SPV-LED APPLICATIONS AND MARKET IN THE NEAR FUTURE FOR INDIA

lettucestewElectronics - Devices

Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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SPV
-
LED APPLICATIONS
AND MARKET IN THE NEAR
FUTURE FOR INDIA

M.Siddhartha Bhatt,

Additional Director

CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE,
BANGALORE
-
560080

REPLACEMENT OF KEROSENE
LAMPS BY SOLAR PV
-
LED
LANTERNS



A 5 W solar PV powered LED can be a
preliminary substitute for a kerosene lamp
with much better distribution of
illuminance across the room.

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Figure1D: Illuminance (lux) distribution-daylight
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Figure 3K: Illuminance (lux) distribution- kerosene lamp
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Figure 4L: Illuminance (lux) distribution - 5 W LED
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Figure 5L: Illuminance (lux) distribution- 10 W LED
PORTABLE LED LANTERNS
CHARGEABLE THROUGH
GRID/SOLAR PV



The replacement of CFLs by LEDs has already
penetrated into the Indian market in the form of
portable lamps and table lamps in electrified
houses. The ‘zero’ watt incandescent lamp has
already been phased out by LEDs. There is a
very high potential for 5
-
10 W LED lamps in
electrified Indian households. Because of their
portability they can be moved to locations of
interest.



A smart grid is an electric grid using digital technology
for duplex (two way) communication between the
various entities like generators, end users and grid
managers. The benefits of a smart grid are that
because of the source
-
load communication energy is
intelligently generated distributed and used. The
smart grid aims at minimization of the usual source
-
load (generator
-
end user) mismatch such as peaks
and uneven behaviour of the load curve, manages end
use requirement through demand side management
(DSM) techniques and injects renewable energy
components.


INTEGRTION OF LED
TECHNOLOGY INTO SMART
GRID CONFIGURATION


Some of the requirements of a
smart grid are as follows:


Self healing ability
-

auto reclosure, network
re
-
configuration, renewable switching to
restore power disruption under fault
conditions.


High level of involvement of end users in the
grid operations. Presently, end users are
ignorant of the load curve and the grid
demand
-
supply dynamics. Involvement of end
users through knowledge based planning of
activities involving energy load would help to
manage and smoothen the demand.


Strengthening the security aspects of the grid
through protection from cyber and physical
attempts to disrupt the grid operations.



Improvement of power quality
(frequency, voltage, power factor,
harmonics) and reliability of supply to
much higher levels.


Operation under multi
-
source, multi
-
voltage level injection (33 kV, 11kV,
0.415 V), bi
-
directional flow of power in
the 11 kV and 0.415 kV system; and
absorption of excess power generated
by end users through their captive
renewables.

Some of the requirements of a smart
grid are as follows:


Introduction of a dynamic market mechanism
for time of the day transaction of power
between various entities.


Enhancement of energy efficiency of the grid
and minimization of the losses due to
excessive capacity (iron losses in transformers)
and point to point losses (copper losses).



Enhancement of renewable energy component
and gradually decreasing fossil/carbon
components. The fossil component is nearly 60
% with 5 % renewable, 5 % nuclear and 30 %
hydro. This has to gradually decrease to zero
through enhancement of solar PV and wind
components.

Some of the requirements of a smart
grid are as follows:

The LED technology is naturally
suited for smart grid environment
because:


It is a solid state digitally controllable
technology unlike incandescent, fluorescent
and ballasted technologies which need
additional controller. The drivers are already
a part off the LED system.



It can be seamlessly integrated into the
smart grid structure because of
programmable and intelligence features of
LED drivers.


It is continually evolving in energy
efficiency and reliability. It is an ideal
end use device in the lighting sector
where the light peak in India is
around 30 GW and the lighting energy
consumption is nearly 18 % of the
total energy generated. It is a good
technology for DSM.

The LED technology is naturally
suited for smart grid environment
because:

The integration of LEDs into smart
grid structures enters through the
following ways:


DSM measure to reduce the grid peak during
the evenings as LEDs have lower power
ratings than other lighting systems. LED
technology enables demand modulation and
enables demand response to change in load
patterns in the grid.


Renewable energy integration with solar PV.
Solar PV

LED are naturally compatible
technology.


Automation and control of lighting. The
LED being a solid state device is easily
controllable via the driver for
illumination intensity, on/off operations
and colour rendering. The light output
itself is now being explored as a possible
communication medium between the
end use equipment and electrical source.

The integration of LEDs into smart
grid structures enters through the
following ways:

CAPITAL COST FACTOR



The capital cost of incandescent lamps is Rs. 1/W while
that of fluorescent lamps is Rs. 5
-
10/W. The cost of 1 W
unbranded LED is Rs. 250
-
450/W while for that of
branded LED it is Rs. 800
-
1000/W. The cost of branded
bare LED is around Rs. 100
-
150/W (upper end) while
that of unbranded it is around Rs. 55
-
80/W. The cost of
the bare LED forms 50+ % of the product cost. The
LED market has adapted itself by reducing the wattage
by equivalence ratio typically (60
-
100 W incandescent

40
-
50 W TFLs


20
-
30 W CFLs


9
-
11 W LEDs).
Bulbs are available in 1 W and 3 W. Significant cost
reduction is anticipated in near future based on the
trends and factors like the indigenous manufacturing
capability, production volumes, etc.

MARKET POTENTIAL FOR LEDS
IN NEAR FUTURE



The lighting market is worth Rs. 7,500 crores of
which CFL market is around Rs. 2,000 crores and
incandescent lamp market is around Rs. 60 crores.
The balance is composed of other gamut of lighting
systems like sodium vapor, tubular fluorescent
lamps, mercury vapor lamps, etc. The value of LED
business is around Rs. 200
-
250 crores which forms
nearly 3 % of the total lighting business. The lighting
sector is poised for a general annual 11 % growth.
The share of LEDs is likely to go up to 5
-
6 % in the
immediate future and 10 % with the
implementation of smart grids. This means that the
growth of LEDs is likely to be around 20 % in the
immediate future and 30 % in the near future as
compared to the present sale.


The largest share is in the solar PV lantern and
non solar lantern sectors. The digitally controlled
LED market is the next largest upcoming
market after the lantern segment.


The sale of CFL (2010) are around 100 million
pieces/year and GSLs (incandescent lamps) are
around 600 million pieces/year. The LED
replacements for GSLS and CFLs is going to
increase in the near future. The present scale of
LEDs is around 2 million pieces/year. 90 % of
the LEDs are sold in the lantern sector and
balance in the street lighting sector.

MARKET POTENTIAL FOR LEDS
IN NEAR FUTURE


R & D


The R & D in India is on new O
-
LEDs and polymeric
LEDs at National Institutes (like IISc) and national
Laboratories (like CSIR). The R & D investment in India
is around Rs. 30
-
40 crores. The R & D investment of
Japanese is around Rs. 5,000 crores by Nichia alone. R
& D investment in drivers and balance of systems by few
Indian players is around 5 % of the turnover. For
development of reliable efficient product R & D
investment is required by every Indian LED vendor. An
investment of 4 % of the turnover is rather average, 6
% is good while 8
-
10 % is considered exceptionally
good.

CONCLUSIONS


The market for LED lighting technology
in India has three segments
-

kerosene
lamp replacement, portable LEDs in
electrified areas and controllable LEDs
through integration into smart grid
structures.


The kersosene lamps in the rural sector
can be replaced by solar PV
-
LED of 5 W.
Possible 10 W and 20 W capacity can
be considered for future.


Portable LED lanterns chargeable through
solar as well as grid power for localized
lighting, table lamps, portable lamps, etc. is a
major market in India. This is a popular
technology and is likely to penetrate higher
with reduction in costs of reliable systems.


Integration of LED lighting systems into street
lighting systems and building lighting systems
with intelligence and controllable features,
has a fair share of potential as a substitute for
fluorescent and ballasted technology.

CONCLUSIONS


The LED sector is poised for an increase in its
market share from 3 % to 5
-
6 % in near
future. Besides, a general growth of 11 % is
already assured. Thus the composite growth
rate of LED technology may be around 20
-
30
% compared to the present sale.


One of the main deterrents to penetration of
LED technology is high capital cost. The cost
of the bare LED is over 50 % of the system
cost. Significant cost reduction is expected in
LED costs following the present trends and
factors like indigenous manufacturing
capability, volumes as well as the innovative
manufacturing processes.

CONCLUSIONS