Sustainable Electric Power

lettucestewElectronics - Devices

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Sustainable Electric Power

Scott Norr, PE

EE 1001

September 25, 2012

General Electric Commercial for
2009 Superbowl:


“Ecomagination”
introducing “Smart
Grid” technology



http://fliiby.com/file/251500
/afecutko02.html

Courtesy of General

Electric

GE EcomaginationWebsite


Today

www.ecomagination.com

Electric Power Delivery and
Consumption Getting More
Complex


More Environmental Issues
-

SUSTAINABILITY


Greater Population Density


Larger Variety of Sources, Delivery Methods and
Loads


Aging Infrastructure Undergoing Life Extension


New Technology Blended with Old


Grid is Already
Pretty Smart





ELECTRIC DEMAND

Source: Energy Information Administration’s
Annual Energy Outlook 2012

Demand growing 1% per year in U.S.

World Energy Consumption

505 Quad

In 2008

Source: Energy Information Administration’s

Annual Energy Outlook 2012


US


5%

using 20% of

resourses

Electric Generation Changing to
Meet Demand


Large, Centralized Plants


Small, Modular, Distributed Plants



Also, Siting Renewable Generation where it
makes Sense (and Profit)

Large Plants


Environmental Issues


Fossil Fuels


Location/Siting


Outlet Transmission


HydroElectric No Longer

“Clean Energy”

3 Gorges Dam


China


20,000
MegaWatts

Hoover Dam


US


2,000
MegaWatts

Eoearth.org


Large Plants (Cont.)


We’ll See New Ideas for Big Plants:



“Clean Coal”


Wind,


Solar,


Geothermal,


Biomass


Gen IV Nuclear



Clean Coal
7.5% Growth in all Coal Gen,
2010 : Total Installed: 340 GW


Coal Gasification (Combined Cycle)
-

Low Emmissions


Not Dead Yet on Iron Range (Excelsior Energy
-

Mesaba)

WIND


25% growth in 2010, 20 GW


Wind Generators currently very popular
(Several Thousand MWs in Upper Midwest


More and more Cost Effective




(4
-

5 Cents/KWH)


Not a Cure
-
All
-

never



windy when you need it most


Difficult to Dispatch


Source: Town of Hendricks, MN


Solar Electricity

73% growth in
2010, 10 GW


Photvoltaics


Electricity Directly from Sunlight


Low Conversion efficiency


Fairly High Cost


Solar Potential:


US uses 100 Quad of Energy


each year


38,200 Quad of Solar Energy


hits the lower 48 each year


ONLY WHEN THE SUN SHINES …


New Solar Ideas:


3
-
D
PhotoVoltaic

Cells


New Breakthroughs in Nano
-
Materials greatly
increase the surface area of a Solar Cell and its
ability to catch reflected light


Theoretically 50%
-
70% efficient


Very High Cost


Solar Concentrators


Simple Idea used in Space



Collect More Sunlight for your Existing Cells

-

Solar Electric AND Solar Thermal


Geothermal

2% Growth in 2010,
10.9GW


Extract Hot Water from the Earth


Use the Hot Water or Flash to Steam


Currently 2700 MW capacity in US


Capacity growing at 5% worldwide (5yr
Avg)


Excellent Idea for Home Use


Ground
Source Heat Pumps

Binary
-
Cycle Plant (Geothermal)

Nuclear ….
IT’S BACK…Or Is It?


Updated LWR Designs are being permitted


March 11, 2011


Earthquake in Japan, leading
to nuclear reactor meltdown


Next Generation Nuclear Reactors (Gen IV)


Modular (example: 25 MW Modules), add more
modules to make a bigger plant


Fuel Flexible


Uranium, Thorium (More abundant
resource)


A Promising Design: Pebble
-
Bed Modular Reactor


Temperature moderated with Helium or Nitrogen


Fuel encased in pebbles


‘safe’, easy to handle

Pebble
-
Bed Reactor

Source:

Black and
Veatch

Source: EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2007

19

Incremental Transmission Costs

Variable Costs,

Including Fuel

Fixed

Costs

Capital

Costs

2015

2030

Levelized Electricity Costs for New Plants,

2015 and 2030

Houston, We Have a Storage
Problem:

Courtesy of

Tom Ferguson

Renewables

are not

“Dispatchable”

If we could

Store energy

when available

for use when


it’s not….

Energy Storage Technology:

We’re not ready yet

Source: Haresh Kamath, EPRI PEAC

DEMAND SIDE


Conservation Through:



Market Pricing



Efficient Products


Market Pricing


Energy Prices becoming De
-
Regulated


New Equipment to Automate Pricing:


Smart Meters


Smart Appliances

Smart Meters


Talks to Electric Company


Talks to Consumer About
Hourly Prices and
Consumption


Tells Appliances what
current Price is


Shops Around for a Better
Rate?

Source: Electric Power Research Institute and

Freefoto.com

Efficient Products


Smart Appliances run only when
energy is cheapest, talk to each
other and to the Electric Utility


Passive Solar Thermal Designs and
Devices


Energy Efficient Home Designs

Sustainability


More than Conservation


More than Smart Energy Use


Being Responsible with ALL resources and
Preserving Them for the Future


“7
th

Generation”

Sustainability at UMD

www.d.umn.edu/sustain/

CONCLUSIONS

New Social Pressures and New Technologies are
both changing and complicating the way we
convert and use energy


In a World with 7 Billion People (9 Billion by
2030), We have to become more mindful of
How and Why We Use Energy.


(http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/WorldPop2300final.pdf)

WEB References


National Renewable Energy Labs


http://www.nrel.gov/


Electric Power Research Institute


http://www.epri.com/


US Dept. of Energy


http://www.energy.gov/


Energy Information Association


http://www.eia.doe.gov/