hours)
-

i tems and al ti tudes
as appl i cabl e.

-

Instrument departure, rat e of cl i mb, cl i mb

performance

-

Level
-
off at 4

000 ft

-

Fai l engi ne (i f appl i cabl e)

-

Engi ne out cl i mb to 6

000 ft (i f appl i cabl e)

-

Engi ne out crui se performance (i f appl i cabl e), restart engi ne

-

Al l engi ne crui se performance wi th di fferent power setti ngs

-

Descent to 200
0 ft

-

Al l engi ne performance wi th di fferent confi gurati ons, fol l owed by ILS approach

-

Al l engi ne go
-
around

-

Non
-
preci si on approach

-

Go
-
around wi th engi ne fai l ure (i f appl i cabl e)

-

Engi ne out ILS approach (i f appl i cabl e)

-

Go
-
around engi ne out (i f appl i
cabl e)

-

Non preci si on approach engi ne out (i f appl i cabl e), fol l owed by go
-
around

-

Restart engi ne (i f appl i cabl e)

-

Cl i mb to 4000 ft

-

Manoeuvri ng:

-

Normal turns l eft and ri ght

-

Steep turns l eft and ri ght

-

Accel erati on and decel erati on wi thi n operati on
al range

-

Approachi ng to stal l i n di fferent confi gurati ons

-

Recovery from spi ral di ve

-

Auto fl i ght performance (i f appl i cabl e)

-

System mal functi ons
-

Approach





ACJ
No. 2 to
JAR
-
FSTD A.015 (continued)

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
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B
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19


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-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ to JAR
-
FSTD A.020 (acceptabl e means of compl i ance)

Validity of FSTD Qualification

Se
e JAR
-
FSTD A.020


1.

Prerequi si tes


1.1

On a case
-
by
-
case basis, the Authori ty may grant an extended val i di ty of a FSTD
qual i fi cati on i n excess of 12 months up to a maxi mum of 36 months, t o a speci fi c FSTD
operator for a speci fi c FSTD, provi ded:

a.

an i ni ti al

and at least one recurrent successful eval uati on have been performed on this
FSTD by the same Authori ty;

b.

the FSTD operator has got a sati sfactory record of successful regulatory FSTD
eval uati ons over a peri od of at l east 3 years;

c.

the FSTD operator h
as establ i shed and successful ly mai ntai ned a Qual i t y System for at
l east 3 years;

d.

the Authori ty performs a f ormal audi t of the FSTD operator's Qual i t y System every
cal endar year;

e.

an accountabl e person of the FSTD operator wi th FSTD and trai ni ng exper
i ence
acceptabl e to the Authori ty (such as a type rated trai ni ng captai n), revi ews t he regul ar reruns
of the QTG and conducts the rel evant functi on and subj ecti ve tests every 12 months;

f.

a report detai l i ng the resul ts of the QTG rerun tests and functi on
and subj ecti ve
eval uati on wi l l be si gned and submi tted by the accountabl e person descri bed under
subparagraph (e) above t o the Authori ty.


2.

Prerogati ve of the Authori ty

The Authori ty reserves the ri ght to perform FSTD eval uati ons whenever i t deems i t necess
ary.



JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
20


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-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

ACJ No.1 to JAR
-
FSTD A.025 (acceptable means of compliance)

Quality System

See JAR


FSTD A.025


1

Introducti on


1.1

In order to show compl i ance wi th JAR


FSTD A.025, an FSTD operator shoul d establ i sh
hi s Qual i ty System i n accordance wi th the i nstr
ucti ons and i nformati on contai ned i n the
fol l owi ng paragraphs.


2

General


2.1

Termi nol ogy


a.

The terms used i n the context of the requi rement for an FSTD operator’ s Qual i ty
System have the fol l owi ng meani ngs:


i.

Accountabl e Manager.

The person acceptabl
e to the Authori ty who has corporate
authori ty for ensuri ng that al l necessary acti vi ti es can be fi nanced and carri ed out
to the standard requi red by the Authori t y, and any addi ti onal requi rements defi ned
by the FSTD operator.


i i.

Qual i ty Assurance.

Al l t
hose pl anned and systemati c acti ons necessary to provi de
adequate confi dence that speci fi ed performance, functi ons and characteri sti cs
sati sfy gi ven requi rement s.


i i i.

Qual i ty Manager.

The manager, acceptabl e to the Authori ty, responsi bl e for the
manageme
nt of the Qual i ty System, moni tori ng functi on and requesti ng correcti ve
acti ons.


2.2

Qual i ty Pol i cy


2.2.1

An FSTD operator shoul d establ i sh a formal wri tten Qual i ty Pol i cy Statement t hat i s a
commi tment by the Accountabl e Manager as to what the Qual i ty S
ystem i s i ntended to achi eve.
The Qual i ty Pol i cy shoul d refl ect the achi evement and conti nued compl i ance wi th JAR


FSTD A
together wi th any addi ti onal standards speci fi ed by the FSTD operator.


2.2.2

The Accountabl e Manager i s an essenti al part of the FSTD

qual i fi cati on hol der’ s
organi sati on. Wi th regard to the above termi nol ogy, the term ‘ Accountabl e Manager’ i s i ntended
to mean the Chi ef Executi ve/Presi dent/Managi ng Di rector/General Manager etc. of the FSTD
operator’ s organi sati on, who by vi rtue of hi s po
si ti on has overal l responsi bi l i ty (i ncl udi ng
fi nanci al ) for managi ng the organi sati on.


2.2.3

The Accountabl e Manager wi l l have overal l responsi bi l i ty for the FSTD qual i fi cati on
hol der’ s Qual i ty System i ncl udi ng the frequency, format and structure of the i
nternal
management eval uati on acti vi ti es as prescri bed i n paragraph 4.9 bel ow.


2.3

Purpose of the Qual i t y System


2.3.1

The Qual i ty System shoul d enabl e the FSTD operat or to moni tor compl i ance wi th JAR


FSTD A, and any other st andards speci fi ed by that FS
TD operator, or the Aut hori ty, to ensure
correct mai ntenance and performance of the devi ce.


2.4

Qual i ty Manager


JAR
-

FSTD A


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JAA LO

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-
B
-
21


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-
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6 April 2007

2.4.1

The pri mary rol e of the Qual i ty Manager i s to veri f y, by moni tori ng acti vi t y i n the fi el ds
of FSTD qual i fi cati on, that the standards re
qui red by the Authori t y, and any addi ti onal
requi rements defi ned by t he FSTD operator, are bei ng carri ed out under the supervi si on of the
rel evant Manager.


2.4.2

The Qual i ty Manager shoul d be responsi bl e for ensuri ng that the Qual i t y Assurance
Programme i
s properl y establ i shed, i mpl emented and mai ntai ned.


2.4.3

The Qual i ty Manager shoul d:


a.

Have di rect access to the Accountabl e Manager;


b.

Have access to al l parts of the FSTD operator’ s and, as necessary, any su
b
-
contractor’ s organi sati on.


2.4.4

The posts of the Account abl e Manager and the Qual i ty Manager may be combi ned by
FSTD operators whose structure and si ze may not j usti fy the separati on of those two posts.
However, i n thi s event, Qual i ty Audi ts shoul d be
conducted by i ndependent personnel.


3

Qual i ty System


3.1

Introducti on


3.1.1

The FSTD operator’ s Qual i ty System shoul d ensure compl i ance wi th FSTD qual i fi cati on
requi rements, standards and procedures.


3.1.2

The FSTD operator shoul d speci fy the structure

of the Qual i ty System.


3.1.3

The Qual i ty System shoul d be structured accordi ng to the si ze and compl exi t y of the
organi sati on to be moni tored.


3.2

Scope


3.2.1

As a mi ni mum, the Qual i ty System shoul d address the fol l owi ng:


a.

The provi si on of JAR

FSTD
A.


b.

The FSTD operator’ s addi ti onal standards and procedures.


c.

The FSTD operator’ s Qual i ty Pol i cy.


d.

The FSTD operator’ s organi sati onal structure.


e.

Responsi bi l i ty for the devel opment, establ i shment and management of the Qual i ty
System.


f.

Docume
ntati on, i ncl udi ng manual s, reports and records.


g.

Qual i ty Procedures.


h.

Qual i ty Assurance Programme.


i.

The provi si on of adequat e fi nanci al, materi al and human resources.


ACJ No. 1 to JAR
-

FSTD A.025 (continued)

ACJ
No. 1 to
JAR
-
FSTD A.025 (continued)

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
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B
-
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-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

j.

Trai ni ng requi rements for the vari ous functi ons i n the organi sati on.


3.2.2

The Qual i ty System shoul d i ncl ude a feedback system to the Accountabl e Manager to
ensure that correcti ve act i ons are both i denti fi ed and promptl y addressed. The feedback
system shoul d al so speci fy who i s requi red to recti f y di screpanci es and non
-
compl i anc
e i n each
parti cul ar case, and the procedure to be fol l owed i f correcti ve acti on i s not compl eted wi thi n an
appropri ate ti mescal e.


3.3

Rel evant Documentati on


3.3.1

Rel evant documentati on shoul d i ncl ude the fol l owi ng:


a.

Qual i ty Pol i cy.


b.


Terminology.


c.

Reference to speci fi ed STD techni cal standards.


d.

A descri pti on of the organi sati on.


e.

The al l ocati on of duti es and responsi bi l i ti es.


f.

Qual i fi cati on procedures to ensure regul atory compl i ance.


g.

The Qual i ty Assurance Programme, refl ecti ng:


i.

Schedul e of the moni tori ng process.


i i.

Audi t procedures.


i i i.

Reporti ng procedures.


i v.

Fol l ow
-
up and correcti ve acti on procedures.


v.

Recordi ng system.


h.

Document control.


4

Qual i ty Assurance Programme


4.1

Introducti on


4.1.1

The Qual i ty Assuranc
e Programme shoul d i ncl ude al l pl anned and systemati c acti ons
necessary to provi de confi dence that al l mai ntenance i s conducted and al l performance
mai ntai ned i n accordance wi th al l appl i cabl e requi rements, standards and procedures.


4.1.2

When establ i shi n
g a Qual i ty Assurance Programme, consi derati on shoul d, at l east, be
gi ven to the paragraphs 4.2 to 4.9 bel ow.


4.2

Qual i ty Inspecti on


4.2.1

The pri mary purpose of a qual i t y i nspecti on i s to observe a parti cul ar
event/acti on/document etc., i n order to veri
f y whet her establ i shed procedures and requi rements
ACJ JA
R
-
STD 1A.025 (continued)

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



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are fol l owed duri ng the accompl i shment of that event and whether the requi red standard is
achi eved.


4.2.2

Typi cal subj ect areas for qual i ty i nspecti ons are:


a.

Actual STD operati on.


b.

Mai ntenance.


c.

Techni cal

standards.


d.

Fl i ght si mul ator safety features.


4.3

Audi t


4.3.1

An audi t i s a systemati c and i ndependent compari son of the way i n whi ch an acti vi t y i s
bei ng conducted agai nst the way i n whi ch the publ i shed procedures say i t shoul d be conducted.


4.3.2

Aud
i ts shoul d i ncl ude at least the fol l owi ng qual i t y procedures and processes:


a.

A statement expl ai ni ng the scope of the audi t.


b.

Pl anni ng and preparati on.


c.

Gatheri ng and recordi ng evi dence


d.

Anal ysi s of the evi dence.


4.3.3

Techni ques whi ch contri bute to an ef
fecti ve audi t are:


a.

Intervi ews or di scussi ons wi th personnel.


b.

A revi ew of publ i shed documents.


c.

The exami nati on of an adequate sampl e of records.


d.

The wi tnessi ng of the acti vi ti es whi ch make up the operati on


e.

The preservati on of documents and the recordi n
g of observati ons.


4.4

Audi tors


4.4.1

An FSTD operator shoul d deci de, dependi ng on the compl exi t y and si ze of the
organi sati on, whether to make use of a dedi cated audi t team or a si ngl e audi tor. In any event,
the audi tor or audi t team shoul d have rel evan
t FSTD experi ence.


4.4.2

The responsi bi l i ti es of the audi tors shoul d be cl early defi ned i n the rel evant
documentati on.


4.5

Audi tor’ s Independence


4.5.1

Audi tors shoul d not have any day to day i nvol vement i n the area of acti vi t y whi ch i s to
be audi ted. An FSTD

operator may, i n addi ti on to usi ng the servi ces of ful l
-
ti me dedi cated
personnel bel ongi ng to a separate qual i ty department, undertake the moni tori ng of speci fi c
areas or acti vi ti es by the use of part
-
ti me audi tors. Due to the technol ogi cal compl exi t y of
FSTDs, whi ch requi res audi tors wi th very speci al i sed knowl edge and experi ence, an FSTD
ACJ
No. 1 to
JAR
-
FSTD A.025 (continued)

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

2
-
B
-
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-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

operator may undertake t he audi t functi on by the use of part
-
ti me personnel from wi thi n hi s own
organi sati on or from an external source under the t erms of an agreement a
cceptabl e to the
Authori ty. In al l cases the FSTD operator shoul d devel op sui tabl e procedures to ensure that
persons di rectl y responsi bl e for the acti vi ti es to be audi ted are not sel ected as part of the
audi ti ng team. Where ext ernal audi tors are used, i t i
s essenti al that any external speci al i st i s
fami l i ar wi th the t ype of devi ce conducted by the FSTD operator.


4.5.2

The FSTD operator’ s Qual i ty Assurance Programme shoul d i denti fy the persons wi thi n
the company who have the experi ence, responsi bi l i ty and a
uthori t y to:


a.

Perform qual i ty i nspecti ons and audi ts as part of ongoi ng Qual i ty Assurance.


b.

Identi fy and record any concerns or fi ndi ngs, and the evi dence necessary to
substanti ate such concerns or fi ndi ngs.


c.

Ini ti ate or recommend soluti ons to concer
ns or fi ndings through desi gnated reporti ng
channel s.


d.

Veri fy the i mpl ementati on of sol uti ons wi thi n speci fi c ti me scal es.


e.

Report di rectl y to the Qual i ty Manager.


4.6

Audi t Scope


4.6.1

FSTD operators are requi red to moni tor compl i ance wi th the pro
cedures they have
desi gned to ensure speci fi ed performance and functi ons. In doi ng so they shoul d as a
mi ni mum, and where appropri ate, moni tor:


a.

Organi sati on.


b.

Pl ans and obj ecti ves.


c.

Mai ntenance procedures.


d.

FSTD Qual i fi cati on Level.


e.

Supervi si on.


f.

FSTD te
chni cal status.


g.

Manual s, l ogs, and records.


h.

Defect deferral.


i.

Personnel trai ni ng.


j.

Aeropl ane modi fi cati ons management.


4.7

Audi ti ng schedul i ng


4.7.1

A Qual i t y Assurance Programme shoul d i ncl ude a defi ned audi t schedul e and a peri odi c
revi ew. The schedu
l e shoul d be fl exi bl e, and al l ow unschedul ed audi ts when trends are
i denti fi ed. Fol l ow
-
up audi t s shoul d be schedul ed when necessary to veri f y that correcti ve acti on
was carri ed out and that i t was effecti ve.


JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



JAA LO

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25


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-
4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

4.7.2

An FSTD operator shoul d establ i sh a sched
ul e of audi ts to be compl eted during a
speci fi ed cal endar peri od. Al l aspects of the operati on shoul d be revi ewed wi t hi n every peri od
of 12 months i n accordance wi th the programme unl ess an extensi on to the audi t peri od i s
accepted as expl ai ned bel ow. An
FSTD operator may i ncrease the frequency of audi ts at hi s
di screti on but shoul d not decrease the frequency wi thout the agreement of the Authori ty.


4.7.3

When an FSTD operator defi nes the audi t schedul e, si gni fi cant changes to the
management, organi sati on,

or technol ogi es shoul d be consi dered as wel l as changes to the
regul atory requi rements.


4.7.4

For FSTD operators whose structure and si ze may not j usti fy the compl eti on of a
compl ex system of audi ts, i t may be appropri ate to devel op a Qual i t y Assurance P
rogramme
that empl oys a checkl i st. The checkl i st shoul d have a supporti ng schedul e that requi res
compl eti on of al l checkl i st i tems wi thi n a speci fi ed t i me scal e, together wi th a statement
acknowl edgi ng compl eti on of a peri odi c revi ew by t op management.


4.
7.5

Whatever arrangements are made, the FSTD operat or retai ns the ul ti mate responsi bi l i ty
for the Qual i t y System and especi al l y the compl eti on and fol l ow up of correcti ve acti ons.


4.8

Moni tori ng and Correcti ve Acti on


4.8.1

The ai m of moni tori ng wi t hi n th
e Qual i ty System i s pri mari l y to i nvesti gate and j udge i ts
effecti veness and thereby to ensure that defi ned pol i cy, performance and functi on standards
are conti nuousl y compl i ed wi th. Moni tori ng acti vi t y i s based upon qual i ty i nspecti ons, audi ts,
correcti ve

acti on and fol l ow
-
up. The FSTD operator shoul d establ i sh and publi sh a qual i ty
procedure to moni tor regul atory compl i ance on a conti nui ng basi s. Thi s moni tori ng acti vi ty
shoul d be ai med at el i mi nati ng the causes of unsatisfactory performance.


4.8.2

Any n
on
-
compl i ance i denti fi ed as a resul t of moni tori ng shoul d be communi cated to the
manager responsi bl e for taki ng correcti ve acti on or, i f appropri ate, the Accountabl e Manager.
Such non
-
compl i ance shoul d be recorded, for the purpose of further i nvesti gati on,

i n order to
determi ne the cause and to enabl e the recommendati on of appropri ate correcti ve acti on.


4.8.3

The Qual i ty Assurance Programme shoul d i ncl ude procedures to ensure that correcti ve
acti ons are taken i n response to fi ndi ngs. These qual i ty procedur
es shoul d moni tor such
acti ons to veri fy thei r effecti veness and that they have been compl eted. Organi sati onal
responsi bi l i ty and accountabi l i ty for the i mpl ementati on of correcti ve acti ons resi des wi th the
department ci ted i n the report i denti fyi ng the fi
ndi ng. The Accountabl e Manager wi l l have the
ul ti mate responsi bi l i ty for resourci ng the correcti ve acti on and ensuri ng, through the Qual i ty
Manager, that the correcti ve acti on has re
-
establ i shed compl i ance wi th the standard requi red
by the Authori t y, and a
ny addi ti onal requi rements defi ned by the FSTD operator.


4.8.4

Correcti ve acti on


a.

Subsequent to the qual i ty i nspecti on/audi t, the FSTD operator shoul d establ i sh:


i.

The seri ousness of any fi ndi ngs and any need for i mmedi ate correcti ve acti on.


i i.

Cause of the
fi ndi ng.


i i i.

Correcti ve acti ons requi red to ensure that the non
-
compl i ance does not recur.


i v.

A schedul e for correcti ve acti on.


ACJ
No. 1 to
JAR
-
FSTD A.025 (continued)

JAR
-

FSTD A


SECTION 2



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-
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6 April 2007

v.

The i denti fi cati on of i ndi vi dual s or departments responsi bl e for i mpl ementi ng
correcti ve acti on.


vi.

Al l ocati on of resources by the

Accountabl e Manager, where appropri ate.


4.8.5

The Qual i ty Manager shoul d:


a.

Veri fy that correcti ve acti on i s taken by the manager responsi bl e i n response to any
fi ndi ng of non
-
compl i ance.


b.

Veri fy that correcti ve acti on i ncl udes the el ements outl i ned i n parag
raph 4.8.4 above.


c.

Moni tor the i mpl ementati on and compl eti on of correcti ve acti on.


d.

Provi de management wi th an i ndependent assessment of correcti ve acti on,
i mpl ementati on and compl eti on.


e.

Eval uate the effecti veness of correcti ve acti on through the fo
l l ow
-
up process.


4.9

Management Eval uati on


4.9.1

A management eval uati on i s a comprehensi ve, systemati c, documented revi ew of the
Qual i ty System and procedures by the management, and i t shoul d consi der:


a.

The resul ts of qual i t y i nspecti ons, audi ts and any

other i ndi cators.


b.

The overal l effecti veness of the management organi sati on i n achi evi ng stated
obj ecti ves.


4.9.2

A management eval uati on shoul d i denti fy and correct trends, and prevent, where
possi bl e, future non
-
conformi ti es. Concl usi ons and recommenda
ti ons made as a resul t of an
eval uati on shoul d be submi tted i n wri ti ng to the responsi bl e manager for acti on. The
responsi bl e manager shoul d be an i ndi vi dual who has the authori ty to resol ve i ssues and take
acti on.


4.9.3

The Accountabl e Manager shoul d dec
i de upon the frequency, format, and structure of
i nternal management eval uati on acti vi ti es.


4.10

Recordi ng


4.10.1

Accurate, compl ete, and readi l y accessi bl e records documenti ng the resul ts of the
Qual i ty Assurance

Programme shoul d be mai ntai ned by the FSTD operator. Records are
essenti al data to enabl e an FSTD operator to anal yse and determi ne the root causes of non
-
conformi ty, so that areas of non
-
compl i ance can be i denti fi ed and addressed.


4.10.2

The fol l owi ng records
shoul d be retai ned for a peri od of 5 years:


a.

Audi t schedul es.


b.

Qual i ty i nspecti on and audi t reports.


c.

Response to fi ndi ngs.


d.

Correcti ve acti on reports.


ACJ No. 1 to JAR
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FSTD A.025 (continued)

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FSTD A


SECTION 2



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Complete re
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Adopted at JAAC 06
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4 Nov 06

6 April 2007

e.

Fol l ow
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up and cl osure reports; and


f.

Management eval uati on reports.


5

Qual i ty Assurance responsi bi l i ty
for sub
-
contractors


5.1

Sub
-
contractors


5.1.1

FSTD operators may deci de to sub
-
contract out certai n acti vi ti es to external agenci es
for the provi si on of servi ces rel ated to areas such as:


a.

Mai ntenance.


b.

Manual prepara
ti on.


5.1.2

The ul ti mate responsi bi l i ty for the product or servi ce provi ded by the sub
-
contractor
al ways remai ns wi th the FSTD operator. A wri t ten agreement shoul d exi st bet ween the FSTD
operator and the sub
-
contractor cl earl y defi ni ng the servi ces and qu
al i ty to be provi ded. The
sub
-
contractor's acti vi ti es rel evant to the agreement shoul d be i ncl uded i n the FSTD operator's
Qual i ty Assurance Programme.


5.1.3

The FSTD operator shoul d ensure that the sub
-
contractor has the necessary
authori sati on/approval w
hen requi red, and commands the resources and competence to
undertake the task. If the FSTD operator requi res t he sub
-
contractor to conduct acti vi ty whi ch
exceeds the sub
-
contractor’ s authori sati on/approval, the FSTD operator i s responsi bl e for
ensuri ng tha
t the sub
-
contractor’ s Qual i ty Assurance takes account of such addi ti onal
requi rements.


6

Qual i ty System Trai ni ng


6.1

General


6.1.1

An FSTD operator shoul d establ i sh effecti ve, wel l pl anned and resourced qual i ty rel ated
bri efi ng for al l personnel.


6.1.
2

Those responsi bl e for managi ng the Qual i ty System shoul d recei ve trai ni ng coveri ng:


a.

An i ntroducti on to the concept of the Qual i ty System.


b.

Qual i ty management.


c.

Concept of Qual i t y Assurance.


d.

Qual i ty manual s.


e.

Audi t techni ques.


f.

Reporti
ng and recordi ng


g.

The way i n whi ch the Qual i ty System wi l l functi on i n the organi sati on.


6.1.3

Ti me shoul d be provi ded t o trai n every i ndi vi dual i nvol ved i n qual i t y management and
for bri efi ng the remai nder of the empl oyees. The al l ocati on of ti me and
resources shoul d be
suffi ci ent for the scope of the trai ni ng.


ACJ No. 1 to JAR
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