BioTech Central Dogmax - AHSbognasnc4m

lessfrustratedBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Biotechnology

DNA and your genes

Objectives


Describe what genes are and where they are located.


Describe the “central dogma” of molecular genetics.


Describe the flow of genetic information.


Describe RNA and how it differs from DNA.


Define and describe transcription and translation.


Define polypeptide.


Perform the activity “Reading DNA”.


DNA and your Genes


Let’s take a look at the
relationship between your DNA
and your genes.



Where are your genes?

Genes:


Genes are units of heredity that
are passed on from parent to
offspring.


Genes give specific instructions
for one characteristic.


One gene = one polypeptide.

What is a polypeptide?


A protein
molecule
made from
small units
called amino
acids.

Another

polypeptide

Central dogma of Molecular Genetics

1)
DNA contains
all the genetic
information
about an
organism.

2)
Regions on DNA
that code for a
specific
attributes are
called genes.


Central Dogma

3) In order for the
information within
a gene to be
useful, it has to be
translated into
proteins.

Central Dogma

4) The flow of
genetic
information must
begin at DNA and
end with the
production of a
protein.

The end proteins
determine
individual
traits
!

The flow of genetic information is
from
DNA
to
RNA
to
Protein
.


RNA


very similar
to DNA, but
complementary
base to adenine is
not thymine, as it
is in DNA, but
rather
uracil
.



A


U



G
-

C

Problem Alert!


DNA is locked in
the nucleus


Proteins
(polypeptides)
are manufactured
in the cytoplasm.

Transcription/Translation


Transcription:
the transfer of
information from
DNA to an RNA
molecule.


Translation: the
transfer of
information from
RNA into a
protein.

Summary
-

1)
Synthesis of mRNA
(messenger RNA) in
the nucleus.

2)
Movement of mRNA
into cytoplasm.

3)
Synthesis of protein
(polypeptide) in the
cytoplasm.

The
Triplet
Code