Concepts of Engineering and Technology BIOTECHNOLOGY

lessfrustratedBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

100 views

Concepts of Engineering
and Technology


BIOTECHNOLOGY

Science, Technology, and Ethics

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

What is Biotechnology?


The application of technology to the study
or manipulation of living things.


Refers to techniques used by scientists to
modify the genetic material of a
microorganism, plant, or animal in order
to achieve a desired trait.


Power to intervene in what might be
thought of as 'the fabric of life'.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


We began growing crops and raising
animals 10,000 years ago to provide a
stable supply of food and clothing.


We have used the biological processes of
microorganisms for 6,000 years to make
useful food products, such as bread and
cheese, and to preserve dairy products.


In the last 40 years we’ve gone from
practicing biotechnology at a macro level


breeding animals and crops, for
example


to working with it at a micro
level.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


The biotechnology industry emerged
in the 1970s, based largely on a
new
recombinant DNA technique
.


Because virtually all cells speak the
same genetic language, DNA from one
cell can be read and acted on in
another one


even a different cell
type from a different species.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

What are the major fields in bio?


Genetic engineering


Environmental technology


Ecology and environmental problems


Bioremediation


Crop and animal breeding


Medicine


Diagnostics


Pharmaceuticals


Nutrition


Forensics

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Categories


Therapeutics
:


Products that cure or reduce the
incidence of disease.


Treatment of cancer, diabetes,
HIV/AIDS and autoimmune
disorders.


human insulin




Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Diagnostics
:


Products that test for the
presence of various health or
disease states.


Examples include:



Cancers, Alzheimer’s disease,
heart disease, diabetes, multiple
sclerosis, AIDS and arthritis.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Agricultural
:



Products related to crop and
livestock production, including
genetic engineering, veterinary
activities, and food processing:


increasing yields and farm income


decreasing pesticide applications and
improving soil and water quality


providing healthful foods for consumers

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Bioremediation and new high
technology applications
:



Bioremediation involves using
biotechnology
-
designed
organisms to clean up oil or
other spills.


Researchers are creating new
sources of energy and linking
biotechnology with
microelectronics,
nanotechnology and other high
technology industries.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Bioindustry

suppliers
:



Specialized materials, equipment
or services for other
bioindustry

firms.


Such products include reagents
(substances used in chemical
reactions), specialized software,
and technical instruments for
gene splicing.


Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Procedures


Genetic engineering, cell culture
techniques, cultivation of microorganisms


DNA and basic molecular biological
methods


Fermentation using microorganisms in
brewing, baking, and cheese production
are biotechnologies that date back
centuries.


Production of human insulin in bacteria to
treat type I diabetes

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Genetic engineering


The collection of techniques used to:



isolate genes


modify genes so they function
better


prepare genes to be inserted into a
new species


develop transgenes

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Ethical and Social
Considerations

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.


Different perspectives by regulators,
animal rights activists, biomedical
researchers and organ recipients


Heart transplants are as radically
unnatural as gene transplants


'if we can do it, let's do it'


Public suspicion about the reliability
and independence of 'expert' advice


Environmental consequences


Long
-
term effects

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Ethical Topics


Whether human DNA should be made
patentable


Stem cells


Animal research


Organ donation


Xenotransplantation


Cloning

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Ethical Analysis

1.
Formulation of the dilemma;

2.
Finding out the possible options of action in
this situation;

3.
Assignment of the optional actions to values
that are touched by the action and reflection
of the consequences;

4.
Taking a justified decision for one of the
options of action in respect to the reflections in
step 3;

5.
Assignment of the decision taken to one of the
two higher categories of argumentation;

6.
Description and discussion of the
consequences of the decision taken in step 4
for the individual and for the society.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Student Research Report


Individual or team


Determines length and quality


Pick or assign a topic


Ethical controversies


New or cutting edge technology


Historical figure or event


Subject of personal interest


Rubric used for assessment

Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.

Research


Use the ethical analysis to aid the
presentation or report


Analyze both pro and con


Defend moral judgments


http://biotech.about.com/od/bioethics/Ethi
cs_Topics_in_Biotechnology.htm


http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/07/BIOT
_CH4.html


Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved.