Warm-Up 3/12/12 - inetTeacher.com

lessfrustratedBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 21 days ago)

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Warm
-
Up 3/12/12


What is the purpose of gel electrophoresis?


To which end of a gel box (+ or
-
) will DNA
travel? Why?

Answers: The purpose is to separate molecules by
size and charge in an
agarose

gel. DNA travels
to the positive end of a gel box because it is
negatively charged.

Turn in your purple GE Virtual Lab and yellow GE
Pre
-
Lab to be stamped/returned at my leisure.

Goals for this week


Review stem cells, gene therapy, and gel
electrophoresis basic content


Learn about cloning


Learn the Dye Lab procedure and practice
micropipetting

skills for next week’s gel
electrophoresis labs

Put a new entry in your lab book table of contents:
Biotechnology Practice Questions

Also, take out your Gene Therapy and Stem Cells
Guided Notes

Gel Electrophoresis Practice Question


Copy the drawing of the
agarose

gel from the board.


For each sample (A
-
D), predict which direction and
relatively how far each sample will travel through
the gel. Draw your prediction on the gel.

A = positively charged, small

B = positively charged, large

C = negatively charged, small

D = negatively charged, large

Stem Cells Practice Question


What is the difference between a
totipotent
,
pluripotent
, and
multipotent

stem cell? Which is
used most by researchers in attempting to re
-
grow dead cells?

Stem Cells Answer


Totipotent

stem cells are fertilized eggs (0
-
1 days
old). They can become any cell type.


Pluripotent

stem cells are 4 day old embryos that
can become over 200 cell types.


Multipotent

stem cells are ‘adult’ stem cells that
regenerate skin, blood cells, etc.


Most research is done using
pluripotent

stem
cells
-

they are easiest to ‘catch’ and have the
most possibility

Gene Therapy Practice Question


Explain how gene therapy could be used to:

a: cure a genetic disorder in an adult

b: change the genes present in human embryos to
create a ‘designer baby’

Gene Therapy Answer


In gene therapy, beneficial human genes are cloned
inside bacteria and then loaded into empty virus
shells. The virus is injected into people with genetic
disorders. The beneficial genes should join the DNA
of the patient when the virus injects its DNA into
host cells, replacing the defective gene causing the
disorder.


Gene therapy could be used to deliver genes for
beneficial and/or desired traits directly to embryos.
The virus would infect the embryo cells with the
desired genes just like described above.

Designer Babies Practice Question


A couple decides they want to produce a disease
-
free male heir. Explain how In
-
Vitro fertilization
can be used to select for this child


http://www.flickclip.com/flicks/jurassicpark3.h
tml


Designer Babies Answer


First, sperm from
the father and
eggs from the
mother would be united in a Petri dish, making
multiple embryos to select from. Then, each
embryos DNA would be run through a computer
program comparing it to normal DNA to find
which embryos have which genetic disorders.
Also, each embryo would be screened for a Y
chromosome. Disease
-
free embryos with the
chromosome combination XY would be selected
and implanted back into the mother’s uterus.

How We Clone Animals

1.
Cells from desired animal are stored in
petri

dish

2.
An egg from another animal is used to grow the
desired clone

-
Egg’s nucleus is removed

-
Nucleus from desired cell is inserted

-
Egg grows into
blastocyst

-
Blastocyst

is implanted into surrogate mother

This is called Somatic Cell
Nuclear Transfer

Cloning Clips


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/t
-
rex
-
blood.html


Biotechnology Practice Question


Of the three biotechnology advances you have
learned about (designer babies, gene therapy,
stem cells), which do you find the most
promising for improving human existence?
Why?