Genetic Engineering

lessfrustratedBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 22 days ago)

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Biotechnology

Making the products you buy. . .

better?

Historical Technologies:
Applied Genetics


Manipulation of the hereditary characteristics
of an organism to improve or create specific
traits in offspring


e.g., selective breeding, hybridization

Historical Technologies:
Applied Genetics


Selective breeding
→ Allowing only those
individuals with the desired traits to reproduce

Historical Technologies:
Applied Genetics


Hybridization

→ crossing different
individuals to bring together the best traits of
both organisms


Produces hybrid offspring that are often hardier
than the parents

e.g., commercial chickens

White Rock
Chicken:

Grows quickly

White Cornish
Chicken:

Grows large

X

Commercial chicken:

Grows to a large full
size in only 6 weeks

Modern Technologies:

Genetic Engineering


Altering an organism’s
genetic code (DNA) to get it to
express desired traits

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.peaceproject.com/graphics/dvds/larger/DVD51.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.p
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e.g., Bt
corn


Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt):
a bacterium that
produces a caterpillar toxin


The gene for this toxin has been inserted into
this corn’s genome, which causes it to produce
the toxin

e.g., spider silk


A spider’s silk
-
making
gene has been inserted
into a goat, which then
produces silk in its milk

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/spider/goat.jpg

http://www.kevhopgood.co.uk/New%20Stuff/Spider
-
Goat.jpg

http://rockgardn.easystorecreator.com/images/imag
es_919/JRFJ
-
Front
-
LG.gif

http://www.jewishworldreview.com/toons/varvel/biotech.protest.gif

http://www.bairesbiotec.org.ar/images/speake1.jpg

e.g., golden rice


Daffodil genes for making
beta
-
carotene are inserted
into the genome of rice

e.g., human insulin


Previously, humans with
diabetes used insulin derived
from the pancreas of cows and
pigs (limited production)


Today, most human insulin
comes from human insulin
-
making genes transferred into
simple cells such as bacteria or
baker’s yeast (unlimited supply)


Identical to insulin made by the
human pancreas

Recombinant DNA in bacteria


Recombinant DNA

taking a piece of one DNA
and combining it with
another strand of DNA


Often, fast
-
growing single
-
celled organisms are used


e.g., bacteria


A piece of DNA that codes for
a protein we want more of
(e.g., human insulin) is
spliced into the DNA of the
fast
-
growing organism

http://img.blogcu.com/uploads/kedicikkopekcik_insrton.jpg

Modern Technologies:

Genetic Engineering


Gene therapy

adding a corrected copy
of a gene to a person
with a mutated gene to
treat a disease


e.g., Cystic Fibrosis


Does NOT change the
person’s genetic code!


Effect is temporary


Restriction Enzymes:

Enzymes that
cut DNA at
certain
sequences.

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/restriction.gif