Finger Print Technology

licoricebedsSecurity

Feb 22, 2014 (3 years and 8 months ago)

80 views

Finger Print Technology

Abstract

Every

person

is

believed

to

have

unique

fingerprints
.

This

makes

fingerprint

matching

one

of

the

most

reliable

methods

for

identifying

people
.

In

this

diploma

work

shall

be

examined

if

and

how

the

identification

can

be

done

automatically

by

a

software

system
.

Examples

of

use
:

Criminal

identification,

control

for

high

security

installations,

credit

card

usage

verification,

and

employee

identification
.

The

program

to

be

developed

should

extract

the

minutiae

(ridge

endings,

bifurcation

points,

etc
.
)

from

a

fingerprint

bitmap

file

and

create

a

compact,

unique

dataset
.


This

dataset

is

then

stored

in

a

database

or

compared

with

one

of

the

database
.

The

goal

is

to

recognize

if

the

person

whom

the

fingerprint

belongs

to

is

present

in

the

database
.

The fingerprints are present in the form of Windows
-
Bitmap
-
Files, which
are created with a scanner from printed pictures. The software should have
the following properties:


• Reading a bitmap file and show it on the screen.


• Building a dataset by extracting the minutiae.


• Showing the original bitmap with the marked minutiae on the screen.


• Storing the dataset in the database.


• Comparing a dataset with those in the database.


• Giving out the search result.

If there is a match, showing the stored fingerprint on the screen for optical comparison.



Abstract


Why Fingerprints?

With

increasingly

urgent

need

for

reliable

security,

biometrics

is

being

spotlighted

as

the

authentication

method

for

the

next

generation
.


Among

numerous

biometric

technologies,

fingerprint

authentication

has

been

in

use

for

the

longest

time

and

bears

more

advantages

than

other

biometric

technologies

do
.

Fingerprint

authentication

is

possibly

the

most

sophisticated

method

of

all

biometric

technologies

and

has

been

thoroughly

verified

through

various

applications
.


Fingerprint authentication has particularly proved its high efficiency and
further enhanced the technology in criminal investigation for more than a
century.


Even

features

such

as

a

person’s

gait,

face,

or

signature

may

change

with

passage

of

time

and

may

be

fabricated

or

imitated
.

However,

a

fingerprint

is

completely

unique

to

an

individual

and

stayed

unchanged

for

lifetime
.


This

exclusivity

demonstrates

that

fingerprint

authentication

is

far

more

accurate

and

efficient

than

any

other

methods

of

authentication
.

Also,

a

fingerprint

may

be

taken

and

digitalized

by

relatively

compact

and

cheap

devices

and

takes

only

a

small

capacity

to

store

a

large

database

of

information
.


With

these

strengths,

fingerprint

authentication

has

long

been

a

major

part

of

the

security

market

and

continues

to

be

more

competitive

than

others

in

today’s

world
.



Why Fingerprints?

History of Fingerprint Technology

The

beginning

of

fingerprints

goes

back

to

as

early

as

the

ancient

times
.

According

to

historical

findings,

fingerprints

were

used

on

clay

tablets

for

business

transactions

in

ancient

Babylon
.

In

China,

thumb

prints

were

found

on

clay

seals
.


But

it

was

in

the

19
th

century

that

the

results

of

scientific

studies

were

published

and

fingerprint

technology

began

to

be

considered

more

seriously
.

Using

the
1800
’s

scientific

studies

as

a

foundation,

fingerprint

technology

was

already

in

use

by

the

beginning

of

the

20
th

century
.

In

1924
,

FBI(Federal

Bureau

of

Investigation)

is

already

known

to

have

maintained

more

than

250

million

civil

files

of

fingerprints

for

the

purpose

of

criminal

investigation

and

the

identification

of

unknown

casualties
.


History

In

the

late

1960
's,

fingerprint

technology

met

a

great

turning

point

when

it

gave

birth

to

'live
-
scan,'

a

method

to

obtain

a

fingertip

image

without

the

use

of

print

ink
.


When

the

FBI

announced

that

it

planned

to

stop

using

paper

fingerprint

cards

inside

their

new

Integrated

AFIS

(IAFIS)

site,

it

was

actually

announcing

the

remarkable

breakthrough

of

today's

live

scan

technology
.


But

fingerprint

identification

technology

did

not

stop

as

a

forensic

method

only
.

It

was

officially

used

for

business

purposes

in

1968

at

one

security

corporation

in

Wall

Street
.


Fingerprints

are

now

being

used

as

a

secure

and

effective

authentication

method

in

numerous

fields,

including

financial,

medical,

e
-
commerce

and

entrance

control

applications
.


Modern

applications

of

fingerprint

technology

rely

in

large

part

on

the

development

of

exceptionally

compact

fingerprint

sensors
.



The

first

year

for

the

first

known

systematic

use

of

fingerprint

identification

began

in

the

United

States

is

1902
.

The

New

York

state

prison

system

began

to

use

fingerprints

for

the

identification

of

criminals

in

1903
.


During

the

first

quarter

of

the

20
th

century
,

more

and

more

local

police

identification

bureaus

established

fingerprint

systems
.


In

1924

the

Identification

Division

of

the

Federal

Bureau

of

Investigation

(FBI)

was

established

to

provide

one

central

repository

of

fingerprints
.

In

1992

the

Identification

Division

was

re
-
established

as

the

Criminal

Justice

Information

Services

Division

(
CJIS
)
.










History

Human

fingerprints

have

been

discovered

on

a

large

number

of

archaeological

artifacts

and

historical

items


In

1684
,

the

English

plant

morphologist,

Nehemiah

Grew,

published

the

first

scientific

paper

reporting

his

systematic

study

on

the

ridge,

furrow,

and

pore

structure


In

1788
,

a

detailed

description

of

the

anatomical

formations

of

fingerprints

was

made

by

Mayer
.


In

1823
,

Purkinji

proposed

the

first

fingerprint

classification,

which

classified

into

nine

categories


Sir

Francis

Galton

introduced

the

minutae

features

for

fingerprint

matching

in

late

19
th

century

History

History of fingerprints

Formation of fingerprints

Fingerprints

are

fully

formed

at

about

seven

months

of

fetus

development

General

characteristics

of

the

fingerprint

emerge

as

the

skin

on

the

fingertip

begins

to

differentiate
.

flow

of

amniotic

fluids

around

the

fetus

and

its

position

in

the

uterus

change

during

the

differentiation

process

Thus

the

cells

on

the

fingertip

grow

in

a

microenvironment

that

is

slightly

different

from

hand

to

hand

and

finger

to

finger
.


Fingerprint Identification Process


Fingerprint

Identification

Process

Fingerprint

identification

process

consists

of

two

essential

procedures
:

enrollment

and

authentication
.

Taking

the

following

steps

completes

each

procedure
:






As

shown

in

the

diagram

above,

fingerprint

identification

system

compares

the

input

fingerprint

image

and

previously

registered

data

to

determine

the

genuineness

of

a

fingerprint
.

All

the

steps

described

above

affect

the

efficiency

of

the

entire

system,

but

the

computational

load

of

the

following

steps

can

be

reduced

to

a

great

extent

by

acquiring

a

good
-
quality

fingerprint

image

in

the

first

step
.


Classification of Fingerprints

Human fingerprint patterns fall into three main groups:

whorls, loops, and arches.



Loops



the most common type,
accounting for about 65% of
all fingerprints.


Whorls



account for 30% of
fingerprints.

Arches


account for 5%

The three major groups are also subcategorized based upon smaller
differences existing between the patterns within the specific group.


Advantages:

Compared to the other biometric authentication technologies,
fingerprint scanners are:


The most widely available device.


Relatively low cost


Small size (easily integrated into keyboards) and


Easy to integrate

Fingerprint verification may be a good choice for in
-
house
systems where adequate explanation and training can be
provided to users and where the system is operated within a
controlled environment.





Disadvantages

Fingerprint

verification

can

suffer

under

large
-
scale

usage
.

In

a

large

population,

poorly

trained

users

cause

higher

usage

errors

and

hence

higher

instances

of

false

rejection
.

Also,

the

user

interface

(scanning

module)

can

become

damaged

or

dirty

by

large
-
scale

usage
.


Fingerprint Applications

Commercial

Government

Forensic

Computer Network Logon,

Electronic Data Security,

E
-
Commerce,

Internet Access,

ATM, Credit Card,

Physical Access Control,

Cellular Phones

Personal Digital Assistant,

Medical Records,

Distance Leaning, etc.

National ID card,

Correctional Facilities,

Driver’s License,

Social Security,

Welfare Disbursement,

Border Control,

Passport Control, etc.

Corpse Identification

Criminal Investigation,

Terrorist Identification,

Parenthood determination,

Missing Children, etc.

Reference:

http://www.seminarprojects.com/Thread
-
Biometric
-
Fingerprint
-
Identification


END