4.0 Changes in biological diversity Reducing ... - SchoolRack

lessfrustratedBiotechnology

Oct 23, 2013 (4 years and 2 months ago)

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Brainstorm: What are some ways
that we contribute to the
reduction in biodiversity of
species?


Extinction


disappearance of a species from
Earth


Ex.



Extirpation


disappearance from an area


Ex.



Endangered


species at risk at being extinct
or extirpated


Ex.


Threatened


likely to become endangered


Ex.



Special Concern


species vulnerable to
natural events


Ex.

Natural Causes

Human

Causes

-
catastrophes

(volcanoes, floods,
fires)

-
food scarcity

-
disease

-
overspecialization


(ex. Koala)

-
habitat

destruction
(pollution and industry)

-
over
-
hunting

-
introduction of invasive
(non
-
native) species



Natural Selection


when nature chooses the
species with the most suitable traits to
survive


Artificial Selection


when humans select and
breed organisms for certain traits




What are some examples on the farm or in
Viking where artificial selection is being
done?

Examples:


Breeding “champion” dogs

Using the seeds from the largest plant crops

Corn


see pg. 66

We use
biotechnology
to choose traits.


Bio


living

Technology


tools to make desirable outcomes


Biotechnology


using living organisms to
create desirable products

1.
Creating Clones


creating identical
organisms using technology


You can remove cells from a plant, grow and
divide them to create seeds.


Ex. Carrot


ADV> many clones can be made quickly from 1
plant


“But the first successful cloning experiment was
done in 1958 by F.C Steward, who was at the
time the director of the Laboratory for Cell
Physiology, Growth and Development at
Cornell University. He cloned a carrot, by
taking the cells from the roots, and using that
to clone the carrot. This may seem simple to
us today, but thanks to F.C Steward now we
can almost clone any plant. This discovery
made him famous worldwide, and was the
first start of cloning.”



-

The science, ethics, and benefits of human cloning 1,2 ).

http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/devel/c8.20x16.carrot.jpg

2.
Artificial Insemination


when sperm are
inserted into a female with a needle, to
encourage fertilization


Ex. Breeding cattle


ADV> many cows can quickly be inseminated
from one bull with desirable traits


3. In vitro fertilization


uniting a sperm and
egg outside of a female (fertilization) then
placing the zygote inside the female for
growth


Ex. Cattle


farmers can ensure all offspring are
females

4. Genetic Engineering


altering the DNA of an
organism; most common is inserting a gene
from one species to another


Ex. Insulin into bacteria


Ex. Toxin genes in crops


Ex. Insect resistant canola


Risks


Reduction in variation of a crop or herd


more at
risk to disease


Unsuccessful pregnancies, birth defects, deaths
in clones


Weeds interbreeding with crop


What happens to the other embryos??


Dolly the Sheep


Dolly #2: How Stuff Works

Conservation


the protection and management
of biological diversity


In order to conserve biodiversity, we must
reduce negative human impacts on
biodiversity



1. Protected Areas


When the government sets aside land for
natural habitats and ecosystems


Ex. Jasper National Park



Allows
in
-
situ conservation


the
maintenance of populations in their own
ecosystems

Who maintains this area?

2. Charity Restoration Groups


These groups restore damaged
ecosystems or encourage
preservation or restore species


Ex. Ducks Unlimited

Ex. World Wildlife Fund


-
use money to help bring animals back to
their natural environment



3. Resource Use Policies


Governments have made laws preventing the
hunting or destroying of endangered or
threatened species


Ex. Whooping Crane, Trumpeter Swan



Accord for Protection of Species at Risk


prevents extinction of species from human
activities


4. Controlling Exotic
Species


Exotic species with
no
predators and
that
spread quickly must be
managed


Ex. Purple loosestrife

Each stem can produce 2.7 million
seeds!!!!

5. Conservation of Genetic Resources


Zoos
-
Endangered animals are kept here to
breed them and pass on their genes


Called
ex
-
situ

conservation


conservation of a
species outside of its habitat



Seed banks
-

A program where seeds of each
variety of plant are kept


Canada has the barley and oat seed bank



Forms of ex
-
situ (out of habitat) conservation