Chapter 2: Applications of Biology

lessfrustratedBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Chapter 2: Applications of
Biology

Vocabulary


Biometrics


Genetics


Biome


Genome


Epidemiology


Vaccination


Genetic engineering


Ecology


Environmental science


Use the table to define as
many words as you can.

Part

Type

Meaning

bio
-

Prefix

Life

metric

Root

measurement

-
ic

Suffix

Having

to do
with

-
ome

Suffix

All parts of
something

gen

Root

Born;

to
become; to
produce













Health in the 21
st

century


What is cholera and how is it caused?


What is the relationship between copepods and
cholera and why is it important?


Cholera and how stuff works with Steven Johnson (11:00)


Copepods and the ch0lera bacterium have a
symbiotic relationship where the cholera cluster
around the mouthparts and egg casings of the female
copepod. The bacteria help burst the copepods’ egg
casings and release the copepod eggs. The bacteria
then feed on the egg casings. Copepods feed on
plankton so when the number of plankton increases,
so do the numbers of copepods and subsequently the
number of cholera bacteria also increase which could
cause a cholera outbreak.


How did Colwell develop a better method for
detecting cholera in water that had previously tested
negative for the bacteria?


She developed a more sensitive test that relied on the
chemical properties of the bacteria’s cell wall.






Why were the bacteria not detected before
?


Because the cholera bacteria can exist in a dormant
state in cold water, only to become active when the
temperature rises.




How does the cholera example show that science is
an integrated field of study
?


Colwell used biochemistry, to detect the cholera
bacterium even when they were dormant as well as
satellite imagery to study the characteristics of ocean
water to predict outbreaks. Her work is an example
of epidemiology which is the study of how diseases
spread.


Vaccinations


Explain where vaccines
come from and how they
work to fight disease.


Vaccines come from a
dead or weakened
pathogen that is
introduced to the body.
The body’s immune
system “learns” to fight
the pathogen.


Viruses and nanotechnology (9:00)



Why do people study
genetics?


To study and treat diseases
caused by abnormalities in a
person’s genes.


What is the Human Genome
Project?


It is a project that identified
all of the 20,000
-
25,000
genes found in a human’s
DNA.


What is a genome?


It’s the complete set of genetic
information for an organism.


Biology and Human Potential


List at least three assistive
technologies.


Bionic limbs, computer interfaces
for hearing or speech, performing
surgery from a remote site via
computer technology.



What is genetic engineering?


Technology where the genetic
material in a living cell is changed.



How is genetic engineering used?


Create higher yields in crops.



What’s so special about Bt corn?


It has a bacterium that makes it
resistant to the European corn
borer.


Diabetes is a disease that is
regulated by insulin. How
has the production of
insulin changed in recent
years?


Before it was produced
from pigs and cows, now it
is made from bacteria that
are changed so they
contain the human gene
that produces insulin.


What does
nano

stand for
and what does it tell you
about the size of the robots
used in nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology (3:08)

Forensic Science



What is
biomimetics
?


The application of biological
processes and systems to solve
design and engineering
problems. For instance,
velcro

was
was

fashioned after prickly
burrs and submarines were
modeled after the
swimbladder

of
bony fishes.



What’s the difference between
fingerprinting and DNA
fingerprinting?



Which do you think is the more
accurate and why?



What are some ethical
concerns faced by society
that relate to genetically
modified organisms?


How do you feel about
the possibility of
information
about you
used
improperly?


Advances in
biotechnology have
resulted in all of the
following, except

A.
Development of
synthetic hormones

B.
Development of iris
scanning to establish
identity.

C.
Cloning of animals

D.
Cloning of humans




Explain the difference
between ecology and
environmental science.


What is the difference
between biometrics and
biomimetics
?


Biometrics is the statistical
analysis of biological data.
An example is studying the
physical or behavioral
characteristics to identify
an individual.


Biomimetics

is applying
biological attributes to
technology. How are
airplanes and birds linked
with regard to
biomimetics
?

Velcro